Before

as marriage (v. old-high-German: ewa = contract, quite-linguistically hist. Konnubium) one designates a socially recognized and partnership, traditionally seen mentioned by man and Mrs., strengthened by (on the right of) rules , spouse or also married couple. The term “marriage” becomesincreasingly also for same sex pairs in Europe related, which go to the register office. The Ethnologie names an institutionalized economic and reproduction community between two or more persons of different sex (necessarily do not resemble right) marriage conventionally, their common children throughthe marriage become legitimate. The condition of the different sexualness is not universally recognized however any longer; the Netherlands, Belgium, Canada or Spain, in addition, Germany (although under other designation) do not know them (more) or only limited, in the USA giveit - contested violently - efforts in this direction. In article 143 of the official German version of the Belgian civil code it means now: „Two persons of different or same sex can die a marriage. “

Far one calm always covers a marriage a kindpublicly (often religiously) recognized contract, as well as economic rights and obligations between the persons concerned, who are regulated by the present Treaty. The more exact modalities of the contract as well as its coming off depend to a considerable degree on the respective culture and society. Inmany, especially patrilinearen societies has the marriage also the function of the security of a certain legitimate hereditary line. In the modern western world a marriage causes the legal obligation for mutual material supply.

The marriage begins with handing a document out throughnationally assigned institutions. In Germany and most European Union states that is the register offices, but into some countries also religious communities are directly responsible. The documentary preparation (descending document, etc.) for this legal instrument takes usually only few weeks; in cases, wheredifferent juridical systems to be concerned (e.g. in the case of binational marriages), it can last however substantially longer.

The marriage ends by divorce, abolition, declaration of nullity or with the death of a partner. The wait phase up to the divorce is legal as at least inYear (Canada) in addition, continuously defined, can cover a multiple of it (Switzerland 2 years, Germany 3 years etc.). Obligations of the partners beyond the duration of the marriage regulate national laws completely differently (the VR China e.g. knows. no obligations). Obligationsfor common children of the marriage consist almost everywhere. Although there are complex global agreements for the dissolution of the marriage, the often incompatible national procedures of dissolution of marriage for the rapidly increasing number of binational marriages save substantial risks. - The catholic view of marriage however knowsno divorce, but only one declaration of nullity. A catholic marriage can be explained under certain conditions for futile, i.e. it did not exist then from the outset. Criticism at the “lifelong concept” came for example from the Spanish poet Cervantes; he suggested,to limit the marriage from the beginning on three to five years, according to which it, like other contracts also, could be terminated or extended.

In the conception of the general moral value of the marriage to today in principle few changed, howthe national preference and subsidization of the way of life marriage on all levels, embodied in the German Basic Law, occupy. In fact unmarried pairs are only in few countries married (nearly), for example on an equal footing in Scandinavia and in the Netherlands.

Table of contents

the history of the marriage

of the Poly to the Monogamie

over the beginnings the “marriage” on this side of the animal people transition field we know empirically nothing,even interpretable grave finds of the archaeology go back so far not so far.

Older social evolutionists proceeded from a linear evolution of the pair connections among humans: At the beginning of mankind Promiskuität prevailed, itself afterwards to the group marriage and finally over the Polygamie to Monogamie would have developed. After this opinion the Monogamie was regarded as culturally the most highly standing marriage form. After same logic (a later development places inevitably a “higher” development form) the today's divorce rate would have likewise as “the higher” form of the marriage regardedbecome, compared with the earlier rule form of a lifelong marriage. The few the older social evolutionists draw however this conclusion from such teleologischen logic.

Monogam living peoples seem to have been common in pre-Christian time few (after Tacitus 'writings were the Teutons with its a marriage an exception among the barbarians of the antique ones, whereby there in addition, a “three-marriage” was Polyandrie in the Germanic culture area, which was relatively late abolished only by the catholic church). Also today strict Monogamie actually places practicingSocieties a minority under the human cultures. There is only few societies well-known, in which were practiced to Polygynie and Polyandrie at the same time (see group marriage and pseudo's group marriage). Particularly by the expansion of monotheistischer religions, the successful propagation of European standards andValues since that 15. Century, and the Christian Missionierung the Monogamie in many regions of the world became the prevailing marriage form. But the Monogamie was not an obligation in the old Judentum and is in the contemporary Islam.

