Echnaton

Name
birth name
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Amen hotep
here with the additive:
Ntjr-Hq3-W3st
(Jmn htp, ntr hq3 w3st)
Amun is content, God and ruler birth name accepted

of Theben
as
Echnaton
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Echnaton
(3ch-n-Jtn)
the Aton serves/is useful; Jet/gloss of the Aton

throne name
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Nefer cheperu Rê, Wa-EN-Rê(Nfr xprw RA, w-n-RA)
with perfect shapes, only of the Ré

on German Echnaton

Echnaton (“ the Aton probably-pleases or is useful ") was a Pharao of old Egypt during the new realm, 18. Dynasty, son of Amenophis III. and queen Teje.He raised Aton in the shape of the sun disk for the form of the main God of Egypt which can be admired from all to and created a new city in the desert, which he made the capital: Achet Aton. It set on strictly inward an arranged policyand the art reformed.

Echnatons regency is differently dated: approx. 1351 1334 v. Chr., 1340-1324 v. Chr. (Helck) or 1353-1336 v. Chr. (Krauss).

Table of contents

further names

Pharao Amenophis IV. (Echnaton) in the Egyptian museum in Cairo
  • Amenhotep (IV.) (hieroglyphisch: “Jmn htp”): original Egyptian birth name
  • Amenophis: gräzisierte way of writing of Amenhotep (see Amenophis)
  • oh EN Aten (hieroglyphisch: “Jtn n oh”, read: “oh n jtn” (“the Atonserves or is useful ")); as can be prove correct discussion of its new Names after the God Aton, German form introduced by it: Echnaton; anglo-saxon ways of writing: AC (h) EN-Aten or AC (h) enaten, more rarely: Ahkanaten, Ihknaten; Netherlands also: Achnaton; French: Akhénaton; Spanish: Akenatón; Italian: Akhenaton.

It must be pointed out that there is not a as can be prove correct discussion of the oldEgyptian because of the absence of an exact excessive quantity of the Vokalität, however the discussion “Achanjati” is very probable. Certain reference points to the Vokalisation the Liturgie supplies to that withkoptischen church.

Name before renaming

name after renaming

  • Horusname:More stronglyBull, loved of Aton
  • Nebtiname: Largely at Königtum in Achetaton
  • gold name: That the names of the Aton raises
  • name: Jet/gloss of the Aton; with Beiwort (Epitheton): Largely at its lifetime

family

lives and religion

accession

Amenophis IV. became under the throne name “Nefer cheperu RH, Wa-EN-RH” (” with perfect shapes, a RH meant; Only the RH “, surname” of the leading seaman lives “, thus reference to the God RH and the goddess Leading seaman) crowned, and mounted the throne of Egypt at the age of sixteen years. First it was however Mitregent in the last government years of its father, which is quite unknown outside of the ägyptologischen science. Upper and Unterägypten, outward stilla unit, were organizational separate. This e.g. leaves itself. at the titles of the Höflinge prove, which enumerate partly doubly, once for upper and once for Unterägypten, or only for in each case one. Also different proofs exist, e.g. in the foreignCorrespondence.

change of the political course

already its father Amenophis III. the sun God Aton had existed more strongly admired, particularly internal contacts to the Kingdom of Mitanni ( and Hethiterreich), where likewise the sun represented the main divinity. Its son and successorcontinued however still another step: he built a new city as main cult center of the Aton, which he made also his seat of the government. Aton, originally the shape of the sun God in the evening, became in shape of the sun disk the nunmehrige symbolic Personifizierung of theRealm God and for the source of all life.Amun - RH was during the 18. Dynasty to a hidden God transzendiert, which was Urgrund all Seins and source of all life, and in formed circles all remaining Gods were considered only as its manifestations.It was so powerful that one did not dare to express its name any longer loud. And arbitrary and rich its priest shank had also become, although the Pharao from the old tradition should be the actual highest priest and mediator. Besides turneditself ever more educated Egyptians directly in the prayer to the hidden all-powerful God admired by them.

