as incomes one designates colloquially regular incomes of a household. In the political economy the income represents both in the Mikroökonomie and in the Makroökonomie a central size for the measurement of the economic welfare . The income makes, over consumption today and a saving for a household possibleto increase in the future its prosperity. The term is used also in the tax law.

Table of contents

Economical income terms

incomes in the Mikroökonomie

as incomes the net assets entrance of a natural person or a household in the economical sense becomes within a certain period (in general. one calendar year and/or. one financial year) understood.

Income and net assets:The income exists in the difference of theNet assets at the end of the yearly to net assets at the beginning of the yearly plus during this time consumed.

  • Income = net assets (31.12) - net assets (1,1.) + consumption (1.1. to 31,12)

Earned income and unearned income: Earned income results from production or the exchange dependent on goods, achievementWork against pay and other requirements in a market. A capital income results from interest, dividends, incomes by rent and lease.

Transfer income: Transfer income one calls incomes, which is made available by the state or other institutions, without a concrete return takes place. (Example: Social welfare assistance, unemployment pay etc.) the counterpart in addition are payments of taxes and deposits for social security.

In addition, can be obtained by inheritance or donations income.

incomes in the Makroökonomie

in the Makroökonomie one considers the income for the measurement of the fortune entrances of a national economy cumulated (National income). For this is the income term in a whole set of sizes of the economical Gesamtrechnung (VGR). Over the distribution calculation the different income components can be computed. The two most important macro-economic sizes for the measurement of the income are

The income termbeyond that up dips in such a way z also into other VGR sizes. B.

income increases when being present

inflation not compellingly prosperity increases one draws , measures inflation clearing of the income there apart from (nominal) the income deduced above also that Real income.

Real income: The real income is a price-settled nominal income reduced by the monetary depreciation rate. The real income is determined, as the nominal income of a restaurant subject or a national economy is divided by a suitable price index. The real income is thus defined as an index; its absolute value has thus noneLogical value. The real income serves as indicator for the actual purchasing power of the income.

Example: With an inflation rate of 4% and an increase of the nominal income around 3% the real income sinks around 1%.

clearing of the income around taxes and deliveries

do not see to major item available income

the entire income can be used for welfare-increasing purposes, there a large part of the income z. B. by taxes and deliveries one uses. For this reason the available income considers only for consumption and/or. Save remaining parts of the income. Income and wealth taxes, performed social insurance contributionsand other current performed transfers are taken off for this from the income, received social insurance contributions and received current transfers are added.

fiscal income term

the Einkommensteuerrecht differentiates between incomes, an income, incomes and to paying duty income.
Income is the total amount of the income, decreased overthe extra charges and the unusual loads.


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