The marriage ceremony was probably primarya peace and an alliance contract between kinships, and - by means of often complicated Exogamie - and Endogamieregeln - as link between clan or Phratrien. It applied since the antique one also as a precondition for the beginning of a family, asComponent of a community and the society was regarded. Thus the installation of the marriage served not only the interests of two individuals or their children, but also the purposes of religious and lay elite. (Into the modern times inside was z. B.in the high aristocracy the “marriage to the left hand” without legitimacy and vomit the children after the father possible.)

most recent time

those meanwhile somewhat more liberal sexual practice in the culture of the western modern times, as well as the relative simplicity of divorce within the samenational juridical system and remarrying to a rise in such a way called of the serial Monogamie led. To separate from (before) a partner to to do in order to live with the next, has vordergründig neither with Polygamie nor with Promiskuität. However are it shown therebyoften samples, which resemble with the Polygamie dominant the samples - for instance the marriage of a man with a very much more younger, above all outwardly attractive woman than “Trophäe” toward end of a particularly successful vocational career of the man.

Since that 19.Century alternative groupings the group marriage practiced, in which all adults of members were married with one another (see Oneida). In still recent time, i.e. together with the Queer movement and the Bi-movement developed, beginning in the USA and here for the region over San Francisco, which Polyamory subculture, in which durable nichtmonogame and concerted dear relations between several partners is maintained. Belonging one of this subculture today probably gives it in all west and to southEuropean countries.

Inzesttabu

all well-known civilizations have in different degree alwaysthe marriage with blood relatives tabuisiert, in particular between parents and its children. Nearly all peoples forbid the marriage between brother and sister. Often one forbids also the marriage between related second degree. Many peoples imposed upon themselves, so further restrictionsthe marriage with persons of same surname or with persons with the same animalanimal animal. See in addition also the article marriage rules.

An exception formed old Egypt, where the marriage between brother and sister in the family of the Pharaowas permitted; this privilege was refused to the people and could have served to concentrate power and vitality in a family (see also Inzest).

The consequence of the Inzesttabus is more exogamer after demand, that on another groupreferred marriage. Ethnologen stress, the Inzesttabu serve thus for which social co-operation to promote (see. Affinity).

Endogamie

certain religious communities, social groups and peoples promote also the marriage within a certain group (Endogamie) and request, someoneto marry from the own rows. Also racistic laws of the past, which connections of different race members sought to forbid, can be regarded as examples of Endogamie.

Divorce - marriage contract

many societies know the procedure of the divorce for the completion of the marriage.The acknowledgment of the divorce is differently regulated in different world views.

Regarding national juridical systems the possibility exists of locking a marriage contract which can however not at the same time attain validity then in other juridical systems. The present Treaty documents and. A. the agreements thatMarriage partner concerning the consequences a divorce. In the German juridical system it is usual that marriage contracts contain regulations to the topics:

the regulations over increase reconciliation seem to increase reconciliation supplying reconciliation maintenance during maintenance regulations also in other juridical systems of of the respective juridical systemintended conjugal law of property off (a condition for an increase reconciliation is that the form of the increase community admits is), as well as of the possibilities of the respective social system (a condition for a supplying reconciliation is a legal old age pension insurance o. A.).

Sociological and psychological components

from religious, sociologicaland psychological reasons has a promise to the marriage before friends, the family and the public - for which the witnesses at the marriage and the priests and/or. Registrars of births, marriages and deaths stand - a special weight. Similarly an oath before witnesses therefore the mutual promise hasa married couple as a rule a larger load-carrying capacity than a completely private (sometimes not at all definitely expressed) decision.

Under the term married couple is summarized often special confidenceness and goods community of the partners (a deep understanding of the conjugal law on property, which evenly instead of Goods community the increase community plans, available), on the other hand today also often is with the predominant majority of the married people not the danger of narrowing, cooling off love or divorce. The increasing view on negative aspects has on the one hand with increasing reservations against close connectionsto do, on the other hand with social developments and liberties.

Married couples, which are gladly married, look for and find in the favorable case in the run the time their own in each case balance between personal liberty and solidarity. Such an (variable) equilibrium permits free contacts afteroutside, retaining an own friend circle and the care of common contacts.

With increasing confidenceness (in addition, by disappointments and crises) special forms of communication within the verbal, nonverbalen and sexual range develop. They are important, around to the possible dangerto meet creeping “growing silent”. Also the balance between security and change, between habits and new one is to be analyzed in the discussion repeatedly.

Before and extensive

rules for the marriage know religion many religious communities.

