Three-crown war

Friedrich II. (Denmark)
three-crown war
beginning 1563
end of 13. December 1570
result no border shifts - the status quo remained.
Is considered
to contractor Sweden
Denmark the German
Hanse
Poland
battles
end of war peace of

Stettin the three-crown war (also called Nordi seven-year-olds war) as the first of the three Nordi war.

Table of contents

prehistory

Schwedisches Wappen
Swedish coat of arms
Dänisches Wappen
Danish coat of arms

Sweden had withdrawn 1523 from the Kalmarer union and under Gustav I. Wasa (actually Gustav Eriksson) an independent kingdom become. Its displeasure over it madethe Danish king Christian III. clearly, by inserting the three crowns, which were considered as Swedish coat of arms, into its own coat of arms. This was seen of Swedish side as proof that Denmark continual laid claim on Sweden.

Nevertheless there were common efforts with Denmark, the supremacyto secure in the Baltic Sea. They were allied in the Livländi war around of Russia urge to the Baltic Sea coast to stop; and they fought together against the power of the Hanse.

After the death of Gustav I. Wasa and Christian III. transferred new ambitious monarchs power toboth countries - Eric XIV. in Sweden and Friedrich II. in Denmark. Sweden through-crossed with its campaigns of Denmark plans, Estonia to win.

beginning of war

inevitable became the war, when Denmark held 1563 envoys of Eric in February, whom it had sent to Hessen,in order to take up marriage negotiations with the there princess Kristina. Eric had integrated the Danish and the Norwegian coat of arms about at the same time into his coat of arms. The German Hanse followed in June Denmark, because Sweden obstructed its trade with Russia. In the autumn Poland followed this example, thereit further power gain in the Baltic Sea area expected thereby.

war process

the fights took place mainly in the south of Sweden and led to a constant change of the balance of power in these regions. After initial losses the Swedish fleet end of 1565 could achieve some crucial victories andthereafter gentleman was in the Baltic Sea area for longer time. 1567 broke in Swedish troops in Norway , but Eric XIV purged at the same time. into a confusion condition, which limited the Swedish war guidance. Also the Danish side was exhausted the war actions and after Eric's joggle as a king rested temporarily.
Already in the first war years there were different attempts to solve the controversy peacefully. Among other things the German emperors Ferdinand I. sat down. and Maximilian II. for negotiations. During the rebellion of Johann III. against its brother it led negotiations with Denmark, to 18. November 1568 to the contract of Roskilde led. This was broken however already 1569 by Swedish side and the fights began again.

end of war

a renewed switching attempt of Maximilian II. led however to 13. December 1570 to the peace of Stettin. Sweden leftits requirement on care, resounding and, Blekinge and Gotland fall and the controversy over the three crowns on later negotiations one postponed. Due to its isolated position and the threatening danger from Russian side Sweden had to also deliver its properties in live country and considerable sums of moneyto the German Hanse pay.

 

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