Ice art run

Amber Corwin with the beginning to the Bielmann Pirouette (2005)

the ice art run is a form of the ice run, with which it depends on the artful execution of jumps , Pirouetten and steps. There are international ice art run competitions, like e.g. World championship and ice art run is also an official disciplinethe olympic winter plays.

This sport is with looking business verwoben, as „great looks “, with that one the ice art runners not judged, and it became usual that at the end of some competitions a looking running takes place. Many ice art runners participate during and after their amateur career in it.

Table of contents

disciplines

ice art run is accomplished in four disciplines with international championships:

history

major items: History of the ice art run

“Ice skating Scene “ a picture of J. Baber for instance from that 19. Jh.

The cradle of the ice art run stood in Great Britain, the first match took place here 1814 . From here it spread in completely Europe and the USA . In the USA one added the ice art run still music and used dance and ballet elements.

During the trip into the ask-laminated of the kind of sport must one rather over ice run speaks, which divided only many later into two different sport disciplines, ice art run and ice high-speed run.

The first historical mentions of the ice run originate from Denmark 1134, which are oldest English knowledge in the year 1180 dated. Archaeological finds (from bone manufacturedIce skates) date the origin of the ice running in the bronze and Steinzeit.

One knows primitive beginnings already in the Netherlands in 13. and 14. Jh.finds, where the fitted edges of the Holzschuhe let simple elbows implement. In Holland ice skate running was a people pleasure, like the somePictures of the old persons masters testify, in another place were it only aristocracy privilege. The emperor Rudolf II. should a large Eiskarneval organize, which contributed unquestioned to the popularization these Kurzweil.

The development of the genuine ice art running caught however only in 18. Jh.on, there the skids the form of a curvegot, which made the execution possible of turns and complicated elements.

  • 1742 were created in Edinburgh the first ice run association of the world - Edinburg Skating club.
  • 1772 published Robert John the first ice art run manual „A treatise on skating “ in London .

ice-skating rinks and winter stages

the first ice-skating rinks were naturally the ponds and rivers. Preparation of the ice was however at that time quite difficult and climate conditions actually caused the direction, with which the ice run in the certain geographical region went. For example in annals of the philadelphiaschen Association, which was created 1848, one can find that to the equipment also some meters of the rescue rope belonged. In Canada against it thin ice was not the problem, but a snow mass. And in such a way in the year 1860 with large fame the first stadium in the country was considered.

1831in the dreamed, rebenumrankten Hernals (Vienna) stood the Syring Engelmann „k. k. nationalauthorized wax canvas and art wallpaper factory “, a sample place Viennese of taste and work diligence. For its relatives and friends the wax cloth manufacturer Eduard angel man senior, 1871, established a modest ice-skating rink on the garden ways of the factory and house area in the winter. Alwaysthe enterprise became larger, ever more spread the enterprise, until upper's building advice engineer, Eduard angel man, who ingenious inventors, 1931, from the hidden small ice-skating rink in the back garden an enterprise of highest sporty and technical call, which created first free air art ice-skating rink of the world!

Trading licence No. 20.997-871.

Preand surname: Eduard angel man

age: 36 years

residence: Hernals, when lane 8, again

has with the manufactured district captain shank to 30. November 1871 the start of the free occupation: using an ice-skating rink in its back garden in that locations, Hernals, when lane 8, again, announced, about what it, after theseRegistration registered into the trade register II, post office 840, is, to its authentication this trading licence is executed.

Hernals, the 16. December 1871. for the k. k. District captain: Hrliczka.


If one wants can one thus the 16. Decembers 1871 as date of birth of the sports field angel man lead;from this day on the regular ice run enterprise was taken up.


The first art ice-skating rink (lat. Glaciarium) was already built in London (Chalsea) in the year 1876. The development of further art ice-skating rinks was crucial for the following development of this sport.

  • The absolutely largest considered ice-skating stadium havethe Japanese in the year 1960 in Tokyo built. Its ice surface is 4000 m ² largely.
  • Also the largest free ice-skating rink, which was developed in the year 1967 and a surface of 15,400 m ² has, belongs to the Japanese.

