| electrical bass (E-bass)|
|English: Bass guitar, ital.: Basso elettrico, frz.: To Guitare bass|
the electrical bass or briefly E-bass (also bass guitar or simply only bass called) is mostlyfrom wood manufactured stringed instrument. As is the case for the E-guitar the string oscillations become not primarily by an acoustic ochestra strengthened, but by pick-ups into electrical signals converted, which are made audible with the help of a bass amplifier.
The strings of the electrical bass become from the bassists with the fingersor with a Plektrum pulled. Contrary to the retort bass the electrical bass hangs nearly horizontally before the body of the player. It is usually held by a stretcher belt put over the shoulder, so that the instrument can be played also in standing.
Table of contents
acquaintance bassists 7
] structure and function [work on]Rule only four strings, which are been correct in the basic tendency like the strings of the retort bass (‚E - ‚A of D-G). They correspond thereby to the 4 deep strings of the guitar, only one Oktave more deeply. Like the guitar and the retort bass is thatE-bass a transponierendes instrument, which become notes a Oktave more highly noted than the bass sounds.
The moreover one there are E-basses with 5 strings, usually with H than deepest string, as well as basses with 6 strings, those at the most frequent in ‚‚H - ‚E - ‚A D- G - however C or like a guitar (however 1 Oktave below) or of the musician are individually been correct. As is the case for each stringed instrument also remarks with „exotically “string number are manufactured: 2-Saiter, 3-Saiter, 7-Saiter, etc.
For special klangliche requirements sometimes also doppelchörige instruments become (after thatPrinciple of the zwölfsaitigen guitar) assigned, with which for the basic string still another (with dreichörigen basses also two) additional Oktavsaite is used. The very rare dreichörigen basses have thereby a total string number of 12 (4 basic strings x 3), 15 (5 x 3) or 18 (6 x3) Strings.
A special kind of the E-bass is the federationless (English. fretless) bass, with which very good singing to grollende sounds can be obtained, those due to the shorter Mensur opposite the retort bass and the E-Kontrabass (EUB: Electric Upright bass), the other string constructions and such a thingnaturally their qualities to reach cannot receive, with those however also techniques like the Sliden another sound. Over the Slappen with a federationless bass the spirit, also this sound separates is naturally different, than with a bass with federations. It gives Fretless bassesand without federation markings, which give a guideline assistance on the neck to a risers.
modern trend of E-basses often with „active “electronics circuits (with a battery powered preamplifier, which directly in the E-bass is built) are provided sometimes, those (as at the company EMG) into the housing of the pick-ups are builtare; these change the signal into a low impedance, which leads to smaller sound losses by the cables, and permit it, e.g. the heights to lower and raise in the middle and depths, while one makes possible „passive “tone control only lowering the heights. It is favourable, if active electronicsto be on and switched off can, since the player so had larger sound variety and also in case of an empty battery can further-play.
In order to make music with a E-bass, a bass amplifier ( „bass Amp “) is necessary, that over a handle cable, occasionally also with one XLR - Cable is connected, with the instrument. Bass amplifiers for the employment in volume need at least 150 Watts at 8 ohms for the necessary penetration strength (approx. In addition, 250 Watts at 4 ohms), in loud skirt volume is not oversized an amplifier with 400 Watts. Theredeep, long-wave tones substantially more achievement require, read a rule of thumb that the bass amplifier is to have for instance the quadruple achievement of the guitar amplifier.
with the arising of the E-guitar resulted the problem that in volume at that time the used retort bass regarding the volume supportedwas. Also basses were equipped in the consequence with a pick-up system.
One, the Fender Precision bass (1950) thought long time was firstelectrically strengthened bass, which can be carried as a traditional guitar horizontal. Was forgotten Audiovox Manufacturing & cost, the small company, which brought about 1935/36 the “#736 Electric bass Fiddle” on the market. Investigations resulted in that the bass was sold a few marks(particularly at Gospel and Country volume), but the time at that time so far ahead it was that he was never accepted correctly. The company Audiovox was closed at 1950.
The first E-bass, which was produced in series, was the Precision bass of Fender. The designation Precision referson the fact that this bass (contrary to the retort bass) had federations and thus the tones for the player are to be seized more simply precisely.
