|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see village (term clarifying).|
The village marks a small human settlement, which is characterized by a agriculturally coined/shaped settlement, economic and a social structure originally. Characterizing characteristic is still thoseAgriculture; but also fishing villages, even moving dealer or Flösserdörfer are testified. Settlements, in which today (2004) no farmer resides more, are not strictly taken villages, with are treated however here. In Germany most villages in land municipalities are summarized.
In Bavaria applies in accordance with the resolution of the Bavarian Department of State of the inside of 18. October 1950 (No. I B1 - 68a 1) fundamental each settlement with 10 or more residential buildings, which are not a city, than village.
The form and the structurethe settling community depend on the soil type and their fertility, on the restaurant form and on the traditional habits and peculiarities of the settling Ethnie. Contrary to the single settlement, a living place, Haubargs, single farmstead or hone shank(see. also the Eschflur) is the village a group settlement.
to historical grown village forms
in sketch, situation, socialeconomic function and restaurant economics villages are classified. On oneall too restricting organization into main and Nebenformen is to be done without here however, since the pure village form is to be hardly still found. With characteristics, parallels is to be dealt in the individual major items. At the latest in 20. Zersiedelungsprozesse stepped century in the villages , corridors were settled, folded up fields to large impacts (“Verkoppelung”).
Closely in connection with the village forms the corridor forms stand. To the most frequent village forms belong to the earth the heap, the lining up and the ribbon-built villages.
In some parts Americas, Australia and Africa outweigh single settlements. The village formation in Central Europe began in the Jungsteinzeit with the first field farmers. The villages developed first, if independent, but usually among themselves related families without common head settled together.
Roughly one differentiates according to unsettledand regulated village plants, whereby the latters occur only with guided, regular Kolonisation.
a row village sets an elongated topografisches object like a road or a way, a dyke, a valley or an elevator back, a brook or ditch ahead, at which the rural settlement places, i.e. the yards or yard places in more or less regular distances put on (ge line t up together) are.
Usually row villages are characterized by it that, if the local conditions and area conditions make it possible in each case at the beginning and at the end of the row village is still continued to settle, thus still further yard placesto be put on can.
a line village existsfrom a house and/or. Yard line, which is regularly and linear together gereiht.
moorland hoof village
at the moorland hoof village concerns it a row number according to plan put on 16. and 17. Century. The moorland hoof village has usually oneBroad strip corridor (type of corridor form, with the strip of approx. 50-800 m broad dominate). The borders of the broad strips form drainage channels.
march hoof village
a march hoof village is a row village in march areas along a conduit-type sewer. The Landbesitz closes in gereihten longitudinal strips to the yard plantson. There are march hoof villages particularly in the Netherlands and for instance since that 10. Century in Northern Germany in the areas, in which the Dutchmen participated in the drainage.
forest hoof village
forest hoof village to be called settlements according to plan put on of the Middle Ages, which were put on by Rodung and which, on the basis of and Frankish areas of Baden and played the Swabian in South Germany, with colonizing in Thuringia , Saxonia , Saxonia-Anhalt and Schlesien as well as partly also Brandenburg an important role.
a Hagenhufendorf or a brook hoof village are similar an elongated settlement, the row village, along a road, which runs parallel to a brook, whereby the road is cultivated only on one side, during on the opposite roadside to thatYards belonging handtuchförmigen areas of arable land from 20 to 40 mornings, which lie hooves.
Eingehägten properties, serve as farmer garden and for small animal husbandry. The rear bordering brook supplies the necessary water. Ideal way gives it still another nearby forest for the firewood and utilizable wood production.
a ribbon-built village is a linear, doublelined village, its houses and/or. Farmsteads a road in more closely arrangement seams. Typically the individual houses and/or farmsteads Giebelständig are arranged to the road. One ofthe main street branching road is a dead end in the forest often ends.
See also: Road meadow village
a meadow village is a village, its conspicuous characteristic of the meadows, a place with mostly a pond, in the municipality possession, (delete-calibrate,Well), is. Meadow villages occur in Central Europe particularly on Grundmoränenplatten and in release areas, in Germany particularly in east and east Central Germany.
Rundling, round place village, Rundweiler
a Rundling, round place village or also regionally Rundweiler mentioned, are rural settlementsin round form, whose circulation area is limited to the former German slawischen border area: west and east the Saale and Elbe, z. B. in the Hannoveri turning country. In formerly durably only the areas inhabited by Slawen Rundlinge do not occur. Rundling, round place village,Rundweiler rank all among the place villages. Rundlinge are frequently on spurring, which project into the valleys of the Urstromtäler. The roundish place in the center is attached only over a way to the transportation network. Around the place are few farmsarranged. A strip mixture corridor follows. Whether the round form developed only gradually from two to three yards by division and extension or whether it was aimed at from the beginning, is unsettled, likewise whether it for safety reasons or in adjustmentto the predominant Viehwirtschaft one selected.
a typical example is Bugk, (slaw. “nose” or “baked”, dt. “Oak”), in the district or Spree in Brandenburg. From a way star developed, on onehardly perceptible hill in damp, to swampy areas convenient, the place in the local centre represents a slawisches round place village.
