EDP pool of broadcasting corporations Beneš

Edvard Beneš
EDP pool of broadcasting corporations Beneš

EDP pool of broadcasting corporations Beneš /ˈɛdvartˈbɛnɛʃ/, sometimes also in German posting: Eduard (German also: Benes, Benesch or Beness written) (* 28. May 1884 in Kožlany with Pilsen as 10. Child of a Kleinbauern, † 3. September 1948 in Sezimovo Ústí with Tábor) was joint founder, minister of foreign affairs, head of the government and president of Czechoslovakia. It implemented among other things driving the Sudeten Germans out. Importantly in the public life also its brother Vojta Beneš table of contents

was

youth and study

it becameon the name Eduard baptized (as a child „Edek “mentioned), later it changed its names on EDP pool of broadcasting corporations. The posting Eduard/EDP pool of broadcasting corporations is uncertain also with other personalities, it occurs with Beneš also today both postings, whereby „EDP pool of broadcasting corporations “(anyhow with Beneš)in the Czech one as more correct applies.

After its study in Prague and in France (Paris, Dijon) Beneš worked first as a lecturer in sociology on the Karl university in Prague.

political activity during the First World War

During the First World War Beneš as well as others created the Czech-nationalistic movement of independence „Maffia “. Starting from 1915 it sat down (together with above all Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and the Slowaken Milan Rastislav Štefánik) from Paris for Czech andslowakische national efforts: It held lectures to the Slawentum by the Sorbonne and was joint founder and Secretary-General 1916 of the created Czechoslovakian national council (called at the beginning of briefly Czech national council).

With its commitment for the Czech thing obtained it and others in the spring1917 the list of own Czech slowakischer troops, the Czechoslovakian Legion in such a way specified. They reached that the Czechoslovakian national council was recognized 1918 of the Czechoslovakian state planned of France as exclusive representatives and a right to say with the negotiations to the contractfrom Versailles got.

With these negotiations Beneš interspersed that on the Sudetenland did not decide from US president the Woodrow Wilson represented right of self-determination of the peoples one used. Rather the area without popular vote of Czechoslovakia was attached. Efforts in the Sudetenland for oneAffiliation to the again created Republic of German Austria were prevented. The southern Sudetenland (Südmähren and Böhmerwald) bordered directly on Austria, the western and northern Sudetenland formed a gebirgigen land strip between Germany and Tschechien. But the affiliation of these areas onAustria and Germany were considered to French and British politicians as problematic and therefore of them were prevented. After the decay of the Danube monarchy at the beginning of November 1918 created provinces Deutschböhmen, Böhmerwaldgau, Deutschsüdmähren and Sudetenland, those their sovereignty within the framework German Austria explained, starting from in the middle of November 1918 until January Decembers 1919 completely by Czech troops were occupied and finally with military force dissolved.

minister of foreign affairs of the Czechoslovakia (1918 to 1935)

from 1918 to 1935 was Beneš continuously minister of foreign affairs thatCSR under president Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, 1935 he became its successor. 1921-1922 he was a head of the government.

Regarding the Czech slowakischen relations it counted with the prominent advocates of the Tschechoslowakismus.

Beneš was against the communist October Revolution in Russia 1917 and orientedthe Czechoslovakian policy as ministers of foreign affairs rather anti Soviet and neoslawistisch. It was itself however conscious of the necessity for co-operation with the USSR. After 1933 Hitler had come to power, Czechoslovakia recognized to 9. June 1934 under thatGuidance of Beneš (and with the agreement of France) the Soviet Union de jure as state on and closed 1935 a friendship treaty with it. Its western allied one, in particular France, was the present contract Treaty however suspect.

Benesch as president (1935until 1938)

When Hitler demanded the Sudetengebiete after the connection of Austria in March 1938 also, Beneš rigged against it and hoped for the support of England and France. In September 1938 Beneš in an internal letter fastenedits Minister Necas in Paris forwards to retire to Germany a part of the Sudetenlandes (approx. 5.000 of 28,000 square kilometers, i.e. approx. 18 per cent) and at the same time a large part of the German-speaking population remaining in Czechoslovakia (after Beneš rough computations about 2.2 millionsTo obligation-evacuate persons). England and France withdrew themselves however after initial promises. Was entitled to Hitler in the resident of Munich agreement the Sudetenland, in order to avoid a war.

