Ego Shooter

as Ego Shooter (lat. ego „I “; English. more shooter „contactors “; this German word is a Scheinanglizismus, it existed thus in English not) or roofridge person Shooter (FPS) one designates a category of the computer games, with that

  1. the representation of one freelyaccessible, three-dimensional play world via the eyes of a human (or humanoiden) player character, thus in Egoperspektive (I perspective) takes place, and
  2. the play process is in particular coined/shaped by the fight with different firearms against a multiplicity of different opponents and/or. Monsters.

The two are fundamentalTo differentiate play modes single players and multi-players. During the single player mode the player within a narrativen framework by a fixed consequence of scenes leads and by the actions of the player (fight, investigation of the environment and solution of environment-based tasks of mystery) a kind more interactivelyHistory is unfolded, acts it with the different variants of the multi-player mode around a virtual sporty play, with several players over Internet or over a network together-finds itself around itself in group fights, duels or crew plays to measure with one another.

The original play mode is the single player, since Doom for most Ego Shooter multi-player modes developed and finally came out also pure Mehrspieler Egoshooter as for example Quake III arena or unreal Tournament .

Over the years the category of the Ego Shooter has itself increasinglyout-differentiated, so that Sub category developed. The tactics Shooter in such a way specified turns away from the fast skill-based Gameplay of the classical Egoshooter and integrates strategic aspects, with which the fighting requires careful planning. Creep Shooter make the secret and quiet procedure in place of openFight to the play principle. Into the opposite direction Arcade so mentioned Shooter, which stresses fantastic environments of mass fights against hordes/hurdles of monsters in produces, goes with which reaction speed first place stands.

Although one the Egoperspektive also with flight simulators and, Does not rank it finds the characteristic, which is missing human or manlike shape of the play figure, substantial for a Ego Shooter, to plays with other vehicles not among the category of the Ego Shooter, there them.

See also: Third person Shooter

table of contents

history of the Ego Shooter

can only heavy be determined, which play the first Ego Shooter was, since before the center of the 1990er years still no firm category had developed here. Onethe oldest plays, which shows typical elements of a Ego Shooters, that is 1984 of Lucasfilm Games (today LucasArts) for Atari 8-bit and Commodore 64 produced The Eidolon. 1987 appeared Midi Maze for the Atari sp, that those today- functionality anticipated very popular multi-players. In the form, as it admits today is, the category was prepared by ID software with the title Catacomb Abyss. This appeared 1991 and contained many substantial elements, also in the following plays the theseKind to find were. Admits became Egoshooter however only by wolf stone 3D (1992) and particularly by Doom (1993), which were likewise developed both by ID software. Doom provided the break-through for the category and brought ID software (and in the special John Carmack and John Romero) a legendary call. Many basic elements of the Egoshooter Gameplays, which is to today standard, introduced by Doom, so for example own ammunition types for each weapon (in wolf stone there was still unit ammunition). Since thisTime is strongly connected with the history of the Ego Shooter the history of the company ID software. Differently than sometimes stated, none of ID Softwares plays of the game of roles Ultima Underworld was affected.

Starting from this time a multiplicity of Ego Shootern arosethe market. 1994 appeared giant OF the Triad, which were planned originally as successors of wolf stone 3D, and 1996 Duke NUKEM 3D of 3D Realms. Differently than with the preceding Ego Shootern, with a nameless player character by thatPlayer was filled out, in order to achieve a larger immersion, arose to Duke NUKEM for the first time than an independent character, by becoming apparent by spoken, ironical comments during the play process.

In addition in the same year, thus 1996, appeared Quake of ID software and led the category on the next level: For the first time not only the level was represented - architecture, but also all play figures, articles and weapons three-dimensional with help of a 3D-Schnittstelle (OpenGL). This was not optically more addressing only, butopened also spielerisch a new dimension. The Quake engine permitted for the first time a really complex architecture: during in the preceding Engines only senkrechte of walls not one above the other possible were and itself two areas, but to find, could only next to each other now also diagonal surfaces could and arbitrarily übereinandergeschachtelte space constructions to be realized. In further consequence about 30% all Ego Shooter were based on Quake technology or can to these be attributed in the next years. Quake was besides one of the first plays of which already on delivery a comprehensive multi-player functionality , TCP/IP connections exhibited was at that time rather rarely to be found, with priority by the plays slow modem-modem, serial Laplink or IPX/SPX connections was supported at best. The door was far up-pushed by TCP/IP for the first time to the Internet a gap. Owing to the modular structure of the engines (3D-Modelle,) The player could change sound data, Scripte/key assignments for the first time also without extensive programming knowledge its play easily - modifications already were in times of the first Doom - part well-known and also usually, but with the simple structure the Quake engine gave here it to onefirst large boom of new modifications, which were transferred since then also to very many other Egoshootern than play modes, as for example Capture the flag, Rocket arena or the class-based team Fortress.

