|of these articles treats the term dogma. For further meanings see to dogma (term clarifying)|
a dogma (Greek δόγμα, originally „the opinion “, „the theorem “, Plural dogmas or more rarely after the Greek Dogmata) is a statement for a religion, world view, which is not negotiatable regarded of a group of humans as fundamental and. (see also Selbstimmunisierung)
The use of the term dogma in connection with the natural sciences happens usually with a critical Unterton such that someone would not be ready to open for its “dogma tables” point of view newer realizations opposite. In antique ones and the Middle Ages dogma was against it a positively occupied term; it stood for clarity and clarity.
Table of contents
dogmas in the Christian churches
by “dogmas” understands one in the course of church history by the trainingofficial authority formulated sentences (as well as since II. ), Those are important to Vatikani council connected texts for the contentwise shaping of their faith. They “are lights on the faith way. They illuminate and secure him. “(Katechismus of the catholic church KKK 89). The developing context of dogmas is usually a contentious situation in faith questions. Konzilien and Synoden are called up to clarify over the questions of substance and if necessary. to make appropriate Dogmatisierungen.
to the different dogma understanding
the term dogma is differently understood depending upon konfessioneller tradition and theological Lehrmeinung and/or. used:
- In the orthodox churches with it above all the training statements of the first sieved ökumenischen Konzilien as well as some later panorthodoxer Synoden are meant.
- The catholic church defined in the first Vatikani council that a dogma is a set of göttlichen and catholic faith, which is announced to believe by the general and tidy teaching profession or by konziliare or papal definition as truth geoffenbarte of God.
- For Martin Luther and other Reformatoren have only dogmas validity, which are occupied by the holy writing and so that under the term doctrine fall. Dogmas strictly speaking do not formulate it.
- Karl Barth sees dogmas as styles of contents of the holy writing.
- The Evangelist tradition refrains at the latest since the processing of inquiries and criticism on the part of the clearing-up from formulations of a dogma, since in the Evangelist church no teaching profession exists, which could formulate faith sets obligatory on the municipality. Clear testifying is by the church the necessary condition for the faith -- accordingly the church has the task to open the possibility of the meeting with the Biblical certification. An internal certainty in detail is not however producible by the church and its working, since certainty is somewhat unverfügbares. The insight that the church certification truth about God, world and humans communicates, comes off after Evangelist conviction by the recourse to of this public testifying of the holy spirit .
examples of Christian dogmas
- first centuries: Apostoli Glaubensbekenntnis
- 4. Jahrh. Three-agreement
- 381 Nicäno Konstantinopolitanum
- 431 Maria is “Gottesgebärerin” (theotokos)
- 431/451 Christology: Christ is true God and true humans
these by Konzilien announced dogma tables definitions by the Popes were always confirmed.
Dogma TIC of the catholic church:
- 4. December 1563: Conclusion meeting of the council of Trient (papal 1564) Pope
- Pius IX confirm: 8. December 1854 Unbefleckte receipt-sneeze Mariens
- I. Vatikanum 1870: Infallibility of the Pope
- Pope Pius XII: 1. November 1950 physical admission Mariens into the sky (the first and at the same time so far last mark that a Pope of the infallibility dogma made use).
II. Vatikanum (1962-1965) teaches the necessary unchangeableness of the faith truth as whole, opens these however for the dialogue with the other-thinking. The authority for the distinction of the substantial one of the variable one is with the church teaching profession of the Pope (alone or with) respectable. the Bischofskollegium of the world church.
In the Evangelist churches represented “faith truths”:
- Sola gratia: Only by grace humans are saved.
- Sola fide: Only the faith is a condition for the rescue.
- Sola scriptura: Only the Bible teaches right faith.
- Solus Christ: Only Christ may be admired religiously.
Ökumeni approximations: The “fair works” (kath.) are works of the grace Christi (convergence Augsburg 1999); the Hl. Writing lives in the church, which causes Christi with humans as the whole unit.
- No unit exists in the view of “regula fidei”, the faith rule, which entrusted the catholicism sees to the church authority concretely, while that permits protest anti-mash a spectrum of Christian theologies, whereby faith practice becomes the legitimate expression of private autonomy (up to disappearing any church understandable practice).
the dogma: a reliable conviction?
Dogmas of a church are considered generally as irrevocable. They are however open for specifying as well as “new interpretations” in changed contexts and in new linguistic usage. There is therefore - from Roman-catholic view - quite a historicity of the dogma:
“Which concerns this historicity, must first is considered that the sense, which the faith statements have depends used language partly on the force of expression at a certain time and under certain circumstances. Sometimes in addition it occurs the fact that dogma tables truth is expressed first in incomplete, but therefore not wrong way and later in larger being connected of the faith and the human realizations is regarded and represented by it more completely and more perfectly. Furthermore the church in its new statements wants what is already to some extent contained in the holy writing and in the statements of the earlier excessive quantities, confirms or to illuminate, it however at the same time tends thereby of the solution of certain questions and the removal from mistakes to to think. All one must consider to that, in order to interpret those statements correctly. Finally differ the truths, which the church in their dogma tables formulas wants to really teach, of which changeable thinking of a time and can also without it are expressed; nevertheless it can happen however sometimes that those truths are spoken also by the teaching profession in words, the traces of such thinking to actually carry. “
(Kongregation for the faith teachings, explanation Mysterium ecclesiae to the catholic theory over the church and its defense against some mistakes today of 24. June 1973, Trier 1975 (Nachkonziliare documentation 43) No. V, S. 147f.)
- “each progress, which a church in the structure of its dogmas makes, leads to one… Restraining the free spirit; each new dogma… narrows the circle of free thinking… The natural science releases in reverse with each step of its development… It permits… the particular in full measure to be true ". Rudolf Virchow
- “mad one of assertiones, et Christianismum tulisti. - Take away the firm statements, and you took the Christianity away ". Martin Luther
- also the science has their Apostel, their martyrs, their legislators, their Katechismus, and she penetrates everywhere. - Over the science and the life, Francesco de Sanctis (1817-1883)
words with similar meaning
- Ulrich Wickert, Carl Heinz Ratschow: Dogma I. Historically II. Systematic-theologically. In: Theological material encyclopedia 9 (1982), S. 26-41
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