Husserl is considered as a founder of the Phänomenologie, with their assistance it philosophy asstrict science (title of a writing by program of 1910/11) to justify searched. It is one of the most influential philosophers 20. Century.
Husserl demanded from philosophy to contain of rash world interpretations and adhere with the analytic view of the things to, which thatConsciousness (phänomenal) appears direct. Thus fallow it with the psychology mash, that saw the laws of the logic as a sign of the psychological conditions, prevailing around 1900, the objectivity impossible in principle made. It shone less than academic teacher, but philosophy ores in unusually high measure writing.About 40,000 sides are filled, the texts since 1950 gradually as Husserliana from the deduction are given change with its analyses. It had the largest influence for the existence philosophers Martin Heidegger, Maurice Merleau Ponty and Jean Paul Sartre . For the sociology particularly made Alfred contactor the Husserl beginning fruitfully. Among the modern philosophers, whom Husserl affected, still Emmanuel Lévinas ( 1906-1995) is to be called.
Table of contents
lives and work
as a second son Jewish cloth dealers - family in Prossnitz put Husserl down 1876 in the close Olmütz its maturity examination. Immediately thereafter it took the study of the astronomy, mathematics, physics and philosophy among other things in Leipzig with William Wundt up,which it continued 1878 in Berlin with the famous mathematicians Karl Weierstrass and Leopold Kronecker. it attained a doctorate to 1882 in Vienna with the Weierstrass pupil Leo Königsberger with the work of contributions to the variation calculation. According to philosophical studies with Franz Brentano, from which it became crucially lively,it went after 1886 resounds to the Brentano pupil Carl stump. With this it could habilitieren itself 1887 with one psychologically/mathematical work over the term of the number. Likewise, he left himself to 1887, briefly before its marriage ceremony likewise in Vienna as well as its from Prossnitzcoming engaged Malvine stone cutter Evangelist baptize. In was Husserl resounds then 14 years long as a private lecturer active.
With the philosophy of arithmetic (1891) Husserl excited the critical attention of the logician God praise Frege. Out of consideration on whose psychology mash criticism it placed up to the turn of the centuryextensive logical investigations on, those to its first Hauptwerk grew up and for the forty-two-year old 1901 a call to Goettingen brought in (first as more extraordinary, starting from 1906 tidy professor). Personally became it admits time of the 15 years in lasting Göttinger among other things with David Hilbert, Leonard Nelson, William Dilthey, max of Scheler, Alexandre Koyré and Karl Jaspers as well as the poet Hugo of Hofmannsthal.
1916 - in the middle in the First World War, which its son fell to the victim - began Husserl in Freiburg the follow-up of the Neukantianers Heinrich Rickert. Recommendedit had itself for this appointment with the ideas to a pure Phänomenologie and a phenomenological philosophy (1913). In the circle of the early pupils the idealistic idiom of this second Hauptwerks encountered meanwhile some lack of understanding. 1918 it created the free citizens phenomenological society. Its first Female assistant was the Jewess and later catholic nun Edith stone; it was replaced 1919 from Martin Heidegger, which appreciated time ( 1927) at the beginning „ of the century book “its and its most important teacher with the words:
- If the following investigation some steps forward goes into, then that thanks the development of the things themselves the author primarily Edmund Husserl, which made the author familiar during its free citizens Lehrjahre by urgent personal line and by freieste hiring of unpublished investigations with the most diverse areas of phenomenological research.
Husserls undertook some lecture journeys in its last life decade. They led it after (Amsterdam, Paris, Frankfurt/Main, Berlin, (Saale), Vienna , Prague resounds). Its third Hauptwerk the Krisis of the European sciences and the transzendentale Phänomenologie developed. In this late phase the term stood „for environment “in the center, with which it plans again a new beginning. Now he sees in the radically objectivistic View of the natural sciences the reason for the sense crisis of the modern trend, since it lost the purchase to the life.
The highly honoured Husserl (universities of Paris, Prague, London, bad clay/tone) got the inhumanity of the national socialism in the last years of its life to feel. It became to6. April 1933 by decree of Baden under rector sour gives time off. During the short Rektoratszeit of its pupil Martin Heidegger at the free citizens university, this decree for giving time off Husserls became to 20. July 1933 again waived. 1936 had the filter-and-seventy-year old however still the withdrawal of itsTraining power and further chicaneries experience; thus the married couple Husserl in the summer was driven out 1937 from the free citizens dwelling. The stenographic original version of the Husserliana stored there in security to bring succeeded 1939 in an adventurous action to the Belgian Franziskanerpater Herman Leo Van Breda, thenHusserl archives in lions based. It died to 27. April 1938 and was buried on the cemetery in the free citizen quarter Günterstal.
center thought and terms
realization is bound it to psychological and physiological processes, is identical however not to these. Outan empirically psychological sentence can a logical standard be never derived. Empirical sentences are probable and can be falsifiziert.Logic however is not subject to causality. Philosophy as science cannot commit itself therefore to the naturalism. Philosophy, theory of knowledge, logic and abstract mathematics are ideal sciences,their laws priori express ideal truths A.