Expressed during so far mostly dark horror and Science Fiction scenarioswhen background were used, 1998 unreal inspired many players by an often fairy tale-detention-beautiful Setting and a level Design, which set graphically and of the Monumentalität and size of the landscapes and architectures new yardsticks ago. Likewise 1998 appeared would help-run, thatby skillful merging of acting characters in geskripteten scenes the development the story in the play on a new level brought. This development continued, and so one finds far in many later plays such as Doom 3 or Cryan atmosphere, which a motion picture film the close comes. Also the Modding - scene won through would help-run a further large upswing. At the same time the multi-player functions continued to gain significance, which was promoted also by a user friendly „Ingame Serverbrowser “. Counter Strike places at present the most well-knownMulti-player play of the tactics Shooter and leads its existence on one would help-run - Mod back.

In the second half of the 1990er slowly further subclasses of Ego Shootern began themselves to develop. Thus one differentiates now particularly between Taktikshootern, pure Mehrspieler Shootern, Action Adventures and still manyfurther sub-groups. In addition there is in the meantime a multiplicity at scenarios, in which the plays are settled and which often process suggestions from the literature and the film. From Fantasy, over Science Fiction up to the time of the world wars is everythingrepresented.

2004 brought the German software company Crytek with FarCry back to something momentum in the category. The Cry engine permitted it to represent enormous external areas with none to only short intermediate loading procedures. FarCry set also for the first time reliably trees with sheets, speaks tropical rain forests, with closeStature and Unterholz in scene. In the level Design consciously to nonlinear elements importance was attached, by making different ways to the player available in many situations to the next goal. Besides the sand box editor was provided, a map editor with which one maps directly in3D to provide would know - so far it was only possible with reason to work up and cross tear and a small 3D-Vorschau - FarCrys sand box editor is as it were the first WYSIWYG - editor for complex 3D-Engines.

The publication of would help-run 2 in November 2004is worth mentioning because of innovative handling the new physics engine. The physics engine predominantly which is based on Havok brought the interactivity in the play on a new stage and both in the fight and in some tasks of mystery was extensively used. Many new play modesdeveloped on the SOURCE engine, in particular the modification Garry's Mod represents here an outstanding example. In team-oriented play way the sense of the play consists no longer with priority to eliminate the opponent with force of arms but rather in a skill matchto strike with several disciplines.

criticism

to be repeated computer games and in particular Ego Shooter as a cause for extreme acts of violence mentioned of young people. Reason for it is on the one hand the explicit force representation, on the other hand however above all acts of violence like that School massacre of Littleton (20. April 1999) to the Columbine High School in Colorado, the USA or also the Amoklauf at the good mountain High School in Erfurt (26. April 2002). In both cases the assassins possessed Doom (school massacre of Littleton) and/or. Counter Strike (Amoklauf of Erfurt).This was called in controversies a discussion repeated of some parties as a cause of the acts of violence.

The connection between virtual force in computer games and material force is scientifically disputed thereby. The spectrum of the discussed effect goes from no effect over aggression increase/brutalizationup to the aggression dismantling (Katharsiseffekt). In newer recapitulatory investigations as for instance those the University of Bielefeld or the Canadian psychologist Jonathan Freedman it is pointed out that no direct, causal connection between medialer force representation (e.g. in Ego Shooter plays or so mentioned„Splatter films “) and act of violence is recognizable. However to a large extent agreement exists there that force representations are connected with an effect risk, i.e. with certain groups or individuals these can in connection with other factors (e.g. social or family surrounding field; Prädisposition) tooincreased ready for violence shank or aggressive behavior lead. Whereby the role appears comparatively subordinated to the medialen force thereby. Many players do not see aggression promotion by such plays.

The discussion of the prohibition of such „force wonderful that plays “- Bayerns Minister of the Interior Günther Beckstein coined/shaped thatTerm „killer plays “- persists until today. In this discussion Beckstein had expressed itself 2002 for an absolute rental business and production prohibition force wonderful that films and computer games. , The current regulations to the youth medium protection, decided thereafter, stepped at the 1. April 2003into force. In your coalition contract the CDU/CSU/SPD coalition announced in November 2005 a legislative initiative to the prohibition „to force wonderful that cultural properties “.

The

Eidolon (1984)

further one well-known Ego Shooter

sorts Aliens

see also: Category: Ego Shooter

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