high-grade steel (according to DIN EN 10020) is a name for alloyed or unalloyed steel, their sulfur - and Phosphorgehalt (so-called. Iron companion) 0.035% does not exceed. Thereafter further thermal treatments ( z are frequent. B. Recompense) intended.
The exclusive definition, a high-grade steel is „“or „more rusting “steel is not inaccurate chemically particularly more purely and/or. wrongly. A high-grade steel does not have to correspond inevitably to the requirements of a not rusting steel. Nevertheless in the everyday life frequently only Niro steel is called high-grade steels. Likewise a stainless steel must be not necessarily also a high-grade steel.
Among the high-grade steels ranks for example highly pure steel, with which by a special production process components are separated such as aluminum and silicon from the melt, or for example also highly alloyed tool steels, which is intended for a later thermal treatment.
The steel group numbers according to DIN EN 10027-2 know the following designations:
- high-grade steels example alloyed 10 to 19
- - unalloyed high-grade steels 20 to 89
Highly alloyed is a steel if the sum of all alloying elements (exception C) more than 5% are.
high-grade steels after material number and intended purpose
more ferriticly, corrosion carrier steel with approximately 11% chrome and nickel - an additive. It is far more steadily than general structural steels, but more economical than the highly alloyed rust and acid-proof steel. WNr. 1.4003 is characterised by a combination of good corrosion resistance and abrasion resistance with high static and dynamic mechanical properties, good weldability and problem-free ductility. Weld in all well-known procedures is possible without difficulties. The characteristics of the steel are only insignificantly impaired by microstructural changes in the heat influence zone. Its application finds WNr. 1.4003 best, where unalloyed or low alloyed steel had to be surface-treated for the reaching of better corrosion characteristics through capers or coating, where however the use of a rust-steady high-grade steel for price reasons separated.
- Building of rail-mounted vehicles - person and goods railroad car etc.; Building of commercial motor vehicles - truck superstructures, conveying engineering - volume conveyor plants, Kippmulden etc.; Machine and apparatus engineering - water technology, climatic area, sugar industry, agrarian technology - silo, stable mechanisms, viticulture stakes etc.; other - profiles, construction range, cable pits etc.
more ferriticly, 17% iger chrome-plated steel with good corrosion resistance. The polishing ability is very well, likewise the deep-drawing property and the bending ability. Stretch-forming is possible only to the limited extent. When deforming it is to be noted that the steel is inclined at temperatures under 20 degrees Celsius to the embrittlement. The cold forming capacity is improved, if one warms up material and tool to 100-300 degrees Celsius, which is particularly recommended mm with Blechstärken over 3. Sharp bent sections parallel to the Walzrichtung are to be avoided. Welding is possible with electrical procedures, within the welding range occurs however an embrittlement and a reduction of the corrosion resistance. The cutting property is comparable with the alloyed case-hardening steels. As is the case for all soft qualities must be counted on the formation of structure cuts and a handicapped splinter discharge.
- The high chrome content lends a good stability to the steel against water, water vapour, air humidity as well as weak acids and caustic solutions. The application possibilities are very various, z. B. for household and kitchen devices, in the guest trade, with the food and beverage production, in the furniture industry, interior decoration, medical technology and in certain branches of the chemical industry, with sanitary, heater and air conditioning systems and within many other ranges.
an chrome-alloyed, rustproof heat treatable steel with a middle carbon content. It is always used in the recompensed condition. A good corrosion resistance is ensured only if the surface is finely polished. The polishing ability is very good. Welding is possible only with application of certain precautionary measures and is generally not recommended. The cutting property is comparable with the alloyed heat treatable steels and causes no particular difficulties.
- The steel can be used everywhere, where construction units, devices and instruments, which are to exhibit a middle firmness, are exposed to an effect of water, water vapour or air humidity. He finds a far spreading in mechanical engineering, turbine construction, building of pumps, for armatures, household appliances, sports article, medical and surgical instruments etc.