Phänomenologie as if nature-look the giving should the conditionless basis of all knowledge be.
Intentionalität of consciousness: Intentionalität is the arrangingness of consciousness on an article (circumstances). There is no pure subject and no pure object (Noema), but bothare always connected by the act of the conscious becoming (Noesis), in which the articles are constituted. All document of consciousness and constitute at all only their articles are sense-donating. A consciousness-transcendental „actual “the things (like still with Kant) does not exist itself thus.
Phenomenological reduction: Around thatprotect nature content of an article to recognize, we must change our attitude to it. We must contain of any (pre) judgement opposite him. In order to approach an article accordingly, one must refrain from any theory, also the scientific. Only by elimination of all setting the world appearsin their actual structures. This to itself-take back called Husserl Epoché, and/or putting in parentheses.
The act, in which an article is directly given, is the kategoriale opinion. The given article as vermeinter article contains a surplus of Intentionalität beyond the purely sinnliche perception, howhe in words like „these “, „is “or „he “to the expression comes, which lie beyond the Sinnlichen.
Oath tables variation: The individual article is afflicted with eventuality. If I want to penetrate to its nature, I must seize the necessary in him. Nature laws make the sense oneArticle out. By variation of the characteristics of the article one finds out, what the nature-necessary is.
Truth is the full agreement of meaning and giving. The experience of the agreement is the evidence or intuition. Evidence in this sense is not a certainty experience, but the direct experience. Evidenceim Sinne Husserls ist korrigierbar, wenn sich im Nachhinein zeigt, dass die damalige Erfahrung nicht zutreffend war.
Oath tables reduction: From the neutrality won by the abstention it is now possible to advance to the nature of a thing, and/or „to the things themselves “. Now are onlystill the consciousness document the subject of the view. The existence of the article is transzendiert „“. Which remains, is „the absolute its region of consciousness “. With this to oath tables reduction succeeds one nature-look, which shows us, how the world in consciousness assembles.
To closerExplanations see:Phänomenologie
- over the term of the number. Psychological analyses (1887)
- philosophy of arithmetic. Psychological and logical investigations (1891)
- logical investigations. First part: Prolegomena to the pure logic (1900)
- logical investigations. SecondPart: Investigations for the Phänomenologie and theory of the realization (1901)
- philosophy as strict science (1911)
- ideas to a pure Phänomenologie and a phenomenological philosophy. First book: General introduction to the pure Phänomenologie (1913)
- lectures to the Phänomenologie of internal time consciousness (1928)
- Formal ones and transzendentale logic. Attempt of a criticism of the logical reason (1929)
- Mèditations of cartèsiennes (1931)
- the Krisis of the European sciences and the transzentale Phänomenologie: An introduction into phenomenological philosophy (1936)
- Husserliana. Collected works,published from the deduction of Husserl archives, lion
- collected writings, 8 volumes plus auxiliary volume (expenditure for study), Hg. by Elizabeth Ströker, Hamburg: My 1992
- Klaus hero (Hrsg.): Edmund Husserl. Selected texts
- Gisbert Hoffmann: Consciousness, reflection and I with Husserl. Freiburg/Munich: Karl talk nonsense publishing house 2001, ISBN 3-451-48050-1
- Husserl. Selected and presented by Uwe C. Steiner. Hrsg: Peter Sloterdijk. Munich: Diederichs 1997. (Philosophy now!), ISBN 3-424-01290-4
- Rollinger, R. D. (1999). Husserl' s position into the School OF Brentano Phaenomenologica150. Kluwer, Dordrecht.ISBN 0-7923-5684-5
- shoe man, K. (1977). Husserl - chronicle (thinking and life way Edmund Husserls) NUMBER I in Husserliana of documents Nijhoff, the Hague. ISBN 90-247-1972-0
- Smith, B. and Smith, D., editor (1995). The Cambridge Companion ton of Husserl Cambridge University press, Cambridge, ISBN 0521436168
- Peter Prechtl: Edmund Husserl for introduction, Hamburg: Junius, 1998, 2. Aufl., ISBN of 3885069814
- essays to Edmund Husserl since 1995
Web on the left of
| | * Literature of and over Edmund Husserl in the catalog of the DDB
- entry (inclusive Literature data) in Biographic-bibliographic church encyclopedia (BBKL)
- entry (English) in the Stanford Encyclopedia OF Philosophy (inclusive Literature data)
- entry into philolex
- Husserl Archives Leuven main archives in Leuven
- Husserl archives Cologne
- Husserl archives Freiburg
- Husserl archives at that new ones School (New York)
- Archives Husserl de Paris with the École normal supérieure, Paris.
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||philosopher, founder of the Phänomenologie|
|DATE OF BIRTH||8. April 1859|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Prostějov, Mähren (formerly Prossnitz), Tschechien|
|DYING DATE||27. April 1938|
|DYING PLACE||Freiburg in mash gau|