We do not only find ice-skating stadiums nowadays in Canada, the USA, Sweden and in further European countries with hockey or ice art run tradition, but also in Spain or also in the black Africa, e.g. in the Ivory Coast.

rules and matches

the first international ice art run matches took place in the year 1882 in Vienna, according to the match order,that so-called.Regulation. It became from the text book of the pupils of Jackson Haines - Dr. Body, Wirth and Diamantidi „traces derived on the ice “, which had been published in the year 1881.

This regulation took over later also the ISU and in such a way the rules developed,in the reason until today apply. To clearer changes it came with the introduction of the short cure and with the conversion of the relationship in the evaluation of obligation and cure.

In order to arrange the subjectively evaluated kind of sport ice art running more transparent and more objective, the ISU has a newValuation system develops, which replaced the “6.0-System” since the season 2004/2005 internationally. The ice art run system of evaluation (English. ISU Judging system) of the international ice run union is the basis a perfectly new computation of the match results. With the employment of a digital video system in the match the price judges are into the position put, elements repeatedto regard and evaluate thus more objectively.

  • With the first Viennese matches the Norwegian became Axel Paulsen third, which already at that time showed its famous jump, which belongs until today to the ice art run multiplication table.
  • The first European championship was already in the year 1891, already before the ISU establishment, and firstEuropean champion was the German Oskar Uhlig.
  • 1896 were in pc. Petersburg the first world championship, which won Germans, this time Gilbert fox. Later the legendary Swede Ulrich Salchow its first world champion title, which he let still 9 further follow then, won five years. Itsamazing record the just as legendary Norwegian Sonja Henie and in the years 1969-1978 also to Irina Rodnina, their first four titles in the pair run with Alexej Ulanow won and the further six titles with their former married man a Alexander Saizew placed in the years 1927-1936.
  • The ladies began to fight for the title of the world champion in the year 1908 in Davos, but for the title of the Europameisterin only in the year 1930 in Vienna, where also the premiere of the European championships for the pair run took place. First Europameisterin with the ladies becamethe Austrian Fritzi citizen. Also the pairs competed around world champion titles already in former times - since the year 1908.
  • The recent ice art run discipline, the ice dance, appeared in the race order only in the year 1952 with the world championships in Paris and two years later also with European championshipsin Bozen. Since 1976 ice dance is also an olympic discipline.

ice art run with the olympic plays

women and ice art run

ice art run as kind of sport were for a long time for different reasons nearly forbidden the women. Among other things wurdem medical and social reasons aforementioned.

With the admission for lady competitions it stood however to fear that the sympathy of the combat judges for holde femaleness on their objectiveOpinions bad influence would have. One even suggested specifying in the rules that the combat judges would have to carry blue eyeglasses with woman competitions obligating. Man must say however directly that the women finally hold themselves also when sport driving by the viktorianische dress order and inheavy Wollkleidern and Unterröcken to begin had, those movements substantial less favourable.

Madge Syers Cave, here with their married man with the olympic plays 1908

Florence larva LINE Syers admits itself as „Madge of “Syers, was the first woman, due to inaccurate formulations with - actually only for menintended - first ice art run world championship 1902 their starting right fought for. Extremely sovereign occupied it then still the second place. Madge Syers and the British federation, national Skating Association, found out that the ISU Wettkampfsordnung did not state anywhere that the women could not participate in a match. ThoseNSA fought vehement around starting right their Sportlerin - perhaps only, because their married man was Edgar Syers, with which it participated also in pair run competitions, Secretary-General of the federation. Thus the participation of the only woman ended sensationally. Syers became behind Sweden Ulrich Salchow second andpossibly even the victory would have earned. This found not only the public and some experts, but also the winner. Infuriated over the fact that its Konkurrentin did not get a price, he presented very demonstratively his Trophäe to her. One year after the profit of the vice-world champion title stepped it againapproximately excluding male competition on and first British Meisterin in the gentleman ice art run became. To strike the men she did not get further chances however any longer. With the European championships in Davos 1904 it could not begin due to an injury to the cure. The international ice run union changed rapidly the rulesand starting from 1906 independent lady competitions were organized. Madge Syers world champion became twice one behind the other. 1908 achieved it in London also the title of the Olympiasiegerin.

Falls and new beginning belong to the ice art run

a further Bahnbrecherin buildup in Russia . Panins pupil Xena Cezar began with the ice art run alreadyat the High School. The daughter of a music teacher, even an excellent Pianistin, transferred its art and its artistic feeling to the ice. She was the first Russian woman, who announced herself at the national championship for the gentleman competition. Between the five participating men she occupied thirdPlace. On protest gentlemen “verschnupften” a further similar competition were not any longer organized.

