Edelkastanie (Castanea sativa Mill.), also simply Kastanie or also Esskastanie, edible Kastanie, genuine Kastanie, Zahme Kastanie, Cheste, Keschte, Köschte, Marone or Marrone, designates tree a kind from the family of the beech plants (Fagaceae)as well as their edible fruits.
Originally originating from small Asia, the Kastanie spread in the period of past thousands of years - often assistance of humans, who for a long time estimates their nutritious, good-tasting and besides well storable fruits - in the entire area between Caucasusand Portugal, why she is counted here to the Archäophyten. With us it does not prosper mainly in mild viticulture climate, in rougher situations matures the fruits out. Before all in the valleys of the south alps and on Korsika still large hold themselves,old existence. The name Maroni and the similar-reading designations in many languages come from the Greek maraon. In the antique Greece the fruit was designated also as „acorn of the Zeus “and had both in the nutrition and in the medicinea firm place. Even in later time one estimated it much, which among other things also into the Capitulare de much-read land goods regulation mentioned Karl of the large one documented.
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Edelkastanien are summer-green trees or bushes. They can become meters high and form up to 30 frequently a crown unloading far. The 15 to 30 centimeters is enough sheets is lanzettlich formed with pointedly teethed edges, upthe top side more darkly green colored than on the lower surface. The sumptuously flowering, in-strike-triumph plants can an age of over 1,000 years reach. In the open land they flower the first time at an age of 20 to 30 years, before are naturalto expect also no fruits. If they are located in close existence, several decades can offense up to the first bloom. The separate-sexual blooms appear in the late spring and smell as with the white thorn and the Eberesche after tri methyl amine, which of mostHumans as unpleasant one feels. At the blooms appear themselves bees, ants and beetles as Bestäuberinsekten. From the inconspicuous, small female blooms the lightgreen, stinging leagues fruit bowls develop, in whose inside the brown fruits ripen. The Erntezeit thatEdelkastanien is in September, October and November.
at the locations, which become fair the heat need of the Edelkastanie, ranks it among the shade trees. The more badly however the soil, on thatit stands and the more rauer the climate is, the more strongly is their light need.
At its original location the Edelkastanie in light leaves mixed woodlands prospers in summer-dry climate and mild winter. The optimal soil is nutrient-rich and deep. Lime and soil wetness standthe Kastanie not.
the Edelkastanie ranks among the plants, which capture new habitat due to the so-called hiding place propagation. Rodents like the squirrel, which , forest, field and sleep mouse, in addition, birds how Crows and Eichelhäher kidnap the fruits and put on hidden food supplies thereby. If these become, which reason also always, not used up, the seeds ranking among the Dunkelkeimern germinate out and justify new trees.
origin area and introduction to Europe
original the Edelkastanie originates from Anterior Asia. Them became already in 5. Century before Christ to Greece imported. From there outgoing it became stillbefore the turn of an era in Italy, Spain and France establishes. With the Romans it was introduced just like the common grape vine into the occupied areas of Portugal , North Africa and Germaniens. At the northern alpine edge it was however already common, before thoseRomans these regions conquered.
existence in Germany and nature protection
Edelkastanien are within Germany particularly in the Rhine Valley as well as in the warm-favoured Nebentälern of this river. Today is it among other thingsat the edge of the Pfälzer of forest (the Haardt in such a way specified) and in the Taunus domestic. The there nationallinguistic name for the fruit is Keschde. She is not only cultivated there because of their fruits, but because her also to the viticulturenecessary Rebstecken supplies. Richly at Edelkastanien are also the western edge zones of the desert forest and the Black Forest. In addition she is to be found in the southern Spessart and in the southwest of Westphalia.