Christianity

eastern-orthodox churches

in the eastern-orthodox churchesist die Ehe eines to der Mysterien. It is donated by the priest. A special rite is thereby the coronation/culmination of the bride people. The orthodox churches permit in emergency one or even two divorces, the celebration to the remarrying are however less festiveas to a first marriage ceremony; it outweighs the thought of the penalty. Before a third marriage even a whole bus year is required. More than three marriages may be closed in principle of none, except the “church court” decide in reverse.

Roman-catholic church

those Roman-catholic doctrine knows in principle two kinds of marriages: the sakramentale and the natural.

Sakramentale marriage

the marriage between two baptized Christians is after catholic teachings one of the seven Sakramente. The partners donate each other the Ehesakrament. As substantialCharacteristics of the marriage are seen unit (Monogamie) and indissolubility. A marriage is valid only if it is closed according to the church regulations, inquires the clergyman in presence of two witnesses the marriage consent. In the case of a mixture-denominational connection between oneCatholics and a non--catholic can be married with a special permission (dispensation). The marriage between two non-catholic Christians is likewise regarded as sakramental. The valid closed sakramentale marriage becomes only unsolvable by (at least unique) the sexual execution.

The married people,the marriage carried out closed in one sakramental sexually and are connected, can (“of table and bed”) separate, but a divorce (dissolution of the marriage volume) is not possible. Church again to marry knows itself only that, its earlier marriageby the death of the partner any longer does not exist. Further marriages after the death of the partner are different than permissible with the orthodox ones in arbitrary number. If by the catholic church as elementarily regarded conditions for marriage for the time of the marriage ceremony notwere given, then it is possible the invalidity of the marriage of a church court determine to let (marriage cancellation). With the cancellation the church recognizes that the marriage, in this case Putativehe mentioned, due to the missing conditions of beginningon was invalid.

The civil wedding is in many countries, e.g. also in Germany the condition for a catholic marriage ceremony. It does not concern however an internal condition. The state becomes only a competence for the purely civilTo decide legal consequences of the marriage contract (on behalf of and professional ethics, conjugal law on property and vomit) been entitled and the right with disputes over it. As far as the national legislation and iurisdiction spread into the competence of the church, they are not recognized by the church. The civilMarriage ceremony does not become therefore as conclusion of a real marriage, but when a bureaucratic-legal formality regards.

Natural marriage

each marriage between a baptized and ungetauften person and/or. two ungetauften persons, not as a sakramentale but as natural marriage one regards. Onevalid closed, natural marriage is dissolvable also after the church right under certain conditions under recourse to of the Paulini privilege or the Petrini privilege to favour of the faith.

Protestant churches

for the Protestant churches in Switzerland and in Germany is thosecivil marriage ceremony a legal condition for the church wedding. In the church wedding it concerns here the Zuspruch of the word of God and the Segnung of the conjugal partnership. The wedding not regarded in Protestant churches as Sakrament, nevertheless becomesaccording to the most agendarischen defaults and nationalchurch orders a mutual, before God and the municipality testified promise removed. Also divorced ones it can church be trusted for which however the orders of the regional churches a detailed seelsorgerliche consultation - in particular due to the obviously brokenpreceding marriage promise - recommend and/or. prescribe is.

In the Anglikanismus the marriage is not understood likewise as Sakrament, since it was not used by Christ. However a sakramentaler character is awarded to the marriage rite, since it is an outwardly visible indicationand means to the grace. At present there is an alive discussion within the Anglikanismus over it whether the marriage is to remain further limited to heterosexual pairs. Also in some regional churches of the EKD Segnungszeremonien for same sex pairs are developed and accomplished. Those Metropolitan Community Church segnet already for decades in services same sex as also different-sexual marriages.

Buddhismus

in the Buddhismus is strengthened the marriage neither nor advised against. It is however taught, how one can spend a lucky marriage.

Hinduismus

of the Hinduismusa holy task in the marriage, which entails religious and social obligations, sees.