The Pharao created it to reject and suppress on own instruction as redundantly felt manifestations of the realm God and at the same time thosepowerful priest shanks to entmachten. The Pharao (and its wife) thereby again as in old times the representatives of this God on ground connection did not become, a priest caste required. The Pharao alone could arrange the Segnungen of the highest God for the people. A specialNofretetedarstellung on three stone blocks is regarded of researchers as proof for the fact that Nofretete Echnaton served as Hohepriesterin. The people was allowed the Pharao and its wife not to the God to ask directly, but had as Fürbitter to take whether it wanted thator not. On the past habits and on the Volksfrömmigkeit Echnaton did not take consideration.

In the rock grave of the former official and later Pharao Eje as well as in other graves of the epoch Echnatons Atonhymnus was found. Amenophis IV. called itself since his faith reforms“Echnaton” (“that the Aton pleases”). Thus it changed only its birth name. In all official representations the throne name is only mentioned. The change of name of the Echnaton was thus no revolution, but its personal affair.

It forbade the cult of the remaining Godsnot, but it came nevertheless to excesses against the priests and/or. , and it about it must have known the old God names on the monuments (if probably locally limited on Theben) answer. An arrangement of Echnaton could not be proven however.In its own city existed (however only within the domestic range) a multiplicity of other Gods beside Aton, from whose existence Echnaton had knowledge (see. the Ägyptologin Christine El-Mahdy).

establishment of Achet Aton

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Achet Aton

still during thatGovernment of its father, Amenophis III. (a Mitregentschaft is considered in the meantime as probable), it created a temporary residence in Sisala, where it was because of the execution of a rejoicing celebration in honours of its father and led the ceremonies. Herein it followed thatExample of its father, who had likewise created a new residence in Malkatta. Finally it selected however another place, 400 km north of the former capital Theben, downstream on on the east bank of the Nile of rock formations surrounded, largerSand surface in central Egypt. At the mountains Echnaton in one of the there rock formations believed to recognize the hieroglyphic character of “city of the Aton”. He decided therefore in the year 5 of its rule, at this place its new capital Achet Aton (the horizon of theTo base Aton) in the proximity of the today's Amarna.

removal after Achet Aton

the construction work were advanced in record time, as the population and above all the military were merged into the work; drew already three years after commencement of constructionthe pair of rulers into the palace lain central. The entire Egyptian yard and the administration pulled archives with exchanges of letters with regard to foreign policy into the new capital, were likewise carried forward. The temples became - in back meditation on the sun temples of the 6. Dynasty- with open roof built, so that its do good-end jets penetrate could.

regency

the rule of Echnaton and his main woman Nofretete (“the beautiful one, comes there”) was completely the love added to the art and Spiritualität. Things with regard to foreign policy interestedit not; over its nut/mother Teje, which letters proved, worried such things, which are explicitly to Teje and not addressed at Echnaton. Echnaton more or less left the Zügel of power to the high officials, around itself thatto dedicate new cult. Echnaton and Nofretete understood themselves like all other Pharaonen than Gods on ground connection, but now than representatives of the main God in the form of Aton, and they were the exclusive upper priests of this cult. The switching between God andGläubigem exclusively took place via the pair of rulers as exclusive reference to Aton. They left themselves like Gods anbeten and formed according to statements of Ägyptologen as well as the God Aton a kind Dreifaltigkeit, which comes the eastern religions of the two-current country more near.

Nofretetes Mitregentschaft

the strong position of the woman in old Egypt was still increased under Echnaton. Nofretete as a main woman of the Pharaos was made a kind Mitregentin and equipped at least with the pharaonischen power symbols. It became later evenin the rock graves shown by Armana as well as Echnaton several times in a kind that researchers accept even a dominant factor Mitregentschaft of Nofretete in the late government years of Echnaton. Possibly it had accepted Semenchkare with their Inthronisation the throne name, what oneSuccessor role would mean.

situation with regard to foreign policy

Echnaton with family in Anbetung of Aton

in the year 1885 by a lucky coincidence in the ruins of the city Achet Aton were found to about 300 writing boards: the correspondence with regard to foreign policy Echnatons and its successor,written in the Babylonian cuneiform script usual in diplomatic circles. These so-called Amarna letters reflect the political situation of Egypt again, affected by the strong realm of the Hethiter, which itself still at present the Amenhotep III. north the asiatic zone of influence of Egypt in an educated mannerhad.