A characteristic represents thereby the peppering village. It belongs to the settlements, whose farmsteads are aligned to a central (village) place. The peppering village developedusually on one artificially of humans up-poured earth hill, which serves as settlement place for a single or a group settlement. The hill should protect the village (before storm tides/flood etc.). This settlement type occurs particularly at march coasts, every now and then also at river courses.Peppering villages originated in particularly in 7. and 8. Century.
a heap village is closed a cultivated village with irregular sketch and frequently differently large yards. Heap villages developed in Central Europeby growing together neighbouring Weiler or farmsteads in connection with population growth and settlement concentration already in the Middle Ages. Naturally also heap villages differ. Depending upon inheritance forms in the region they are loosely arranged (with Anerbenrecht) and/or. gradually closely blocks ( Material division). They have thereby usually irregular sketch around a central pond or place. Member bar in village center, field corridor and common land.
the breaking citizens Kolonistendörfer developed
for place village [ work on ] after 1157 in the courseof Albrecht the bear and its son Otto I. claimant settlement politics. The two first brandenburgischen Mark counts tried the 1157 conquered and created Mark Brandenburg , which was inhabited still in far parts of slawischen trunks successfully with this politics,to christianisieren and finally stabilize. The Kolonisten came predominantly from the old Mark and from Flanders. The villages usually put on as row village or Rundling with forest, pointing and field hooves, isolated gave it triangular dead end villages like rough ones with Ludwig field.
scattered housing estate
a scattered housing estate is a not closed settlement, which consist of farms and Weilern without actual local centre, lying apart far. Scattered housing estates occur quite often in the Black Forest and are often throughspontaneous settlement come to conditions. A scattered housing estate is not according to plan arranged. Scattered housing estates are also the typical village form of the Walserkolonien in the alps.
for railway settlement the railway settlements particularly in the 2. Half 19. Century toto the beginning 20. Century. A substantial condition was the presence of the railway and its net-moderate development as component of the infrastructure.
newer village forms
after the Second World War formed because of increasing the tourism than industry,because of dying classical Handwerkszweige, because of larger the mobility become and because of larger the sensitivity of humans in relation to the environment and individual social groups become and even individual animals a whole row more differently “villages”, the no more the classicalSettlement politics to assign are. The term village is put out in this connection, in order the interaction of humans with its fellow men, with the environment, in order to clarify the human traditions and habits.
There is this in an incomplete enumerating:
- Container village
- holiday village (also: - settlement, holiday-maker village and. - settlement, week final settlement, summer house settlement)
- museum village
- tourist village
- child village
- stork village, chess village
- student village (www.dorf.de)
- olympic village
in the GDR gave it a village to the youth.
social structures, sociological
in the village social hierarchy stood the wealthiest farmers at the point. The possession of horses represented the highest wealth (nearly luxury: The horse eats, which brings in it), so that one the owners of bottom plate ofthe cow farmer differentiated between. Horses could afford usually only the so-called full farmers (Hufner). Besides there were the agricultural small firms (Häusler, Kötter, Seldner…), which made free worker available beyond the use of the own country for the full farmers, as well as tointo the 1970er years the traditional village handicraft and occupations of service (Mueller, Grobschmied; Stellmacher (works on the horizontal surfaces of a transportation unit - wood rack); Wagner (usually exclusively concerns itself with the production of the wheels of a car); Restaurant operator/barkeeper (Krüger)…),but evenly also baker, butcher, carpenter, Carpenter, Dachdecker u.v.a. 2004 disappeared in the Federal Republic of Germany these occupations from the village practically, together with the retail business (general store), the post office etc. This just like the rural Hofgesinde(Farmhand and farm servant), and zuunterst in the ranking village arms and - err. The majority of the persons employed is full-time active and usually outside of the agriculture in the nearest cities or central places. In addition some new developed in the villagesHandicraft and services enterprises (electrician and repair workshops, driving enterprises, gas stations etc.).
a village community draws out by social relations (neighbourhood relations, social control), firm structures and standards (customs, customs, celebrations, clubs and societies, etc.)up to rural architecture, clothing, food etc. Also the development of the population remained bound to the available effective area. The equilibrium was kept upright by the fact that a part of the population created no families or emigrated. With industrialization beginning that foundnot-rural part of the village population by home working an additional source of income. In South West German country by a widespread settlement of smaller industrial companies relatively early a larger number of except-agricultural continuous jobs was created. Today that forms predominantly agriculturally determined farmer village the exception.
The village becomes sociologicalempirically particularly in the municipality and agrarian sociology examines (tlw. also in the development sociology), conceptionally for it “community “is to be particularly referred to the term.
|Wiktionary: Dorf – Wortherkunft, Synonyme und Übersetzungen|
- Dorferneuerung, Structural change, commuter
- locality, municipality, market municipality, city
- meadow, Weiler
- strike-saved (as single farmstead)
- village history, literar. Kind