Wahlspruch: Libertad y medal
|system of government||Präsidialrepublik|
|surface||283,560 km ²|
|number of inhabitants||13.212.742 (conditions July2004)|
|Population density||of 46 inhabitants per km ²|
|gros domestic product/inhabitant||1,957 US-$ (2004)|
|time belt||UTC -5|
|geographical situation|| |
of coordinates: 1° 15 ' S, 78° 37 ' W 1° 15 ' S, 78° 37 ' W
|national anthem||salvo, Oh Patria|
The Republic of Ecuador (splinter República del Ecuador, dt. also Ekuador, see. „Equator “) is a state in South America and borders on Colombia and Peru. It is located at the Pacific between 1° 30 ' n. Break. and 5°00 s.Br. as well as between 75° 15 ' and 81° 00 ' w.L. (Mainland). Those about 1,000 km west the mainland convenient Galápagos islands are on same width and between 89° 15 ' and 91° 40 ' w.L.
The population belongs predominantly to the catholicFaith direction on and speaks the languages Quichua and Shuar, as well as some further local Indian languages apart from the office language Spanish also.
Table of contents
the country which was because of the equator can be divided in four completely different zones: the coastal range (Costa), the Anden (Sierra), the wooded Amazon low country (Oriente) and the Galápagos islands.
From north to south the mountain range of the Anden runs in the middle by Ecuador. In the Hochebenen around 2.500 m with moderate temperature the capital Quito and the third biggest, but comparatively small city Cuenca lies. The mountains, partial active volcanos, reach 5,000 to 6,000 meters. Among them is the highest collection of the earth (from the earth center), the Chimborazo, with 6.310 m over the sea level. In this area also many worth seeing lieKraterseen, like e.g. the Kratersee Quilotoa.
In the east of the country the forest of the Amazon low country begins with hot and damp climate. All rivers are upper runs of the Amazon there. The most important of them are the Napo, the Coca, that Pastaza, the Putumayo and the Aguarico.
in Ecuador prevailsdamp-hot tropical climate in the coastal region and eastern low country, in and high country against it prevails moderate climate with strong variations in temperature (5 - 25 °C) during the daily (rain time January May and October/November)
the ethnical composition thatInhabitant of Ecuador is very heterogeneous and reflects the different phases of the history of the country. As the conditions of 2004 the following approximate composition of the population is indicated:
- Indigenas: 20.0% (according to data of the Indigena - organization CONAIE up to50%),
- Mestizen: 35.0%,
- European descent: 25,0%.
- Mulatten: 15.0%,
- Afroamerikaner: 5.0%,
there are large geographical differences: While the portion of the indigenen population is particularly high in the high country, humans with African origin concentratein the region around Esmeraldas as well as in the Chota - valley (Spanish: Valle de Chota) (province Imbabura) in the northwest of the country.
94% the inhabitant are catholics and over 80% of it practicing.
major item: History of Ecuador
the area of Ecuador was first into several smaller independent Indian states divided before the Kolonialisierung. Only end 15. Century conquered the Inka the entire country, became however already at the beginning 16. Century again subjected by the Spaniards. Duringthe colonial age took those material Audiencia de Quito the today's area of Ecuador. The country fought for under Simón Bolívar and Antonio José de Sucre 1821 the independence from Spain and belonged until 1830 to the Gran Colombia. Its furtherindependent historical way was characterized by high political and territorial instability. The incessant succession of numerous Putsche and coups d'etat is enough into today's time. In 19. Century came it again and again to shorter civil war episodes, a development, those to the centerthe century by the klerikale dictatorship of the Gabriel García Moreno for some years to be interrupted could. In the counterreaction it succeeded to Eloy Alfaro at the end of the century to establish a first radical liberal government.