Leo Fender transferred the fundamental building method of a E-guitar in the reason to the bass, modified however the individual construction units such as Korpus, Neck and pick-up (also Pickups) in such a way that they bore the deep frequencies as well as the higher mechanical load by the string tension. A large difference to the retort bass consists besides of it that the E-basses are nearly horizontal played, meanwhile retort basses when playing (upright) is kept vertical.
From the necessary changes also some differences between the E-bass and the E-guitar follow:
- Neck length: The necks of the E-bass are longer than those the E-guitar (exception: short scales see below); the bass sounds more defined thereby.
- There are several length types with E-basses, short scale (30 "/762mm Mensur),medium scale (32 "/813mm), long scale (34 "/864mm) and specially long scale and/or. super long scale (36 "/914mm). Most frequently common is however the Longscale.
- String thickness: Also the strings exhibit a higher thickness opposite the E-guitar, since the higher string mass changes the vibration response, so that onlyby thicker strings the desired deep clay/tone during acceptable string tension to be reached can.
- Korpus: The Korpus is longer than with the E-guitar; a long Korpushorn is typical, so that the instrument with longer neck and heavy mechanics does not become top-heavy.
it to exist different play techniques for E-basses, which refer particularly to the right hand. Roughly to differentiate one can:
- The “pulling “play related to showing, central and partly also Ringfinger (Plucking), the Pizzicatoclassical retort basses. This technology required of the musician with longer play a certain physical constitution, permits however a precise play and with appropriate exercise very high control of the string. While absorbing swinging strings with the grab hand always causes a weak, but audible background noise,makes possible the pulling technology besides noiseless absorbing with the fingers the impact hand. The developing clay/tone is generally from its character rounder and stronger than with other play techniques.
- The guitar-similar play with Plektrum, a small panel, usually from plastic. Play-technically less fastidiously, is with this technology control of the string not so highly, but the clay/tone is somewhat more defined than with the pulling technology. It is usually used by “skirt bassists” of the harder pace (Heavy Metal, Thrash Metal, Nu Metal etc.), in addition, much z cultivates. B. of thatversatile bassists light courage Hattler (Kraan and Tab Two) assigned. This technology permits a fast, even and strong play.
- The very perkussive Slap technology, which by striking and tearing with thumbs and index fingers is implemented. During appropriate execution this is a very fastidious technology.The obtained, concise sound differs fundamentally from the other play techniques and only in certain music styles is used.
- A further technology, which admits particularly by Victor Wooten was made, is used in addition, by sizes such as Marcus Miller or Alain Caron, is the double Thumbing. With the Plektrum remark way resembles with up and anticipated payments of the thumb the side is fastened and permitted thereby a substantially melodiösere application of the Slaptechnik.
- Rather an edge feature is usually the solistisch used Tapping, with also the right hand on the GriffbrettTones fastens and in such a way together with the left hand special effects to obtain can.
- A further play technology is “Palm”, with which the fastened string with the edge of the impact hand is absorbed easily before the bar, which reduces the sound duration of the string and a duller/mustier soundproduced. This play technology is suitable around the dynamics of the bass lines within a piece to vary and around the sound of a retort bass imitate.
under E-Basseffekten one understands usually electronic circuits, which change the E-Basssignal. Mainly they step into formBodentreter so mentioned or pedals up, in addition, complex 19 " - effect processors are used here. Here above all distorting -, resound - are used, modulation - and Wah - effects.
acquaintance manufacturer of E-basses and amplifiers
of basses: Mike eagle, Alembic, Aria, Ernie ball (music one), bass LINE, B.C. Smell, Burns, Harvey Citron, Career, Clover, CMG, Conklin, Cort, Danelectro, Dean, Jerzy Drozd, nozzle mountain, Epiphone, esh, ESP, F (George Furlanetto), Fender, Fernandes, Fodera Guitars Inc., Framus, G&L, Gibson, Godin, Höfner, human cousin, Hot Wire bass, Ibanez, Jolana, Johnson, Ken Smith of bass, Ltd., Leduc, LINE 6, Marleaux, Martin, Miller Guitars, Modulus, MTD (Michael Tobias Design), Overwater, Peavey, Pedulla, Rickenbacker, Sadowsky Guitars Ltd., Sandberg, Schack, Stuart Spector, status, Steinberger, Rick Turner, Vester, Vigier, WHALE, Warwick, Washburn, Yamaha, Michael Zon, Tenson
the most popular basses, which were copied in modified remarks by some companies, are in skirt /Pop /Jazz history probably the jazz bass (J-bass) and the Precision bass (P-bass), both by the US firm Fender in different countries manufactured. The basses are in the “larvae in the USA” - execution starting from 800-1000 euro available, the prices for older copies (1960er years) a multiple amounts to however frequent.