The intimate areas of life are separate Islam after Islamic understanding from marriagable women and men in principle; the marriage is the only place, into this separationlegitimate-proves is waived. The Koran recommends the marriage with this background to a considerable degree; it helps among other things for mental perfection and is gladly seen therefore. Each mash lima and each Muslim, which are to the marriage able, should tryto follow. Hereunder applies the Monogamie as preferential, Polygamie on the part of the man is ungerne seen, but permitted. The permitted Polygamie is among other things by circumstances at that time during the wars (lack of recruits) causes. If the relatively rare Polygamie occurs, then everyone must Both their own household made available financial means get and wife, which the woman can have freely. General is to be provided the married man in a forced manner both for the equal rights and for equal treatment all his wives, whichit is often very heavy why the Polygamie also Islamic ungerne is seen. Besides Muslims are generally commit themselves to valid laws of the country to hold in which them live, if these not in the contradiction to the principles of the Islamstand. Muslims in Germany and other countries, in which the Polygamie is not permitted, are also Islamic seen not entitled to the Polygamie thus.

A divorce is Islamic legitimized, however not gladly seen. Divorced women and men experience i.d.R. no disadvantagesand/or. these should not experience, from cultural and/or. this can occur to tradition-in accordance with-eaten reasons however in particular with divorced women.

Judentum

orthodox Jew is very important the marriage, because they believe that a man has the task, its second half, thus thoseTo find woman. It maintains the Reformjudentum, the marriage is likewise important to which, however that it is not alone the task of the man to find a woman but also in reverse. For both the marriage ceremony is a large Mitzwa and becomesas one of the largest and most important life decisions for both partners regards.

Before today in Germany

to end 18. Century was the marriage ceremony excluding thing of the churches. The influence of the French right (see. Code civil) favoured the civil marriage, becauseinto many territories in western Germany French person condition right was used. To first completely independent German individual-legal laws it came only into the 1850er years (Frankfurt, Oldenburg and. A.). The first civil wedding accomplished in Oldenburg took place 1855 in Varel. Married at that time the Baptistenprediger August Friedrich William Haese and Meta container. Straight “these simmering ducks” like it, which none of the large denominations at that time belonged and to which at some places a legally recognized church marriage ceremony was refused, carried for the introduction and penetration for thatCivil marriage.

When consequence of culture fight and the later realm concordat the national register offices became imported, in which the marriage is closed independently by a world-descriptive confession (civil marriage). A church marriage ceremony may additionally, however only after the civil-legal marriage ceremonytake place. Because of the freedom of religion and there religious ceremonies by the state anyway not as legally binding to be recognized, can be discussed the condition conformity of this determination of the law on registration of births marriages and deaths. In Austria a purely church marriage ceremony is not easily possible and has anyLegal consequences.

The national socialism distorted the civil marriage to the state a completely useful institution. It forbade “rassische mixed marriages” by a marriage law, separated frequently such marriages and promoted “clean-race-triumphs” reproduction for the State of (hereditary health law).

The constitutional arrangement of theKind. 6 Basic Law after the Second World War can be understood also before this background: The marriage stands under the special protection of the state, but their core range is extracted its direct access. To the today's form applies for the marriage basiclegallythe example of the equal rights. In the marriage right of the BGB this was converted not already 1949, but in several steps since 1953. Important points were:

  • Abolishment of the right to one-sided determination of the residence by the man
  • abolishment of the necessity thatConsent of the man for the gainful employment of Mrs
  • civil concerning regulations business with third, which one would classify today as partial incapacitating of the woman.
  • Elimination of the classical role model of male gainful employment and female welfare service for the new generation from the law book, flanks me oneEqualization of both sexes in view to the industrial law.

Regards one the changes in the definition of the marriage in view to mutual rights and obligations of the marriage partners in such a way becomes a development away from historical model of a contract, that the protection of theState had, to simple information, with a required consideration name (right to refuse to give evidence) by the state, clearly. 1950 applied:

  • The marriage was a contract on lifetime, was bound for which with a code of practice, as the partner is to be treated.
  • Onlyif a partner did not keep this code of practice, the other partner could require the dissolution of the marriage. Only so long, as by renewal of the marriage by the sex act the failure was not erased.
  • If the marriage was terminated, then had inBreak code of practice incurring the loss all civil requirements against the contract-faithful partner to the consequence.
  • The marriage was criminally protected by the criminal offence existence of adultery.
  • The marriage was civilly in as much protected as adultery the marriage prohibition after a possible culpableDivorce to the loving/Gelieber pulled.
  • The marriage was the publicly documented free decision into the sexual combination of the parties.
  • Only conjugal descendants were entitled to inherit from both parents.
  • With not-conjugal descendants the father had the obligation, for living costs alsoto arise, however neither handling nor attendance right had to financial means.