See also: List of the presidents of Ecuador
the political system of Ecuador are on the one hand strongly centralized, since political power lies mainly in the capital Quito, although in the past years decentralization efforts are undertaken. The commonwealth is on the presidentscut, which appoints a governor for each province. The population of the provinces selects a Präfekten, which is responsible primarily for infrastructure measures in the rural areas and there into for instance the functions of a superordinate mayor has, while thoseMayors in the cities these functions notice. To the course of the decentralization efforts so-called Kirchspielversammlungen (juntas parroquiales) was introduced, which is likewise regularly selected and on lowest level in cities and on the country in political decisions to participate.Beside the Kirchspielversammlungen there are neighbourhood agencies, which can form and whose suggestions on local topics from the Kirchspielversammlungen are to be considered to.
On the other hand the political power structure on national level exhibits clear elements of a concordance democracy: Political power in the countryCosta and Sierra with their centers Guayaquil and Quito must be constantly counterbalanced between the two important large regions. With presidency elections all parties, which figure chances out on the choice victory, nominate a bottom plate from presidency and vice-presidency candidate, of those in each case onefrom the one, one from the other large region originates. The influence of the political parties is likewise in each case to a large extent limited to ever regions: The christian-social Partido Social Cristiano (PSC) and the populist Partido Roldosista Ecuatoriano (PRE) have their support inthe coastal, the social-democratic Izquierda Democrática the their in and region. The parties mentioned are strongly centered on individual persons, i.e. the former presidents León Febres Cordero , Abdalá Bucaram and Rodrigo Borja. A special case in the Ecuadorian party structure is the Movimientode Unidad Plurinacional Pachakutik Nuevo País, the party of the Indian organization CONAIE. This is selected particularly in the rurally coined/shaped provinces of the country and is anxious in the sense of the organization of indigener village communities the making and decision volume of individual persons in favor ofto cut the public in the party.
The political life on national level is coined/shaped of strong instability, in the national congress forms rarely stable coalitions, laws after extensive negotiations between individual government and opposition parties is often discharged. The right to vote hasin addition to it was led last, former president the Lucio Gutiérrez for a party in the office was selected, which was again created and neither experience in the parliament work still another important representative office in the parliament had, what destabilized the political life additionally and in the long runto Gutiérrez' fall contributed. Also his successor, the former vice-president Alfredo Palacio does not have strengthened own majority in parliament.
The military does not have likewise an influence on the policy, on the one hand by the operational readiness level of former military in leading positions, which can be underestimated, on the other handbecause it can extract with protests and rebellions the support from the governing president, as it happened in the cases of the fallen Jamil Mahuad (2001) and Lucio Gutiérrez (2005).
The present condition, which became to issue 1998, is those alreadythe 19. in the 175-jährigen history of the country and the fifth was in 20. Century. At present a constitutional reform one discusses.
according to the condition is Ecuador an indivisible state. For the administration of the country there is oneAllocation in provinces (provincias), cantons (CAN clay/tone) and Kirchspiele (parroquias).
The 22 provinces, their size and the appropriate province capitals are:
- in and high country (sierra):
- Azuay (8,100 km ², 650,000 inhabitants, capital: Cuenca),
- Bolívar (4,000 km ², 200,000 Einw., capital: Guaranda),
- Cañar (3,100 km ², 200,000 inhabitants, capital: Azogues),
- Carchi (3,600 km ², 240,000 inhabitants, capital: Tulcán),
- Cotopaxi 6,000 km ², 350,000 inhabitants, capital: Latacunga),
- Chimborazo (6,600 km ², 480.000Inhabitant, capital:Riobamba),
- Imbabura (4,600 km ², 350,000 inhabitants, capital: Ibarra),
- Loja (11,000 km ², 500,000 inhabitants, capital: Loja),
- Pichincha (13,000 km ², 2.5 million inhabitant, capital: Quito),
- Tungurahua (3,340 km ², 450,000 inhabitants, capital: Ambato).
- at the coast (costa):
- El Oro (5,850 km ², 700,000 inhabitants, capital: Machala),
- Esmeraldas (15,200 km ², 450,000 inhabitants, capital: Esmeraldas),
- Guayas (20,500 km ², 3.6 million inhabitant, capital: Guayaquil),
- lot Ríos (7,200 km ², 750,000 inhabitants, capital:Babahoyo),
- Manabí (19,000 km ², 1.6 million inhabitant, capital: Portoviejo).
