Dynamics (music)
the Tonstärke, volume or dynamics are one the musical parameter, which corresponds to the physical term of the soundness.
In the modern notation the Tonstärke with letters and indications under the note line is noted. Different Tonstärken become upthe different music instruments differently implemented: with caper instruments the pressure and the speed the elbow line are changed, Bläser vary the pressure and the quantity of the air flow. The dynamics of the pulling and percussion instruments become, like also with piano and Cembalo, throughthe hardness and speed of the notice determine.
Dynamic designations can become also substantivisch use: The Forte for example is a name for that part of a music piece, which is spoken with large volume or sound volume, equally can one from one enormous Orchestercrescendo speaks.
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dynamic basic levels
the most frequently used Tonstärken of the abendländischen music is the following Italian abbreviations(arranged of quietly according to loud): <math> \ dots - ppp - pp - p - MP - m \! f - f - f \! \! f - f \! \! f \! \! f - \ dots </math>
piano
<math> piano< /math> (ital. „“) the instruction for one is quiet, quietly, tenderlyquiet Tonstärke. The abbreviation is <math> p< /math> and italically under the notation one sets.
forte
<math> forte< /math> (ital. „“) the instruction for a loud and strong Tonstärke is strong, loud, strongly. The abbreviation is <math> f< /math>.
moderation
alsothe letter <math> m< /math> as mezzo (ital. „means, half “) can be achieved a moderation of the volume: <math> m \! f< /math> (mezzoforte) meant centralloud and than math f /math <,> during< math> MP /math <is >somewhat< quieter> (mezzopiano, centralquietly) somewhat louder than <math> p< /math> is.
increase
for the increase of <math> f< /math> and <math> p< /math> the letter can be doubled: <math> f \! \! f </math> fortissimo („very loud “) and math <pp> /math< is called> pianissimo („very quietly “). In the music to 1800 that is the volumes extreme, in the romancedeveloped also still <math> f \! \! f \! \! f< /math> and <math> ppp< /math>, more rarely became still more letter adjacent:Pjotr Iljitsch Tschaikowski writes f in its Symphonie Pathétique at the loudest <place> math \! \! f \! \! f \! \! f \! \! f< /math> and at quietest <math> pppppp< /math> forwards, these nuances are however hardly executable.
Some composers usealso the word <math> pi \ grave u </math>(ital.: „more “): If for example after forte a somewhat quieter place follows, however louder than <math> m \! f< /math> to be is, can one <math> pi \ grave u \ p< /math>(more quietly) write.
changes of the Tonstärke
the word crescendo (cresc.), ital.: „increasing “ a gradual Erstarken of the volume prescribes. The opposite of it is diminuendo (dim.), ital.: „reducing “ or also decrescendo (decresc.), one requires. Often thereafter a dynamic designation, those standsthe end to the change and the dynamics which can be reached indicate.
In place of the designations cresc. or dim. one finds often so-called forks, which open from the quietest to loudest place, or turned around, of which loudest close to the quietest.
accents, sudden changes of clay/tone strength
- sforzato (<math> s \! f< /math> or <math> s \! f \! z< /math>): with sudden stress.
- rinforzando (<math> r \! f< /math> or <math> r \! f \! z< /math>): again more strongly becoming or also at the beginning of easily swelling stress.
- fortepiano (<math> f \! p< /math>): loud, then suddenly quietly.
These abbreviations become the further Nuancierung of many composerswith the three letters for the dynamic basic levels combines, how designations like <math> s \! f \! \! f \! z< /math>, <math> s \! f \! p< /math>, <math> m \! f \! p< /math>, <math> f \! pp< /math> to be formed can. In connection with the graphic indications of accents innumerable possibilities of dynamic prescribing, those result for the musician often only alsolarge style knowledge or under insight of the Autographes become understandable.