The marriage at the end of the development looks however in the comparison as follows:

  • The marriage can become on one side after 3 years divorced, or other one formulates: The contract is only 3 yearsobligatorily and extends sliding. This Autoprolongierung can be interrupted by one-sided terminating of the contractual behavior at any time, without indication of reasons. After 3 years the marriage on request is terminated by divorce - the other partner consents,the divorce can take place also after one year.
  • The behavior of individual partners regarding their “conjugal obligations” is with the civil consequences of the dissolution of the marriage without each importance, as long as no breach of law comes also into the play (hardness drop divorce). A marriage contract can reduce this, the regulations here is however borders set.
  • Adultery is no more sanctioned criminal offence existence with the consequence that z. B. Side jump agencies publicly advertisement for your services to make can. In addition belong a suitable by mediating andconsent partner up to arranging alibis; everything which the side jump pleasant and safe makes.Prostitution is not also more immoral, although a majority of the customers might be married.
  • The marriage crusher respectively the Ehebrecherin can after the divorce marriedbecome.
  • By the introduction of the rape in the marriage the marriage is connected to no more with a general consent into the sexual combination.
  • The descendants have the same rights independently of the legal relation of their parents.
  • Nichteheliche of fathers have to a large extent the sameRight one and obligations like divorced.

Spouses are granted economic advantages like for example the income tax rate for married couples with the computation of the income tax. The income tax rate for married couples brings however economic advantages only if the incomes of the spouses differ from each other. In response becomesthe individual requirement for social welfare assistance each individual against the state by the absolute mutual claim for alimony of the marriage partners first-rate on the partner shifts. Because of its incentive to the “housewife marriage” is criticized the income tax rate for married couples by representatives of the toolism. Further advantages such as confidence and mutual suggestionby different groups are promoted (Marriage Encounter, family works from political or world-descriptive side and others). Was lost however, like the state between married people to the increased confidence to contribute can or is, except by the right to refuse to give evidence already existing.

InGermany at the 1. August 2001 legally introduced registered life partnership extended the concept of the information of an existing partnership by the state on same sex partners and brings therefore all legal and social obligations of a marriage with itself, however at present only some offerstheir advantages. In the tax law, official right and adoption right the Upper House of Parliament agreed so far no equalization.

The form of the marriage is selected ever more rarely since longer from pairs to the organization of its living together. While still 388,000 pairs married 2002 in Germany, was therein the year after only 383,000, which corresponds to a decrease of 1,4 per cent. Many pairs commit themselves today without marriage certificate in a life partnership or are received to partnerships and dear relations with smaller commitment. This can partly with that social changing values,in addition, with the decreasing/going back interdependence of the partners to be explained, which by the better training and larger economic independence are caused by women. But some family sociologists refer to the fact that before that 19. Century the situation was statistically similar, andthat the social meaning of the “marriage” is not therefore necessarily reduced.

See also: It exhibits

marriage right marriage today in Belgium, the Netherlands, Canada,

Spain these countries the characteristic that both different and same sex pairs the marriage can be received. Inthe Canadian province Ontario it is necessary to request before the marriage, a license from the local administration to. With the license it is then possible, before an official of the city administration, for a judge, to be received or a recognized religious figure the marriage.

Before today in Mexico

it is possible in Mexico without parental agreement to marry at present, if both partners are at least 18 years old. With parental agreement brides can be 16 years old 14, bridegrooms. It is not necessary that oneor both partners in Mexico are resident; their identity and residence status must prove it however. Civil marriages can be worked on for foreigners in Mexico relatively briskly; Marriage partners, who possess the Mexican nationality, must wait however for the fact that the agreement of the Secretariade Gobernación is caught up, a Prozedere, which can take several months. At the time of the marriage the pair must make a declaration to the selected law of property (goods community, separation of property). In the case that one or both partners was already married must either the certificate of deaththe past partner are present or the divorce papers, which must be certified under the “Apostille minutes”. These papers must be also officially on Spanish translated or issued. Furthermore a waiting period of one year exists after validness of a divorce. Four must A witness with the wedding present its, which must likewise prove itself.

Strange

in the Spanish language is identical the term for wives and the term for handcuffs - read esposas. Clearly that this circumstance a popular hanger for jokes is.

