a film script (English screenplay or script) is the erzählerische basis for the production of a film. It is written by a film script author, in small edition multiplied and the different, at production took part coworkers of the staff passed on. It contains which information exactlydepends on the personal picture language of his author. A “industry standard “forms the general consent over its form and defines thus the artistic area of responsibility of the author. The elements of this form consist of:
- Scene and time of day
- name of the figures, their age and special physical characteristics
- Physical actions/operational sequence
- of dialogues
- rhetorical rewritings of erzählerisch relevant information for the conversion by other media (music, perspective, play guidance etc.).
Because the film script is the last literary work procedure before the actual film work, a bad film can become from a good film script; from a bad film script however nevera good film. The reason for the fact lies in the fact that the film script determines and defines the film substantially.
Plot, Storyline and characters were held usually before in a first Treatment. From the Treatment becomes then from a film script author (sometimes of the director of the film,quite in addition, of author teams (bes. with TV serials)) the film script provides. This is usually changed and rewritten in the course of production further. So changes can for example by problems with the budget, by suggestions of the actors, by suggestions for improvement of the producers andmuch more come.
Film scripts are thus only then final as such if the film, for whose production they serve, which finally CUT got and of the right holding is published. They are therefore to be regarded during the turning work as Work in progresses and serveafterwards only then to the documentation of the developing process of the film, if the changes of the phases at the original document are observable. This makes it to film scientists more difficult the film script as production instance in their investigations scientifically correctly to consider. Employ for the same reason (the problem of the allocation of an author)literature scientist with film scripts, their attention aims itself rarely rather at the comparison between film and literary collecting main. The film script is ignored thereby usually.
Sometimes film scripts are published in book form. It concerns usually worked on versions of that stage of the film script,that the cinematic final product next comes. Therefore the published film script is in all rule rather a book to the film as the actual film script.
Table of contents
the classical film script Plot disintegrates into three document after thatHero adversary model:
model after Syd Field
in the first act main and Widerstrebung becomeintroduced, which are embodied of (interior fight) or two parties (external fight between Protagonist and antagonist). The further process culminates then in a turning point: The Plot develops in an unexpected direction.
The second act exists in the fight of main and Widerstrebung. Purposes , whose contemporaneous implementation excludes itself, pursue Protagonisti and antagonistic striving; one will have to yield other. A further unexpected Plot - development marks the end of the second act.
In the third act decides, which purpose at expense which other reality becomes, and which from it fora final state follows.
Happens concretely after approximately. 15 to 20 minutes after the beginning of film the so-called Plot POINT. Here the Protagonist is in-torn into the action and/or. it is forced to acting. Likewise in this first part of the film one describes, whothe Protagonist at all is.
model after Alexander Mitta
in the first act arises the main character with its problem, it is embodied in its character. We become acquainted with it. The beginning of the drama is signaled by a threat of the main figure, the so-called. “alternativeFactor ". This is the “weapon of the antagonist”, that can occur with the Protagonisten in the following seven forms:
- Loss of the self-respect
- vocational failure
- physical force
- death threat
- deadly threat of those, which one loves
- deadly threat of the local population
- deadly threat of mankind
this tempts it to acting. Thosethe following history can be divided in series of conflicts, obstacles and Peripetien, which lead in gradual escalation to the high point of the action.
format guidelines for film scripts
of film scripts for features, which on larger of Studios is sent in - it is in the USA or elsewhere -are a certain standard (“Studioformat”) to keep. This to be meant, like the designation of scenes, actions, transitions, dialogues, character names, camera focusing and other one on the sheet paper be presented is. Likewise the character size and the line spaces are more or less limited.
A reason for this standardization consists of it,that during a representation in the Studioformat a side of the film script corresponds to one film minute approximately. This rule of thumb is however disputed; for example a very dialoghaltige side in the film script lasts longer, than a page Action. Likewise the length of the film script depends on the write style of the author. Those, these believe most experienced reader of film scripts due to their weight and the thickness in “too long” to divide “well” or “too briefly”.
After the film script in the hand was weighed, the reader or film producer will leaf to the last side, in order to determine the number of sides. Ideal wayare long film scripts 90 to 120 sides; Comedies and child films are inclined however to have rather fewer sides. It is a common, but wrong conception that a film script should be long 120 sides - actually 120 sides are rather too long for most films.110 to 115 sides long Scripts have obviously the highest acceptance with the managers. If a film script exceeds the 120-Seiten-Grenze, then it concerns either the work of an inexperienced author, or history should of a capable director - who is also able,to deal with the many additional information well - to be filmed.