WNr. 1.4104 (X12CrMoS17) AISI 430F
a goodable, rust-safe freecutting steel with 17% chrome and molybdenum additive, which are alloyed for the improvement of the cutting property with sulfur. The corrosion resistance and the tenacity are lowered by the higher sulfur content. For cold shaping this quality is not suitable, likewise not for joint welding.
- For turned parts with automat work, if no large demands are made against the corrosion resistance.
WNr. 1.4301 (X5CrNi1810)
an austenitic, more acid-proof 18/10 Cr-Ni steel, which is intergranular steady because of its low carbon content after welding with Blechstärken up to 5 mm also without additional thermal treatment. It is certified for a temperature stress up to 300 degrees Celsius. At higher work temperatures the titanium-stabilized steel should after WNr. 1.4541 to be used. The weldability is good in all electrical procedures, a gas fusion welding should not be used. The steel has a very good polishing ability and a particularly good ductility by deep-drawing, break forming, roll forms etc. At the machine cutting must be worked because of the inclination to the cold working with tools from highly alloyed high-speed steel or tungsten carbide.
- The steel is steady to water, water vapour, air humidity, food acids as well as weak organic and inorganic acids and has very various ranges of application such as z. B. in food industry, with beverage production, in the Pharma and Kosmetikindustrie, in the chemical apparatus engineering, in the Archiktektur, in the construction of vehicles, for household effects and - devices, for surgical instruments, in the Schank and building of kitchens, with sanitary plumbings, for decoration goods and art articles. The corrosion resistance is substantially increased by electrical foremen. This is demanded in particular in the Pharma, the food and medical technology. This Cr-Ni steel for applications is unsuitable in swimming pools (S. A. Stress corrosion).
WNr. 1.4305 (X10CrNiS189)
an austenitic 18/10 Cr-Ni steel, which is alloyed for the improvement of the cutting property with sulfur, so that a treatment on automats is possible. The corrosion resistance is lowered by the higher sulfur content. It is better than with the material 1,4104 and corresponds for instance from material the 1.4016. For cold shaping this quality is not suitable, likewise not for joint welding. With electrical foremen turned off surfaces are roughened up by the sulfur portion.
- For turned parts with automat work, if a better corrosion resistance is gwünscht as with material 1,4104.
WNr. 1.4306 (X2CrNi1911)
an austenitic, acid-proof Cr-Ni steel with extremely low carbon content, which leads to a increased stability against intergranular corrosion. Also sheet metals over 6 mm do not have to be given subsequent treatment, even if they were welded under less favorable conditions. The weldability is good in all electrical procedures, a gas fusion welding should however not be used. The steel is very well polishingable. As reference value for the highest application temperature 350 degrees Celsius are indicated. Because of the extremely low carbon content lie the hardness, the firmness and the yield strength in the deterred condition particularly low, lower than with all other austenitic Cr-Ni steels. Thus a particularly good cold forming capacity results. Because of the inclination to the cold working must be worked at the machine cutting always also sharply polished tools from highly alloyed high-speed steel or tungsten carbide.
- The chemical stability is comparable with that by 1.4301, so that also homogeneous application possibilities exist. The cold forming capacity is however still better.
WNr. 1.4310 (X12CrNi177)
of the chrome-nickel-alloyed X 12 CrNi 17 7 according to DIN 17,224 one uses frequently for parts corrosion resistant. The firmness for standard parts such as diaphragm springs is obtained with the X 12 CrNi 17 7 by cold-rolling. Maximum material thickness for diaphragm springs is limited therefore on 2.0 mm. The cold working leads to a more or less minted magnetizability. Verwendungsgebiete: Foodstuffs industry and chemical industry (elastic module with 20°C 190.000N/mm ², flexibly from -150°C to 200°C).
WNr. 1.4401 (X5CrNiMo17-12-2), WNr. 1.4571 (X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2)
after all well-known welding methods well weldable. A thermal treatment after welding is not necessary generally. In special cases, if the dismantling of schweissspannungen for corrosion-chemical reasons appears appropriate, a thermal treatment should take place (z. B. 1/2 hr. with 900 ºC). Good ductility. As is the case for 1.4541 only well polished tools should be used for machine cutting treatment. The steel is polishingable.
