the distribution politics (also distribution-mix, distribution Policy or “Place” within the so-called. “4P-Konzept” [Product, Price, Place, graduation]) is a function of the marketing and management and regulates within marketing the controlling of the selling activities after targets.
Table of contents
the distribution politics is concerned with the question, in which way as well as on which ways the products to the buyersarrive. Two substantial areas are to be differentiated here:
- Akquisitori distribution (choice of the channels of distribution and/or. beyond that the acquisition method
- ) the distribution politics decisions cover
physical distribution (Marketinglogisitik) over
- distribution organs and
- channels of distribution (distribution channels).
- By the akquisitorische distribution (sales) customer contacts are manufactured, the market coverobtained as well as proceeds generates.
- On the one hand costs are generated by distribution logistics, on the other hand one this makes a high stock availability than basis for the customer satisfaction possible. To that extent the distribution politics represent, like all other instrument talking nonsense oak marketing both a cost factor and a source of proceeds equally. Beyond that becomewith the decision over the distribution method switches for the employment of the further marketing instruments posed.
In particular by the channels of distribution - choice is called the distribution politics also “Channel marketing “or “Channel management”, whereby “Channel” for the channel of distribution and/or. Paragraph channel stands.
factors of influence
asFactors of influence on distribution-political decisions apply
achievement-referred factors: These cover all achievement-referred characteristics, which require a special marketing form or logistics, for example
- necessity of explication of the achievement,
- shelf-life of the achievement as well as
- transportability of the achievement.
Related to customers factors: These refer to the requirements and conceptions on the part of the currentand potenziellen customers:
- Number of customers (few, many)
- geographical distribution (closely pushed, far distributed),
- need frequency on the part of the customers,
- purchase habits (geographically, temporally, procurement ways preferred) as well as
- open-mindedness in relation to sales methods as for example E-Shops, Shop TV or Powershopping.
Competition-referred factors: In dependence of the competition forces distribution-political decisions become also throughthe competition behavior coined/shaped, whereby the possibilities offer themselves to the removal or adjustment at the competition methods in principle, regarding
- number of competitors,
- kind of the competition products as well as
- offer modalities (for example dispatch, entry door business, Internet).
Enterprise-referred factors: Of course the factors of the respective enterprise cannot be neglected. Numerous one Factors affect the scope of action, so for example
- financial power,
- market conception as well as
- market power.
Legal factors: The legal basic conditions do not coin/shape distribution-political decisions last; generally to examine protection
- of selling connections is in certain industries,
- and selling reservations of certain business forms,
- balance requirements, for example the commercial agent,in the case of abort of the business relations as well as
- possible prohibitions of discrimination and the boycott.
the organization of the channels of distribution and/or. The question of the enterprise integration covers channels of distribution into the distribution. So indirect can be differentiated from direct channels of distribution as basis options. One arranges thosedistribution-political basis options the institution-economic transaction form type volume „market, co-operation, integration and/or. “Too, then direct distribution systems can hierarchy be characterized as vertical integrative transaction forms, which are characterised by the marketing leader shank of the manufacturer stage (secured distribution and/or. Secured distribution). Indirect distribution systems, i.e. Systems, in those consumer goods- Manufacturers by the engagement of independent distribution intermediaries in an indirect distributiven relationship with the consumers stand, are as marktliche transaction form to classify (conventional distribution systems), if the distribution intermediaries no contracts going beyond the sales contract and/or. contractual relations with the manufacturer stage maintain. Between this two Poland of theTransaction form type volume exists itself a broad spectrum vertically, regarding the connection degree of the handels to the manufacturer stage and thus the Machtpotenzial of the manufacturer stage more or less overlapping distribution forms (distribution controlled and/or.Control LED distribution).
the market, in which its achievements drive the enterprise outwants, must be differently worked on depending upon company target and conditions of the Produktlebenszykluses of an achievement. The kind of the achievement as well as the goal market exert here influence on the choice of the selling ways.