Sonja Henie, the Norwegian Meisterin and undoubtedly Diva of the ice art run between 1924 and 1936, presented a large novelty with the olympic winter plays in Chamonix, 1924, toto the knees short skirt. From then on it was copied by others ice art runner inside, which began, short skirts, which did not obstruct their movements, to carry.

The fate of one the further ice art runner inside, Tenley Albright, is completely unusual. As a small girl she got not paralytische child paralysis.It wanted to run, but above all it wanted to become Eiskunstläuferin. It lasted still for a long time, until it could make their first steps. As 11-year old it could begin with the ice art running - it was recovered. After eight years of hard work she became American Meisterin, then stillit won two-way world champion and 1956 the gold medal with the olympic winter plays in Cortina d'Ampezzo.

The Dutch Eiskunstläuferin Sjoukie Dijkstra dedicated much time to the athletic preparation, therefore also their run became full Kraft and Energie. Dijkstra did not embody at all the conception of a tender andslim girl, who floats over the ice like a Fee. On the contrary, with their shape it worked rather as Ringkämpferin. Regardless of this Gewichtshandicaps it was a Hochsprungmeisterin. In its athletic preparation it set apart from the run also on the Hochsprung, and in this disciplineshe was also the Netherlands record woman. But not only that, it was also a good Judoka. Their ice art run career began it as 18-jährige with the European champion title 1962, which it defended in the following years still three times. With the olympic winter plays in Squaw Valley 1960it ended as the second. It would not be a large problem to ask the best coaches for assistance. It emerged however financial obstacle: Sjoukie selected itself the American coach Arnold Gerschwiller, had however not enough money, in order to pay it. Finally you helped out friendsdifferent kinds of sport - from the ice art run, the Leichtathletik and also from the Judo. With the olympic winter plays in Innsbruck 1964 it won the gold medal.

equipment

major item: History of the ice skate

skids

ice art run skids - from above - ice art run skid, ice dance skid,Synchronous ice run skid

ice art run skids, from hard steel manufactured, 3-4 millimeters are broad. They have a very slight concave curve, which makes the execution possible of turns and complicated elements. The groove down the sheet, called hollow grinding, has finely polished edges (the inner edge and the outside edge) on each side, thosecontrol and acceleration for the ice runner possible make. Teeth at the front side of the sheet, called Bezahnung, are used for the jump and as point of circle for Pirouetten. Skids have different heel heights. Ice dancers carry frequently a high heel, which presses the body weight forward to the heel bundles, thus winone a better control with changes of direction and snaps steps.

shoes

of ice art run shoes - white shoes for Mrs., black shoes for men

made to measure ones for each foot manufactured and strongly reinforced up to the calves high-closed tying boots, with thick, rigid leather inside and with additionalKnöchelstütze. Broad leather tongues with upholstery permit flexibility within the shoe.

costumes

clothes of the ice art runners and ice dancers one determines by the character of the program and the music choice. Their costumes should not crown the achievement however diverson to become. With thatThe ladies a skirt and men long trousers should carry cure. Trousers are with the ladies only since the season 2004/2005 certified. Articles of fashion and supports are not permitted however.

history of the costume development

in the history of the ice run has itself since itsBirth as sport in the center 19. Jh. much changed: the method of judging, the rules, the organization, the structure of competition, the techniques, the materials and the costumes.

Ice art runner in everyday life clothes

however it gives an aspect, which remained in the course of the time the same: thoseCostumes always followed the mode, the samples, materials and colors of the time. When ice art run developed as a sport in the modern sense, costumes did not exist as such: the ice art runners carried their daily clothes: Men were dressed in trousers and jacket and the womenlong skirts carried as far as the Knöcheln. Gilbert fox, which introduced first world champions, Leggins, which are permitted to no more today for gentlemen. It was Sonja Henie, the Norwegian Meisterin, the ten world champion titles and three olympic titles won and askless the Diva of the ice art runbetween 1924 and 1936 , those was the largest novelty, which short skirt on the ice-skating rink with the olympic plays of 1924 presented.