- The increased stability against corrosion and pitting corrosion predestines these steel for the employment particularly in the far area of the chem. Apparatus engineering. Further areas of application: Nuclear power, instrumenting in the reactor construction, submarine building, building of furnaces, sulfite, cellulose, textile, color, fatty acid, photo-chemical and pharmaceutical industry.
WNr. this material a outstanding
stability possesses 1.4541 (X6CrNiTi1810) in relation to a multiplicity of aggressive media including hot oil products, steam and incineration gases. In continuous operation at air good Oxidationsbeständigkeit to approx. 900 ºC, with temperature change to approx. 800 ºC. With enterprise in carbon dioxide steadily to 650 ºC.
After all well-known welding methods well weldable. It is alloyed with Ti as Karbidbildner and therefore kornzerfalIsbeständig in accordance with DIN 50914, so that independently of the cross section a thermal subsequent treatment is not after welding necessary. The material is characterised by good ductility. For machine cutting treatment only well polished tools are to be used, since otherwise a strong surface hardening takes place, which makes a further treatment more difficult.
- Nuclear power (also in liquid sodium), instrumenting in the reactor construction, chem. Apparatus engineering (very good corrosion resistance), z. B. Production of acetyl and nitric acid, heat exchanger, annealing furnaces, paper and textile industry, Erdölverarbeitung and Petrochemie, fat and soap industry, food trade, dairy and fermentation enterprises.
WNr. 1.4841 (X15CrNiSi25-20)
outstanding corrosion resistance. With enterprise in carbon dioxide haltiger atmosphere to 900 ºC applicable. Resistantly opposite fuming nitric acid with 20 ºC and melted nitrate up to 420 ºC in continuous operation at air to approx. 1150 ºC with temperature change to approx. 1000 ºC applicable. The use of the material within the range of 550 ºC to 850 ºC cannot be recommended for continuous operation, since it is inclined to the σ-Phasenausscheidung and becomes brittle therefore after cooling on blank.
The steel is suitable for fusion welding in the different arc procedures. A preliminary heating as well as a thermal treatment after welding are not necessary. Perfectly warmly and coldly processable. After warm and deformation at low temperatures a thermal treatment is recommended (1050 ºC-1100ºC, water or air cooling). The machine cutting treatment is easily feasible on use of high-quality tools and correct choice of the cutting speeds. The use of carbide tools is recommended.
- Anywhere, where the outstanding Zunderbeständigkeit is of advantage with at the same time high heat resistance. Because of the high never-content however sensitively to schwefelhaltige Ofengase, particularly in reducing atmosphere. Particularly: Power stations, oil and Petrochemie, building of furnaces, heat exchanger, air preheater, Zementöfen, brick kilns, glass production.
property ruggedness in relation to general corrosion and stress corrosion. In carbon dioxide limitation of use is about 500 ºC, since starting from 650 ºC the corrosion becomes strong. In flat steel bar. Sodium should not be used Alloy 600 above 750 ºC, since starting from this temperature material dismantling takes place. Outstanding Oxidationsbeständigkeit to approx. 1150 ºC. Not applicable above 550 ºC in schwefelhaltiger atmosphere. In water free from chlorine to 590 ºC usable.
After all well-known welding methods well weldable. Before welding should be glowed. Well soldering and hardsolderable. Very good ductility. As highly nickeliferous alloy Alloy possesses 600 mechanical characteristics very good at high temperature. Since around yield themselves, acts tough material, is facilitated the machine cutting processing, if the material is worked on not in the glowed but in the roll-hard condition.
- Standard work material for the building of pressurized water reactors, nuclear power, building of furnaces, Synthetikfaserherstellung, glass tub departures, plastic industry, paper trade, food processing, steam boiler, distillation columns, FIugmotoren.
- structural steel
- basic steel (sulfur and Phosphorgehalt max. 0.05%)
- High-grade steel (sulfur and Phosphorgehalt max. 0.045%)
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