The business goal (penetration or absorption) depends on the conditions of an achievementwithin their product life cycle. This has influence on the intensity of market preparation and thus on the choice of the price strategy and the means of assigned market communication.
The distribution politics corresponded thus strategically with the neighbouring ranges within marketing and create operational targets for the practical sales. For this the different paragraph channels are to the enterprise in the sales at the disposal:
- Direct sales
- indirect sales
- special forms
in the direct sales change the achievement to the productionexactly once the owner, i.e. of the manufacturer and/or. Importer to the customer. This form is particularly in the B-ton-b sales, whereby there are quite B-ton-C also specialized direct sale enterprises. These recruit then with the veritablen customer advantage of the saving of high intermediate costs. The direct sales can either personally orrun off over electronic media. The manufacturer takes over here the distribution function for example by commercial agents or commercial traveller, direct dispatch over catalog, telephone sales or Web Shops as well as Factory Outlets.
The Franchising is a somewhat newer Sonderfom of the Handelsverkaufs. The sales effected legally independently, however fees fallon for the use of uniform equipment, a uniform name and occurrence outward. Advantages for the Franchise taker, particularly with mark-weighty systems, are a high admittingness from the beginning, comparatively favorable purchase conditions and support in the commercial range.
The direct sale favoured with
- an already existingpowerful field service organization
- achievements with high (more technical) necessity of explication
- high prices, which are connected with considerable costs of the storekeeping in the trade,
- transport-intensive and - sensitive goods
- use possibilities of telekommunikativer media (Teleshopping, Internet).
In particular before the background the meaning of the direct sale increases of new information and communication technologies. Tendentious is thatDirect sale with capital goods strongly pronouncedly, while with consumer goods the indirect selling outweighs. This is connected with the necessity of explication and consideration of individual requirements to capital goods. Capital goods consist of a bundle at special and services, why frequently one or more manufacturers the acquisition function within the framework one „systemSelling “take over.
indirect channel of distribution (Handelsverkauf)
in the regular Handelsverkauf changes the achievement to the production i.d.R. several marks the owner along the so-called. Creation of value chain. Particularly in the consumer goods market, in that it on a large, surface covering distribution of large quantities and their presentationin the Ladengeschäft, is the Handelsverkauf, often also the contract dealer arrives to be found.
With the indirect paragraph regularly the trade (large and/or retail trade) is switched on. Here different criteria must be considered as bspw. the Ubiquität desired and/or. the distribution degree, the selection of suitable enterprises (exclusive, selective or mass distribution)as well as the arrangement of the business relations. Due to the missing direct relationship with the final customer with indirect channel of distribution vertical marketing was established, which on the relationship with the trade concentrates. A special form is the commission sales, with that the goods up to the sales property of the manufacturerremain.
special forms of sale
the commission sales offer the offered achievement in the own name, however for strange calculation. The factor takes the achievement in Verwahrung and worries about the preparationthe acquisition. The capital risk remains with the manufacturer or importer.
The broker does not work in the mutual contract, since the broker is not obligated, to become active. For the broker it is typical contrary to the sales activity with which an entrepreneur sells constantly newly produced achievements thatthe broker activity is related to a certain business.
single verse US Multi Channel distribution
during distribution practice in the past for concentration on a channel of distribution (single Channel distribution) tended, develops enterprises with the increasing acceptance of the stationary Internet as channel of distribution multiple distribution strategies (Multi Channel distribution).Multi Channel distribution the contemporaneous use of several paragraph channels is called such as trade , Internet and field service.
a further meaning of the term results from the distribution of goods, necessary in the trade, over larger distances or on large surfaces. Here that hasTerm of the distribution a logistic character and is used beside the pure transportation purchase particularly for the number of sales offices, which lead a certain product. The numeric distribution degree indicates here, how strong the penetration is in the trade. Can e.g. further after paragraph channels orindividual customer enterprises to be differentiated. Each sales office, in which the product is present, corresponds therefore “to a distribution”. Even if the product is actually sold there and is not only offered, then one calls this “selling distribution”.