The reader can say also immediately whether a film script is written in the “Studioformat” or not, by regarding only individual sides. If the film script does not adhere to the format, the author is considered inexperienced; thatFilm script is then put fast to the side.
the Studioformat concretely
in the Internet gives it different Tipps for the correct format, under it the “official” the OSCAR lender (Nicholl Fellows Drehbuchwettbewerb). Here the fundamentals are represented:
- Generally: Character set is Courier. Character size 12 point, no writing honors (italic,Fat, underlined]. The sheets are in each case printed on on one side. Page numbers are above right indicated. Sheets are left tacked together (anyhow so the fact that one can separate the sheets again - is interested someone in the Script, then it must be able to photo-copy it also.)
- title page: In the center thatFilm title and the indication of author. Film title largely written. Address of the author down right.
- Line spaces: Doubles, if the speaking person or the scene changes, otherwise simply.
- Indication of the place (inside or outside), exact defined place and the time of day in capital letters and left justified. With these information leavethe weather-dependent external scenes of those in the building inside separate; this helps when planning of the turning work.
- Description (the action; possibly. also the instructions to the cameraman): left justified. Short procedural instructions can appear also in parentheses during the dialogue. If a character arises for the first time, becomes itsName largely written.
- Dialogue: Name of the speaking character in capital letter, dialogue normally. Both however centers. Data to the manner of speaking and emotion expressions are centered written in parentheses. If the dialogue is continued at the next side, a “CONT'D” appears for “continued” behind the character name. Is not the speakerin the picture a “O.S.” (“off screen”) is indicated or, in the German-speaking countries more common, a” OFF “in parentheses behind the character name. With narrations and internal monolied the character a “V.O becomes.” (“Voice Over “) placed behind.
- Cut: Indicated by the indication of the new place.
1 INTERIOR ROOM - DAY GERDA sits on the sofa and reads a pictorial. Their man HEINRICH storms in here. Do not get HEINRICH (rage-been inflamed) haste you the letter? Heinrich steps it furiously from above down on to Gerda and stares.GERDA (OFF) nevertheless. Your notice. What did you do? (walk) which have you done? Heinrichs face becomes rapidly bleaches.
American film scripts on writing paper (8,5 x 11 inch) are printed on one side, with three holes. They do not become by two -three - Brass Agraffen held together. In Europe doubly punched A4-Blätter is usual. An exception are European authors, who write for American of Studios. Thus it is prevented that when photo copying in the USA the sides are shown incompletely. In Europe it is also not rare that a particularStaple the sheets holds together - so one can page through the work better.
Film scripts have a title and a back sheet from half cardboard, which sometimes shows the Logo of the author agency. Copies, which are not yet rewritten and come directly from the original author, are in red or blue first pagewrapped.
emergence of a film script
very often begins the actual developing process with a Exposé, a short description of the idea. This covers for instance a side. This Exposés can be sent then different producers, who give then the order to provide from it a Treatment,which implements the action on approximately 10 to 30 sides highly detailed; already more or less matured dialogues can occur therein.
If a Treatment for good was then found, it concerns providing the film script, which 90 to 120 sides is long and which nakedDialogue and the cash action contain. In each place of the production process a Exposé, a Treatment or a film script can be rejected for revision. If the original author cannot improve the text any longer, this is handed over to a “Script doctor”.
Some authors do without the three speed proceeding Exposé- Treatment - film script and begin directly with the film script. Again different compile only then the next step if they were assigned by a producer. In American large-scale productions up to 5% of the film budget on the film script and the improvement of drafts are spent. “Scriptdoctors " earn up to 50,000 dollar per week.
If a film script was finally approved by the producer, the film script of the director becomes and of other persons supplements - for instance with data concerning the exact Szenenbild and the Storyboard, thus a book with sketches of the particularsSzenenbilder, develops. Also during the actual turning work the Script can be reworked. For this purpose a “PAGE LOCK” takes place - that is, the page numbers of the work versions remain the same. For instance if the dialogue is extended on the page 15 of the film script to two sides, then to carryboth spare sides the numbers “15,1” and “15,2”. Thus becomes communication between the different places (producer, director, special effects…) facilitated.
If during the film productions sides are changed, then to have the sides with the new, changed contents of another color. On the film set one meets thus protects Rainbows from film scripts. The task these changes to log, takes over the Script supervisor.
film script letters: “Spec” or order work
of film scripts are written in principle in two kinds: As “spec” or “on assignment”. First is a freely written film script, a latter order work.
