Electro-technology

electro-technology designates that range of the technology, which with all aspects of the electricity is concerned. To it belong the electrical energy production, the transfer of energy as well as all kinds of their use. This is enough from the electrically operated machines over allKinds of electrical circuits for the tax, measuring, regulation and computer engineering up to the communications technology. Electro-technology is both an engineering science, which investigate and convert technical applications, and the task range of various skilled trades.

Table of contents

fields of application

the classical organization of electro-technology was the heavy current technology,those today as energy engineering and propulsion technology appear and the weak current technology, which was formed to the communications technology. As further areas were added the electrical measuring technique and control engineering as well as electronics. The borders between the individual ranges are multiple thereby flowing. Withincreasing spreading of applications countless further specialization areas resulted. In our current civilization nearly all expirations and mechanisms are electrically operated or to run under substantial participation of electrical devices and controls.

energy engineering

supply line

energy engineering (in former times heavy current technology) is concernedwith production, transmission and shaping of electricity and also the high voltage technology. Electricity is in most cases produced by transformation from mechanical rotatorischer energy by means of generators. In addition to the classical heavy current technology the range of the consumers of electricity as well as those belongPropulsion technology.

propulsion technology

propulsion technology, in former times likewise as “heavy current technology” regarded, converts electricity by means of electrical machines into mechanical energy. Classical electrical machines are synchronous, asynchronous and d.c. machines, whereby particularly within the range of the small drives many furtherTypes exist. The development of the linear motors, which convert electricity directly in mechanical-linear motion, without “detour” is more current over rotation. Propulsion technology there here often passes on a large role in the automatic control engineering, a multiplicity of movements with electric drivesrealize are. For the propulsion technology again electronics plays a large role; on the one hand for the control and regulation of the drives, on the other hand drives are often supplied by means of Leistungselektroniken with electricity. Also the range of the load peak reduction and energy optimization have themselveswithin the range of electro-technology substantially develops further.

communications technology

with the help of the communications technology, also information and communicationses (in former times weak current technology) mentioned, information from a source of information ( the transmitter ) becomes or several by means of electrical impulses or electromagnetic waves Receivers (information-lower) transfer. It depends to transmit the information so low-loss that they can be recognized with the receiver. (See also high-frequency engineering, amateur radio.) Important aspect of the communications technology is signal processing, for example by means ofFiltering, coding or decoding.

Elektronik

Integrierter Schaltkreis
Integrierter Schaltkreis

Die Elektronik befasst sich mit der Entwicklung, Fertigung und Anwendung von elektronischen Bauelementen wie zum Beispiel Kondensatoren und Spulen oder Halbleiterbauelementen wie Dioden und Transistoren. Microelectronics is occupiedwith the development and the production of integrated circuits (ICs) from semiconductor elements, for example processors.

The development of the power semiconductors (power electronics) plays ever more largely becoming role in the propulsion technology one, there frequency static frequency changer the electricity substantially more flexiblyto make available can, when this is possible with transformers for example.

Digital technique can be assigned to that extent to electronics, when the classical logic circuit from transistors is developed. On the other hand digital technique is also connected to basis of many controls and with it the automatic control engineering. The theorycould be assigned also theoretical electro-technology.

automatic control engineering

in the automatic control engineering by means of methods of the control, regulation and digital technique one or more manual work procedures are automated and/or. supervised. One of the central areas of the automatic control engineering is control engineering.Regulations are contained in many technical systems. Examples are the regulation of robots, autopilots in airplanes and ships, speed regulations in engines, stability control (ESP) in automobiles, the depth control of rockets and the process feedback controls of chemical plants. Simple examplesthe everyday life are the temperature controls in irons and refrigerators. (See also measuring technique, sensor engineering.)

theoretical electro-technology

the basis of the theory and the link for the physics of electro-technology are the realizations from the electricity. The theory thatCircuits is concerned with the methods of the analysis of circuits from passive elements. On the Maxwell equations is developedthe theory of the fields and waves, briefly, theoretical electro-technology.

history, developments and persons of electro-technology

the beginnings of electro-technology are to be looked for surely in the physics, which developed however at the latest at present of Thomas Alva Edison and Werner von Siemens to its own discipline.