From then on it by others ice art runner inside copied, which began, to carry short skirts and anschmiegsamere costumes their movements not obstructed,if they implemented difficult figures. The development of the ice art running in the following decades added larger technical difficulties: simple jumps became two and three-way, and there was a larger refinement in the view of the programs, which told now material stories. This development affected alsothe costumes, it became a component of the competition, one of the main elements of the artistic program organization as well as the music and the selected topic.

Costume, which was carried around 1950
  • in the 1970er and 1980er years was short skirts and trousers with impact modern. ThoseCostumes had sober colors without colours and without certain samples.
  • In the 1980er and 1990er years on the other hand the costumes were occupied with Flitter. Brighten and warm colors were popular, the samples became clearer. Trousers were cut straight and the skirts were in front shorter and onthe back longer.

Jewelry instead of Flitter, longer skirts, swindle-exciting Dekolletees. The use from wrong naked heating materials disappeared nearly completely. Jewelry is used even by the men and their shirts is opened. Nowadays there is the tendency, the athletes also by its costumes as sinnlich as possibleto represent. But the main thing is not only to catch and bring to the life the topic of the program, by the music and by dancing, in addition, by the costumes. The athletes are stamped to the main figure and their impression in everyone memory.

Oksana Grischtschuks costumewith the Swarovski cross

costumes were very important to in any case in the ice art run. It is not only a sport, but also an art. The clothes are first, which the spectator notices and which it in the memory remains.

technology

of the criterion of the technique developmentice art run is supposed the most conservative ice discipline. Vorschuhe and upholstery of the ice skates are always from nature leather manufactured, with reinforcements in to most of the pressure floor areas concerned. The goal is the guarantee of the optimum feeling, and it is not coincidence that during the last years of interior solesfrom warm-distributing materials used are, which can adapt to the feet completely. The outside soles normally are from multilevel leather.

elements

major items: Ice art run elements

, is ice art run the artful execution of jumps, Pirouetten and steps was called like already above.

To the jumpscount if the three-jump, Salchow, Toeloop, Rittberger, Flip, Lutz and Axel, which simply, doubles, and partly even to be three-way quadruple jumped, as well as the connecting jumps in such a way specified spreading jump, Euler, Oppera Walley and jet Button.

Further well-known figures in the singleand pair running are the Biellmann Pirouette, the death spiral and the thrown jumps (these one also doubles, three-way, or quadruple to jump can).

text books and methodologies

  • the first ice run manual 1772 in London appeared. The second lieutenant Robert Jones of the Royal Artillery described in its „A treatise on skating “ (paper over the ice running) different figures such as circles and a respecting and gives a guidance, how one is to make a turn of the outside edge on the inner edge and differently. That was connected with a new type of ice skate, a runforward, backwards on the outside or inner edge made possible. The manual is intended only for men, because one saw women only rarely on the ice. It was at that time directly forbidden to women, to the fun ice to glitschen, which could not reconstruct Jones, it saw no reason,why the women should be excluded from this pleasure.
  • A further ice run manual was published 1790 under the title „over the ice skate runningin Leipzig.
  • On different directions of the ice run development also the book of the Frenchman Jean Garcin points, the 1813 under the name „a genuine ice skate runner “ („Le vrai patineur ou les principes sur l' kind de more patiner avec grâce “), one gave change. Some contemporaries said, it had been a better ice skate runner than writers. Its figures had names from the antique mythology. For example: with a figure named „the beautiful narcissus “should one a blessed face expression shows and with inward the semi-circle without the foot change, with another expression the direction of travel change suggest. On the other hand it had quite modern opinions: He accused a lack of elegance to the ice skate runners and attached great importance to the aesthetic side of figure execution.
  • Thatfirst systematic text book was published 1881 in Vienna under the title “traces on the ice “. Their authors were Haines' pupil - Dr. Body, Wirth and Diamantidi. From this text book the first match order was derived, the so-called. Regulation, the ISU took over then later andthus the rules developed, which apply with numerous changes until today.


While for single run many text books were written, the pair run was neglected completely. One cannot regard smaller mentions in conventional manuals even than superficial guidance, all the less as a system. Only one exceptionthe American manual englischstämmigen pair of coaches of the Dench Stewart is „Pair skating and Dancing on Ice “ from the year 1943, which is a real pair run methodology, not however methodology for ice dance in today's.

see also

Web on the left of

Commons: Pictures of the ice art running - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Commons: Pictures of ice art runners - pictures, videosand/or audio files
Wiktionary: Ice art run - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

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