Disk operating system

of these articles is concerned with DOS, disk the operating system, for further meanings sees DOS (term clarifying).

As disk operating system [dɪsk ˈɒpəɹeɪtɪŋˈsɪstəm] (short DOS) small and simple operating systems for computers are designated, their major task the administration ofmagnetic storage media such as disks and non removable disks is. Other functions of the computer, like e.g. Diagram, clay/tone, printing control, network functionality, store management, administration of several users etc. or only rudimentarily by DOS operating systems are not taken over. These auxiliary tasks must instead by direct access of the application programs to the hardware to be realized.

DOS systemscame to center of the 1990er-Jahre on most home computers and personnel computers to the employment, to it only isolated. Until today they are used because of their Kleinheit, simplicity and relatively high working reliability within the range of the Embedded of systems.

Table of contents

some DOS variants

by digitally Research
Apple DOS
von Apple
Apple pro DOS
von Apple
Atari DOS
von Atari
Commodore DOS
von Commodore Business Machines.
Amiga DOS
core component of AmigaOS.
uses among other things on display typewritersby Olivetti
it DOS
hobby project for the Commodore C64
von Microsoft for MSX - computer

MS-DOS-compatible variants

the wide-spread DOS system for x86 - computer of Microsoft
in the former GDR used MS-DOS clone of Robotron
a free DOS variant, under that GNU general publicly License available is
a MS-DOS derivative of IBM, whose versions were initially with the gleichnummerierten MS-DOS versions as far as possible. Later there were larger differences, also in the separation of the version numbers showed up
in former times from digitally Research, becomes now of DEVICE logic for the employment in Embedded systems drove out - a time was called long Novell DOS and open DOS PTS DOS
a fast
and compact DOS from Russia MS-DOS and

compatible systems is considered in the meantime in each case as outdated and becomes today practically only on old systems, for thatOperated old MS-DOS software in emulators or used in niche markets.


in the 60's - years became from IBM /360-DOS (disk operating system) as operating system for large computer plants as successor and advancement of the TOS - Tape operating system - delivered. Under DOS was itfor the first time possible, without processing IPL several program sequences, quasi parallel. The Ur-DOS had three partitions, i.e. F1 (Foreground 1, highest priority), F2 and BG (Background, smallest priority). These partitions had fixed sizes, as well as by ASSIGN firmly assigned peripheral devices (printer, reader, plates etc.). Howeverthese allocations to conditioned extent could be changed by the Konsoloperator of the system.

In the course of the time and under the pressure ever more fully operating system OS more variable of the which is used and by three coworkers IBM a E-DOS (Extended DOS) was developed, that the administration ofmore permitted than three partitions. This however was used with IBM quite, but by Nixdorf, after IBM people became to abgeworben from there, under the name NIDOS, which could administer up to 15 partitions, to the employment was never brought.

IBM reacted alsothe development of DOS/VSE, which is partially today still on large computers in use.

In the 70's - years there was a single user operating system also on the computers HP 1000 of Hewlett-Packard named DOS.

MS-DOS version 1.0 appeared 1981 as reproduction of CP/M, a something similarbut not compatible operating system, which had been developed starting from 1974 by digitally Research. CP/M is often regarded therefore as mental predecessors of MS-DOS.

As answer digitally Research developed the DR-DOS, which develops further until today (NovellDOS, Caldera open DOS…) becomes and now asthe prominent DOS applies. The last independent MS-DOS version 6.22 appeared 1994, which appeared last version 8.0 integrated in Windows to 2000 in Windows ME and since then taken no more became further developed by the market and.

The FreeDOS - project developed, around the development of a freeTo ensure DOS system, when Microsoft completely stopped MS-DOS.

For Linux there are emulators such as DOSEMU and DOS box (see major item DOS emulator).

PC/GEOS: The screen photo shows the current and available DOS GUI PC/GEOS - V4.0 (2002) with the ISUI Desktop.


it becamemany graphic control surfaces (so-called GUIs) for MS-DOS and in addition compatible DOS versions develops. To today further developed and available graphic control surfaces PC/GEOS is, open in accordance with (a free advancement of the original IN ACCORDANCE WITH of digitally Research) as well as the developments around MatrixOS, Qube3P and SEALOS.

Alsomany in the meantime of the market taken Windows - versions were based on MS-DOS. In all versions of Windows 95 and Windows 98 and in Windows ME MS-DOS was an integral component, although itself Microsoft had given all trouble to hide the DOS from the user. More modern Windows versions how Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows server 2003 are based however on the operating system core 1991 of the presented operating system Windows NT 3,1, which was at that time perfectly again developed and none „DOS roots “possesses. These operating systems are however with a subsystem (in the Windows jargon subsystemcalled) equipped, which guarantees the large Kompatiblität to applications of MS-DOS.

batch instructions

under DOS are used frequently batch files so mentioned (German also „batch files “), in order to implement successions of instructions automatically. Since some DOS systems cannot store attitudes and these purge therefore after a restart,batch files are used, in order to set these with each system start again (e.g. by means of AUTO+EXEC-ASKED, a batch file, which auführt DOS when starting).


  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)