The largest Edelkastanie Germany grows in the municipality forest shark field in the proximitythe forestry house hero stone in the Pfälzerwald. It has a chest elevator diameter of 1.10 meters and a branch-free trunk of 8 meters.
although the Edelkastanie an imported tree species is, falls it under the nature protection. It is particularly due totheir culture-historical meaning to be received. Since the traditional use forms expired to a large extent, many Edelkastanienbestände are obsolete. Since the Edelkastanie deflects differently than oaks also at the high age again well, the resumption of the traditional use is possible. This is on example surfacesalso successfully tested.
existence in the rest of Europe
unusual large Edelkastanien are in the climatically mild Great Britain. In the Italian national park Foreste Casentinesi form partially pure existence and old Kastaniengärten for Edelkastanien are also on larva Irish Republican Army, Korsika and the Kanari islands. Pure Edelkastanienwälder is also at the slopes of the Mecsek - mountains in the south of Hungary as well as in some sunny sections of the Danube knee north of Budapest, like also in the canton Tessin and in the Bündner south valley Bergell (both Switzerland). Furthermore it gives north the alps at the slopes of the Rigi Kastanienwäldchen (so-called Chestenenweid). Also in Austria (south steiermark, castle country, Voralpengebiet) some existence are well-known.
Use as wood supplier, strewing and Trachtpflanze
the wood of the Edelkastanie is very valuable. Beside furniture production it was used also preferentially for the production of vine stakes as well as for production by barrels and in shipbuilding, there it to a large extent resistant to wetness andRot is. As firewood it finds bad flame quality, it mainly in Piemont use, however russt and smokes strong.
The dropped sheets became traditional as if strew both and fertilizers or intersperse into stables used. In addition the blooms become as bee pastureestimated. Goats freely held love it, in the winter the crust of the recent branches and fresh, 3-jährigen Schösslinge abzunagen. They take up to it important trace elements and get in the consequence a shining skin.
use as food
Kastanien as food with harvest failures
in the Italian alpine valleys as well as in the regions of Switzerland, which were climatically so favoured that the Kastanie could prosper there, applied it in former times as a component of the food, with which one times of the harvest failuresto project could. One estimated that strong-calibrated fruits of a tree were sufficient, so that a person can get over one winter. From this reason its own tree became out in many municipalities of the regions each inhabitant without own reason or forest possession, specified abovethe municipal property as food reserve assigned.
Maronen as a component of traditional regional kitchen
Maronenpüree is a typically Hungarian speciality, without which one winter would be inconceivable in Hungary. In addition, it is in Austria (under the name Kastanienreis), orCroatia (when “pire” kesten) spreads. It is offered in almost any Hungarian confectionery. Of the Püree for example also tasty cakes can be made. The production of a sweet Krem (so-called Maronenkrem) in addition, from that fruit Marks is in other cultivation areas(for example Southern France) spreads. Korsika is admits for its Kastanienmehl, of which soup and a kind Polenta are made. In order Kastanienmehl to received, are only dried the Kastanien, roasted then and finally husbands. In the Piemont one places from Maronen andPotato flour combined Gnocci ago, which are extremely nutritious and lastingly satisfying; also a jam cream out with honey of gesüsster Maronipaste is much likes there. Hunters and forest runners love it also to verzehren the fresh Maroni directly on the spot. Itare sweet and strong in the taste, which shows up however only when careful chewing. For some years there is on Korsika also beer with Kastanienmehl (Pietra), it tastes mild and spicy. In Germany and Austria Edelkastanien often roasted upWeihnachtsmärkten offered. In Austria and Switzerland these in the winter stands belonging to the familiar townscape are called Maronibrater. In Switzerland the salesmen often recruit with “Heissi Marroni”, which as be called just as meant Maronen. The moreover one Maronen use findas filling of roasted poultry (for example goose or Truthahn) or as cooked supplement instead of potatoes.
manner of processing
the Edelkastanien are slit at the pointed or round end or cut crosswiseand about 10 to 20 minutes drying in an uncoated pan or in the baking-oven (with at least 200 °C) or roasted under the grill. One can do it instead also about 20 minutes in water to cook, then taste them somewhat more softly andmore mehliger. Before the consumption the Maronen is peeled and the underlying brown skin is removed; one must segregate unfortunately always the bad copies existing in certain quantity. Further one should remove under the bowl for villi present thoroughly, there these very muchtaste bitter. For the production of a Pürees the Maronen must be gedünstet vorm Pürieren about 20 minutes in cooking water. In the Bergell (southeast Switzerland) the Kastanien is air-dried for centuries in particularly wood little houses established for it and rubbed by hand to flour.