“on assignment” (German: “On behalf”) it means that a Filmstudio or a film producer gives a film script in order. These orders can be based on stories, to which the producer acquired the mental property. Most established film script authors write “on assignment” and writeonly “spec” - works, if they assume that nobody would require for this specific film script.
In addition, there are exceptions: Some very famous authors write only on spec, because they know that they can earn in this way more moneys. Other writers do this, because themfrom personal interest many more founded about a history to worry can, without managers and producers interfere.
A job order can cover an original film script, or a film script, which on another work (e.g. a novel, another film, a Kurzgeschichte, a newspaper article,a special book, or even on computer games) is based. An order work knows also the “REWRITE”, which reworking and improving existing film scripts represent - this is also the way, as make a large part of the today's authors their money. RH-writing from film scripts is an art for itself and in addition extremely lucratively: It occurs that the best this “Script earn doctors” - which the confidence of the producers possess - 200,000 dollar per week. 50,000 dollar per week is pretty often.
RH-writing is difficult, because the producers oftena very clear conception have over it, which is not correct with a film script - however they are usually unable to say how it must be improved. It is thus expected by the writer that he supplies detailed improvement suggestions within shortest time. During the REWRITE become sometimesseveral authors selected; everyone must deliver its own suggestion. Thus in the competition is determined, which possesses the better abilities.
“Spec scripts” - too German “speculative film scripts” - written by free authors with hope that a producer on it attentivelybecome and the rights at the film script buy.
The work “going out”, announcing and recruiting, is extremely nerve-racking for the author. The agency authors selects a number of possible buyers from its card index - from the small Independent Filmer to the managers of largeStudios - and tries then to wake interest. The script is dispatched at the same time at several people, so that they can be read over the weekend. This tactics is from the auction admitted “offering war in motion” to set.
In few days it becomes in such a way admits whether a film scriptis at all salesable or not. If there is genuine interest in the film script, earns the author from few thousands to some millions dollar at its work. If it does not interest the potential buyers, the film script often lies as dead in the water - because it alreadyread in the data bases that of Studios and the producers under “, is not interesting” noted.
Nearly not possibly, a Filmstudio is to be brought to examine a film script already rejected again - even if it were rewritten substantial. A popular Bonmot among the film producers tellsof the manager, who regards the title the new story, “I hab´s already read” says, and then into the waste-paper basket throws. A strategy of the authors consists now of changing before the redispatching of the film script its titles, page numbers and the names of the characters - so thatit with the data base search is not recognized.
during with a spreading unit copyright on the client ignores - by the “purchase” of the rights at the mental property -, is an author of the authors one “spec scripts”. Over in a controversy the legal situationfree of doubts to be able, offers the Writer's Guild OF America (WGA) clarifies, the trade union of the film script authors, a registration of film scripts. The WGA stores the works at a safe place, and the registration confirmation as well as the copy of the film script storing provided with the date there can thenthe court as evidence to be submitted, the reproach of the Plagiarismus should arise. Alternatively the U.S. is offered. Copyright Office, a branch of library of congress of US, on: American works must in any case with the U.S. Copyright Office registered its, before because of plagiarism reproaches can be complained.
Should Film producers substantial parts of its film script “stolen” have, give it also in Europe a protection. It is compellingly necessary that one can occupy the time of origin of the own work. One can do this about, by dispatching oneself the film script by to written letter; the postmark and contentsthe envelope are then the proof.
- Peter Rabenalt: Film dramaturgy. 1999, ISBN 3891582455
- C.P. Hant: The film script.Practical film dramaturgy. 1999, ISBN 3861503042
- Eugen Vale: The technology of the film script letter for film and remotelong. 2000, ISBN 3805820038
- Robert McKee: Story. 2000, ISBN 3895810452
- Syd Field: Film script letter for television and film. 2003, ISBN 354836473X
- of olive container: “The art of the film script reading”. 1999, ISBN 3404940032
- Christopher Keane: “Step for Schrittt to the successful film script” ISBN 393290964X
- Michaela Krützen: Dramaturgy of the film. As Hollywood tells. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer, 2004 ISBN of 3-596-16021-9
- adaptation (adaptation), drama, the USA, 2002
Web on the left of
- errors in the film scriptrecognize and eliminate.
- Liquid local and scene change
- Moviecollege.de Tipps to the film script write
- advanced training program “film script author” to the university for television and film in Munich
- film scripts to various films (English)
- Praxistipps of the boys film scene - Storytelling