Suppiluliuma I., the king of the Hethiter, still welcomed Echnaton to its accession, and to the inauguration of the new capital Achet Aton a hethitische delegation with gifts appeared. But already short time inquired later the Hethiterkönig, why one its lettersdo not answer. Reason of the arisen tensions was possibly the waste of some Syrian Vasallen of Egypt and their turn for the sphere of influence of the Hethiter.Abdi aschirta and its son and successor Aziru prevailed to that at this time at the upper Orontes over the realm Amoriter. They and the Syrian prince Itakama of Kadesch were possibly first, which changed the fronts and from the Egyptians turned away. Up to the cities Simyra and Byblos conquered Aziru all northSyrian and phönizischen coastal towns. Together withthe Hethitern conquered it Nij and advanced against the city Tunip. The assistance call of the city-oldest at the Pharao is received: „Who would have known in former times Tunip plündern, without Manachpirija (Men chepru Rê) would have geplündert him to the punishment? … and if Aziru inSimyra penetrates, then he will do us, what pleases him on that areas of our Mr., the king, and for all that our gentleman holds back itself from us. And now your city Tunip and their tears cries flows, and givesno assistance for us. … sent we to our Mr., the king of Egypt, messengers, but no answer came us, not only one word. “

Rub Addi from Byblos asked Echnaton repeated for assistance against the troops Azirus with its attackon Simyra, but in vain. Simyra was destroyed, the Egyptian envoy was killed. More than 60 letters of the rub Addi with the request for assistance were found in Amarna. As history shows, they were futile. Echnatons interests did not lie on politicalArea.

In Palestine the resistance under the Chabiri ( Hebräern moved? Incident one semitische Nomaden?), the Meggido, Askalon and Gezer threatened and in the long run under its control brought. The assistance calls from this region accomplished only to halfhearted and unsuccessful measure namesthe ruler in Achet Aton. Thus the areas were lost to the realm.

Before this background a young officer with name Haremhab put the foundation-stone for a steep career.

end of the Amarna time

the direct successor Echnatons is Semenchkare beenits. Possibly this was the survivor Nofrete, which governed as a successor (see Nofretete). It is undisputed that thereafter the oldest daughter Merit Aton received the title royal wife. The more well-known and scientifically better occupied regent is the following Tutenchamun. DetailsOne does not know degree of relationship between Echnaton and the young Tutanchamun, (son? Son-in-law?), one assumes however that it was a daughter of its Nebenfrau Kija, which disappeared around the time of its birth. Representations of a dead woman in a birth summerhouse became into thatKing graves found, and it can refer neither to Nofretete nor to the king daughters. It was also assumed that his Mrs. Nofretete deceased some years before it. As a time some sources give 12. Government year, other sources 14. Government yearfrom Echnaton.

death

Echnatons end is likewise not clearly clarified. In 17. Year of its regency it seems to have died and probably first in the new Königsgruft of Amarna was bestattet. An investigation of the grave broughtFragments of the Sarkophages and some referring to the grave equipment to day. Reeves sees early grave begun and an unfinished for Echnaton in WV 25 in the valley of the kings/west valley. There are assumptions that it became victim of a notice, because its politicsas offence against the leading seaman one interpreted. Briefly after the Amarna time the rulers became detached fast, which points to follow-up disputes and does not make encroachments by force improbable.

Nofretete as Echnatons successor?