since beginning 20. Century rages a mushroom originating from Asia under the Kastanien, it concerns thereby the so-called Kastanienrindenkrebs (Endothia parasitica = Cryphonectria p.). This mushroom became for the first time 1904 in the New Yorker one Zoo discovered, already in the year 1937 99 per cent of all trees in the USA stricken or had died. 1938 emerged the mushroom in Genova , and into the 1950er years he had already reached South Tyrol. In the year 1992 it finally becamealso in Germany discovers. Due to its late emerging this hose mushroom ranks among the Neomyceten. The Sporen are kidnapped by wind, rain, insects, birds and humans. The Kastanienbäume is not struck, it withers however, because the mushroom the waterand nutrient supply impairs. The tree dies finally, if the nutrient supply completely interrupted
where one is to set for Kastanienbäume
the enthusiasm for the use of the Kastanie could lead for setting everywhere Kastanienbäume. Disappointments would be however often the result. The geographicalOccur the Edelkastanie suggests requirements to the location:
A mild climate is necessary. The Edelkastanie flowers only late, at a temperature of 15-18°C. To perfect ripe one of the fruits is necessary a long vegetation duration and a large amount of heat:The sum of the daily temperatures from the bloom to the harvest is to amount to 2000-2300°C. For developing the fruits a warm autumn is indispensable. Thereby lakeshores (the lake warms in the autumn, the water reflects the sunbeams) are particularly favorable in Central Europe. Owing tothe insularen situation England became almost a second homeland of the Kastanie. In rough situations one also Kastanienbäume can plant, but is very small the yields. Sunny slopes between 400 and 800 meters over the sea level are most productive.Only miserable growth is to expect with windy, lehmigem and wet soil. Wet valleys and wet hollows are unfavorable.
The Kastanie prospers best on Urgestein, completely particularly on Moräneablagerungen and former rockslides. The Kastanie is very potash needy (like brooms,Heath and eagle fern: where these occur, also the Kastanie has good conditions). The Kastanie requires silicic acid-rich soils, because there is auschliesslich silicates, which absorb the potash and which plants supply. As nutrient plays the potash howevera completely subordinated role. The absorption effect in the soil and the chemico-physical reciprocal effects between climate and soils are for prospering the tree of greatest importance.
or looking similar kinds [
beside the game formthe Esskastanie in the process of long cultivation history a multiplicity of improved sorts formed, more well-known of it is for example the Bouche de Betizac or the Brunella, who are considered both as outstanding Speisemaroni.
the Japanese Edelkastanie as examplea comparable use
also over 200 kinds is the Japanese Edelkastanie (Castanea crenata; jap. クリ) an important cultivated plant in Japan. It is used there in similar way as the Edelkastanie in Europe. Their fruits are thatRaw material of numerous sweets and Konditorwaren (jap.菓子).
confounding danger with the Rosskastanie
the Edelkastanie should not be confounded with the Rosskastanie, whose fruits for humans are ungeniessbar and even symptoms of intoxication can cause. Despite some similar characteristicsEdelkastanie and Rosskastanie are not more near related. While the Edelkastanie as well as beech and oak to the family of the beech plants (Fagaceae) belonged - in Asia and northwest America there are even transition forms between oak and Esskastanie - ranks the Rosskastanie among that Rose plants.
The substantial distinguisher between a Rosskastanie and a Edelkastanie is that they have completely different fruits (see pictures).
also salient ones
- Ingo Kowarik; Biological invasions - Neophyten and Neozoen in Central Europe, publishing house Eugen Ulmer Stuttgart, 2003, ISBN 3-8001-3924-3
- Doris Laudert; Myth tree - which trees us mean humans: History, customs, 30 of tree haven advice, BLV publishing house Munich, 2001, ISBN 3-405-15350-6
- Dr.G. WAD from;Text book of the biological cures, volume I, George Thieme publishing house, Leipzig
- René A. Strassmann; Tree medicine, RK publishing house Aarau/Switzerland
- max of Wichtl; Dte drugs and Phytopharmaka, WVG, Stuttgart
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