After the resident of Munich agreement from September 1938 leaned Beneš a military assistance on the part of the Soviet Unionhowever as unrealistically and questionably off. (Until today discussed whether the offer at that time of the Soviet Union was sincere.)

to 5. October 1938 withdrew Beneš and flew some days later to London. He congratulated to its successor Emil Hácha brieflywhereupon to its choice.

Beneš in the Londoner exile

after some time as a private person in the exile created Beneš there in the year 1940 a government-in-exile and stressed again the office for president for itself. In the course of the Second World War Beneš becameof the allied ones finally again as a Czechoslovakian president recognition. He worked intensively now on the Wiederherstllung of Czechoslovakia within the borders before the resident of Munich agreement and as complete a driving as possible that out altogether 3.4 million Germans.

In one of Great Britainfrom sent broadcast speech Beneš explained to 27. October 1943:“In our country the end of this war with blood will be written. The German compassionless and multiplied all that to be paid back, which they committed in our countries since 1938.The whole nation will take part in this fight, it no Tschechoslowaken will give, which extracts itself from this task, and no Patriot will miss it to take fair revenge for suffering the nation. “

As the defeat of Germany in the east, signed he was foreseeable to 12. December 1943 in Moscow with Stalin a Czechoslovakian-Soviet assistance contract, which specified also a close co-operation in the post-war period. The Soviet Union became thereby a guaranteeing power of the Czechoslovakian state which can be restored. With this attendance became alsoas well as driving the Sudeten and Karpatendeut out agrees upon partial driving and expropriation of the 720,000 Hungary out in the Südslowakei.

the second presidency (1945 to 1948)

in May 1945 returned Beneš from the Soviet Union to its homelandand also actually again the office of the president took over. The creation of a uniform Czechoslovakian national state remained the trick and pivot of its political program. Immediately after its return to Prague it announced ring to an inspired quantity on the Altstädter: “Itwill be necessary…, in particular compromiseless the Germans in the böhmischen countries and the Hungary in the Slowakei completely to liquidate <in the Czech original: “vylikvidovat”>, as far as this liquidating is only possible in the interest of the uniform national state of the Czechs and Slowaken at all.Our password must be it, our country culturally to entgermanisieren economically and politically finally. “

To the Potsdamer conference (conclusion to 2. August 1945) tuned the three allied winner powers the USA, Great Britain and USSR of the transfer (“transfer”) of the east and Sudeten Germansin „normal and human way “too. The Beneš decrees in such a way specified did not only determine the partial nationalization of the Czechoslovakian economy. Also the Sudeten Germans should being expropriated like also the Hungary as „Kollaboranten and traitors “and unwanted Ethnien remunerationless. German, the 1938-45as citizens loyal to Czechoslovakia had confessed (as for instance the dramatist Franz Werfel) after the wording of the decrees from the expropriation and other repression measures have been excluded should, what however was kept only rarely.

In the consequence became approximately2,5 million humans, whose families lived for centuries in Böhmen , Mähren , Schlesien and also in the Slowakei, under often brutal circumstances abroad brought; 750.000 had already fled. In the process of this driving out it came to numerous massacres,for example the massacre of Prerau to 18. /19. May 1945, the massacre of Saaz of 4. to 7. June 1945, „the Brünner death march “starting from 31. May 1945 (to in the middle of June) and - as the last large public Gemetzelin the CSR - the massacre of Aussig to 31. July 1945.

In the year 1930 in the area of the today's Tschechiens 3.149.820 Germans had lived and further 160,000 in the Slowakei. After the Czechoslovakian census in the year 1950 were onlystill 159,938 Germans in the today's Tschechien and about 10,000 in the Slowakei.

To 25. February 1948, already seriously ill, accepted Beneš under pressure the resignation offer of the not-communist Ministers and made thereby the seizure of power possible by the communists. In Mayit refused the signature to 1948 under the new condition, to 2. June 1948 it withdrew.

Its successor became Klement God forest.


 

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