While Gibson belonged with guitars as well as Fender to the completely substantial Innovatoren, one did not have very lucky with most bass modelsHand. The promising concepts failed usually because of individual design details like for example the use of Mahagoni for neck and Korpus (EB-0, EB-3, Thunderbird), to short Mensuren (EB-0, EB-3, Viola bass), high impedance pick-ups in unfavorable positions (EB-0) and unfunktionellen bridges (EB-0, EB-3, Thunderbird, G3, Grabber, Ripper),which entailed generally a full however nearly always also badly defined sound. Even pure maple constructions (G3, Grabber, Ripper, RD kindist) and langmensurige basses (Thunderbird, Les Paul, Explorer) - some models even equipped with refined Aktivelektroniken (RD kindist, Victory) - remained, partlyearned, partly relative to injustice (due to the Reputation already damaged) unsuccessfully. Gibsonbässe could themselves receive despite everything always their faithful fan municipality and particularly the models Thunderbird and EB-3 (the bass with the Jack Bruce with Cream the bass play redefined) still are much likes, since they represent with their unusual Designs and their sound of cult one welcomely to alternative to the Mainstream.
Much became in the 60's 20 admits. Century of the Höfner - Violinbass, a copy, which became more legendary through ihrern most prominent user Paul McCartney (therefore also „Beatles bass “mentioned)as the original of Gibson. It concerns here a Short Scale bass with very small string distances and geigenförmigem Hohlkorpus, which are to be taped accordingly comfortably, however a somewhat undefined, dull/musty clay/tone with short Sustain produced.
In the late and early 70's 60's that becameModel 4001 of the company Rickenbacker very popular, that, from its unusual Design apart, with its continuous (neck through) multipart neck, special pick-ups and a self-willed electronic concept (the two signals of the pick-ups, which strengthen certain in each case frequency ranges, can by means of an Stereo exit individually in each case worked onbecome) also a singular defined and aggressive sound produced. Due to this special sound the Rickenbacker 4001 was used particularly in (progessiven) the skirt, to hear in the hands of Paul McCartney (The the Beatles, Wings), Chris Squire (Yes), Geddy Lee (Rush), Roger Glover and Glenn Hughes (Deep PUR-polarizes), Martin Turner (Wishbone Ash), Lemmy Kilmister (Motörhead), Cliff Burton (Metallica) and many more.
Still the redefinition of klanglicher and spielerischer possibilities continued to go at the company Alembic starting from endthe 60's, whose “Hippie sand-yielded” instruments mentioned (out up to 7 layers of existing side parts at 3 - until 7-teiligen duchgehenden necks) definition ungekannte so far supplied. In addition came Elektroniken, which admitted Low passport filters were based, which a naturally sounding sound spectrum of extreme low basses on from Synthesizernuntil stratosphärischen Brillanzen to supply can. With distance of most legendary users Stanley Clarke might be. Further well-known Alembic users are Marks of King (level 42) and Jason Newsted (ex Metallica).
The need according to sturdier necks led in and the 80's 70's to the use of materialslike aluminum (Travis Bean, shopkeeper) and graphite (Modulus, occasionally also in co-operation with Alembic, Steinberger, status, Clover, which got in the meantime off it, Miller Guitars & bass, bass lab, Schack, Moses among other things), which first large fashion were, itselfin the long term however in the mass-market to intersperse could not. The sound is very brilliant and one has the feeling, as if the clay/tone was almost out-thrown from the instrument, but most musicians is too sterile it. Common however the use of graphite inserts is in the neckto its stabilization, which is however still felt of some as klanglich too sterile. As state OF the kind nowadays a stabilized multipart neck must using hard to very hard woods like above all maple, Amaranth (Purpleheart), Wengé, Bubinga, Amazaque (Ovangkol), ebony, Hainbuche among other things apply.