One still disputed theory is thatNofretete against all past acceptance however Echnaton survived and after it the throne mounted. The representation of Nofretete as a protection goddess of her deceased husband at the corners in fragments received and again reconstructed of the Steinsarkophags of Echnaton (in the garden of theEgyptian museum in Cairo) and it interprets a small relief, on which Nofretete is represented when killing enemies, increasingly more researcher today in such a way that she governed a short time after death Echnatons even long Egypt alone. In addition itthere is proof the fact that Semenchkare in reality was female (see. Cyril Aldred). Besides it holds the title of the Nofretete , “loved from Wa-EN-RH”, one the title Echnatons. (vgl Nofretete).

negatives effects of the Echnaton regency

removes from the picturea idyllischen community the rule is called of Echnaton also the black period in the history of old Egypt. Therefore there was temple locking, pursuit, seizure of the goods, safe-keeping draw of the portraits of the old Gods under Echnaton at negative effects for the priest shank. Thisin the research “Ketzerpharao” registered the surname to him. In addition it caused the loss of several Egyptian protectorates in the north by refusal of military assistance for the Egyptian allied ones threatened by the Hethitern. It seems also that Egypt because of the retreatthe centre government into the desert at this time suffered an economic decrease.

The short phase of paging did not shake however the bases of the Egyptian religion, and if the people had even turned obviously to Aton, it never stopped,to admire the old Gods. The old priest shank Thebens continued to exist obviously at the same time to certain extent. When has Echnaton however the last logical step of a tendency carried out executors of a religious reformation and culture revolution, those already during the rule of itsFather Amenophis III. had developed and probably in the religious part of models in the world of the Hirten, so the Midianiter, in the east had.

art

during the rule of Echnaton erblühte itself the Amarnakunst, by thoseDevelopment of the nature-illustrating art distinguishes, where it wimmelt from plants, flowers and birds. Until today famous are the floors of Amarna with their abundance at flower and animal decorations. A further characteristic is the extremely realistic representation of the personalities, those sometimeseven up to the caricature exaggerates; the traditional art was rather idealizing. Likewise the past art rules of the lack of perspectives and statics were waived to a large extent. On a relief, in which Echnaton Aton stretches a branch of olive, its hand is laminar prepared, almost unique inthe Amarna time and singularly in the total context of the Egyptian history of art. The sculptors praise themselves, which they were instructed by the Pharao in the execution of the new style; also the plans of the city Achet Aton are to decrease/go back to it. One speaks Echnatonalso dichterisches talent too (see sun singing).

The following Pharaonen starting from Haremhab did everything, in order to extinguish the traces shedding tables of the Pharaos, so that one has very few knowledge over this period.
Even if after Echnaton a return to the oldConditions took place, then nevertheless much was taken over. The sun disk took in the 19. and 20. Dynasty an emphasized on position. Future king graves were put on without break axle and straight, so that the sunbeams could break in directly. In the art itself elements could the Amarna style for short time state.

theories and speculations

gives theories, which the Biblical Moses (in Egypt one bore as well known) and its God picture into direct relationship with Echnaton to set, and the Egyptian Aton faith into thatJewish Adon faith of the Pentateuch with large detail loyalty see shown. It exists even the thesis that Echnaton forms a personnel unit with Moses and this succeeds in repeated correspondences even problem-free. The time of the colonization i. becomes chronological. D. Rule notwith the time Echnatons connected, but until two centuries later into the time a that RAM simmering dates. Also a meeting Echnatons with the Biblical Joseph, as it is represented in the Josephs novels by Thomas's man, does not leave itself historicallyoccupy.

literature

  • Cyril Aldred: Echnaton. Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1968.
  • January ASS ASS: Moses of the Egyptians. Hanser, Munich 1998. ISBN 3-446-19302-2
  • Eric Hornung: Echnaton. The religion of the light. Kind-badly, Zurich 1995. ISBN 3-7608-1111-6
  • Nicholas Reeves: Echnaton. Of Egypt wrong prophet.of Zabern, Mainz 2002.ISBN 3-8053-2828-1
  • Hans Sarkowicz (Hrsg.): The history of the gardens and parks. Island publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 1998. ISBN 3-458-16897-4
  • Hermann A. Schlögl: Amenophis IV. Echnaton. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 1986. ISBN 3-499-50350-6
  • Peter Priskil: Echnaton - dreamers,Fanatic or revolutionary? Ahriman, Freiburg 2001. ISBN 3-89484-704-2

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