- in Amazonien (Oriente):
- Morona Santiago (25,700 km ², 100,000 inhabitants, capital: Macas),
- Napo (14,000 km ², 150,000 inhabitants, capital: Tena),
- Orellana (20,700 km ², 71,000 inhabitants, capital: Puerto Francisco de Orellana)
- Pastaza (30,000 km ², 100,000 inhabitants, capital: Puyo),
- Sucumbíos (18,300 km ², 120,000 inhabitants, capital: Nueva Loja),
- Zamora Chinchipe (23,000 km ², 100,000 inhabitants, capital: Zamora).
- In addition the Insulare region Galápagos comes: (8,010 km ², 30,000 inhabitants, capital: Puerto Baquerizo Moreno)
see also: List of the cities in Ecuador
the traffic, most important Verkehrsträger of the country, finds on a road systemwith an overall length of 43.197 km (1999) instead of, by which however straight once 8,165 km are fastened. Most important road is the section of the Carretera Panamericana, which crosses the country from north to south.
The Eisenbahnnetz is 812km long and possesses a track width of 1,067 mm. Into the 1980ern the meaning of the course diminished. The only regular connections are meant for tourists. The public passenger traffic is realized mainly by penalty, those by private business, so-called. Cooperativas, to be operated.
the restaurant achievement of the country is small and Ecuador belongs to the poorer countries of Latin America. The Pro-Kopf-Einkommen amounts to 2,700 US Dollar (2005). More than 60 per cent of the Landbevölkerung live under the subsistence level, Kinderarbeit in the agriculture is far common. Up to a quarter of the population lives alreadyas Arbeitsmigranten abroad, particularly in the USA (Miami) and Spain (v.a. Madrid). Ecuador gave in the year 2000 its own currency, the Sucre up, to favour US Dollar, coins/shapes however in contractual arrangement alsothe USA further small coins with the Denomination US cent (centavos) and own front and back picture.
over half of the restaurant achievement is connected with the promotion and the export of oil . Further important export articles are traditional Bananas, shrimps (camarones) and cocoa as well as the famous Panama hat, which are manufactured only here.
in the last years developed also the tourism to an important industry, is considered to Ecuador nevertheless asone of the countries with the highest bio diversity of the world. Ecuador offers beyond that variety at landscapes, which look for their-same. Are mentioned the Galápagos islands, the road of the volcanos and the tropical mountain forest at the east slope of the Anden.
Between 1992 and 2000 the portion
- literature: Diego Viga, Benjamín Carrión, Jorge Icaza
- screen end art: Oswaldo Guayasamin
- music: andine music
- sport: Ecuadorian national soccer team, Jefferson Pérez
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Ecuador - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- further ones left to the topic „Ecuador “ in the open directory Project
- http://www.inwent.org/v-ez/lis/ecuador/index.htm - Landeskundliche information page GermanDevelopment assistance organizations to Ecuador (on German)
- http://www.vivecuador.com/html2/eng/home.htm - portal of the Ecuadorian information and tourism Ministry (on English)
- http://www.edufuturo.com - information portal over all aspects of the Ecuadorian society, developed for http://www.amnesty-ecuador.de in the context of education projects of the province Pichincha (Spanish
- ) - group of Ecuador co-ordinations of amnesty internationally
- http://www.saexplorers.org- South American Explorers. Non profit organization and information center for travelers (English)
- http://www.eluniverso.com - El Universo, present-strongest newspaper of the country, appears in Guayaquil (Spanish)
- http://www.elcomercio.com - El Comercio, most important newspaper in Quito (Spanish)
- http://www.hoy.com.ec - Diario Hoy,, on the sides contents of extensive supplements are further newspaper in Quito (Spanish) to history, culture, etc.
- http://www.elmercurio.com.ec - El Mercurio, most important daily paper in Cuenca (Spanish)
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