Before today in Saudi Arabia

the law on registration of births marriages and deaths giving Saudi Arabia is based on the Islamic law, the Shariah. This favours patriarchale structures. The marriage is understood not as Sakrament, but as civilian contract. The present Treaty is of witnesses signedbecome, and specifies a certain sum of money (more), which is to be paid from the man to the woman. (The same sex marriage does not occur in Saudi Arabia due to the prohibition of the Homosexualität.) into the early 1990er years amounted tothe value average more of an s between 25.000 and 40.000 Saudi riyals; occasionally it occurred however that pairs completely rejected the custom more of the s, and used a nominal amount, in order to fulfill the formal conditions of the Saudi marriage laws.The marriage contract can specify also a certain sum, which is to be paid in case of a divorce, or determined other conditions specify, e.g. to assure the right of the woman, to be separated to be able in the case that the man a second womanmarries. If such or similar agreements do not exist, only the man can introduce a divorce. In the case of divorce children with their father remain, so that a woman can be separated from her children when desired the man.

Before today in the Vatikanstaat

In Vatikanstaat is the marriage a rare Personenstand, since most inhabitants in the Zölibat live. There are nevertheless many foreign pairs, which want to marry in the Peter cathedral. In order to be allowed to do this, they must submit both national and church papers before,and - if one the partner US citizens actual with a priest of the church of the holy Susanna in Rome have an interview, which are responsible for the US-American foreign municipality in Rome.[1]

Before today in the USA

the US-American marriage rightby the individual Federal States one regulates. That results in a complex patchwork of different laws of divorce and goods. As a kind contract between the two married people marriages, which are closed in a Federal State, are recognized also in other Federal States. An exception for thisare same sex marriages; here it permits the Defense to OF Marriage act from 1996 that the federation and the individual states are not obligated to the acknowledgment of these marriages. Since this law does not have condition rank, like the regulation over mutual acknowledgementfrom contracts, it is at present disputed whether it is condition conformal. Only in the Federal State Massachusetts can be entered at present legally marriages between same sex partners; these are recognized also only by the land and local authorities of the State of Massachusetts, as well as in foreign states,the same sex marriages permit.

Many effects of the marriage, z. B. during the assessment to the federal income tax, or with migration questions, by the federation are regulated. To 1967 marriages between humans of different race did not become certified in all US Federal States. In this year that condemned Supreme Court the State of Virginia to recognize a marriage between a man, closed in the District OF Columbia, more European and a woman of African origin.

Before the marriage ceremony a marriage permission (marriage license) must be requested. Only by it the marriage becomes legalrecognized. In the USA the religious and the legal ceremony can take place for marriage ceremony at the same time. If the marriage is closed by a clergyman, it can act at the same time as a registrar of births, marriages and deaths and set the marriage with it also legally into force. This requiresthe signing of marriage permission. A purely religious ceremony is not recognized by the law.

Literature

for the topic of bad marriages:
Marriage à-la-mode
William Hogarth 1745
  • Marianne webers: Wife and nut/mother in the right development. Tübingen 1907.
  • Dieter Schwab: Bases and shape of the nationalMarriage legislation in the modern times up to the beginning 19. Century. Bielefeld 1967.
  • Klaus Jürgen Matz: Pauperismus and population. The legal restrictions of marriage in the South German states during 19. Century. Stuttgart 1980.
  • Arne Duncker: Equality and inequality in the marriage.Personal position of woman and man in the right of the conjugal partnership 1700-1914. Cologne and others 2003.
  • Josef Prader/Heinrich J.F. Pure hard: The church marriage right in seelsorglichen practice. Ludgerus publishing house, meal 2001, ISBN 3-87497237-2
  • Carl Heinz Ratschow, Josef Scharbert, Zeev W. Falk,Bo Reicke among other things:Before/marriage right/divorce I. Religion-historically II. Old will III. Judentum IV. New will V. Old church VI. The Middle Ages VII. Reformation time VIII. Ethicalally IX. Practical-theologically. In: Theological material encyclopedia 9 (1982), S. 308-362 (culture-scientific and theological overview with Lit.)
  • Eberhard Straub: The fragile luck. Love and marriage in the change of the time. Wjs publishing house, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-937989-12-9

barking trichloroethylene TIC over the marriage is by far not as extensive numerously, although as over the love. Thus belong for example “Choice relative shanks “(Goethe 1809) or “the artist marriage” (Schefer 1828) to the pieces of gloss.

  • Felicitas of Lovenberg: Often fall in love you, get engaged you rarely, never marry? The longing after the romantic love. Droemer publishing house 2005, ISBN 3-426-27368-3

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