In the beginning discoveries stood approximately around thoseElectricity.1752 invented Benjamin Franklin the lightning conductor and published 1751 - 53 the results of its experiments and Observations on Electricity.

1792 made Luigi Galvani its legendary frog thigh experiment. From these experiments lively, Alessandro Volta built around 1800 thoseVolta' column so mentioned, a first functioning battery.1820 made Hans's Christian Ørsted of attempts the diverson of a magnetic needle by electric current. André Marie Ampère resumed these experiments and knows 1820 after that two one on the other exercise stromdurchflossene ladder a Kraft.Ampère explained the term of the electrical tension and the electric current and specified the direction of current.

Michael Faraday made a large contribution in the area of the electrical and magnetic fields, of it comes also the term to that“Line of flux”. The realizations Faradays were the basis for James Clerk Maxwell work. It completed the theory of electromagnetism for electrodynamics and their mathematical formulation. The quintessence of its work, the 1864 published Maxwell equations are one of the fundamental theories in thatElectro-technology.

Philipp rice invents 1860 at Institut Garnier in Friedrichsdorf the telephone and thus the electrical language transmission. However no large attention, so that only 1876 Alexander Graham Bell in the USA first was given to its invention economicallyusable telephone designed and also successfully marketed.

To the Wegbereitern to the “heavy current technology” belongs Werner von Siemens, who 1866 discovered the direct current generator-electrical principle and developed from this the first electrical generator. Electricity was present the first time in large usable quantity. 1879 invented Thomas Alva Edison the coal thread bulb and brought with it the electrical light to humans. In the consequence electricity introduction held into ever larger ranges of the life. At the same time Nikola Tesla and Mikhail von Dolivo Dobrowolsky worked, thosePioneers of the alternating current were and by their innovative inventions the bases of the today's power supply systems created.

Erasmus Kittler justified 1883 to the TH Darmstadt that world-wide first course of studies for electro-technology. The course of studies took four years and closed with oneExamination to electro-technology engineer off.1885 and 1886 followed the University college London (UK) and the University OF Missouri (the USA), which furnished further independent chairs for electro-technology. In such a way trained engineers were necessary, in order to make a wide electrification possible.

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz succeeded to 1884 the experimental proof of the Maxwell equations. He white the existence of electromagnetic waves after, he is thus the founder of the bases of the wireless information transfer and concomitantly the communications technology.

1896 transfer Guglielmo Marconi3 km those world-wide first wireless radio transmission out. Based on its work are commercially available starting from 1900 first sending and receivings. John A. Fleming invents 1905 the first radio tube, the diode. 1906 develops Robert von Lieben and Lee DeForest independently the amplifier tube, triode mentioned, which gave a substantial impulse to the radio engineering.

John Logie Baird built the first mechanical television on basis of the Nipkow disk for 1926 with simplest means. 1928 followed the first colour television set. In the same year succeededit the first transatlantic television transmission from London to New York. 1931 had already become outdated its invention however, to Manfred von Ardenne introduced at that time the cathode ray tube and thus the electronic television.

1942 place Konrad Zuse that world-wide first to functional computer,the Z3, finished. In the year 1946 the ENIAC ( electronics Numerical integrator and computer) of John Presper hitting a corner ore and John Mauchly follows. The first phase of the computer era began. The arithmetic performance in such a way the available makes it possible for engineers and thatSociety to develop completely new technologies and achieve achievements. An early example are the Apollo project and the moon-landing of NASA.

The invention of the transistor 1947 into the Bell Laboratories (the USA) by William B. Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain and the entire semiconductor technology opened very far areas of application for electro-technology, since now many devices could be very compactly built. A further substantial step in this direction was the development of the micro integration, the integrated circuits (IC) and thus thattoday's processor chips.

1958 invents and builds G.C. Devol and J. Engelberger in the USA that world-wide first robot. Such a robot is used for the first time 1960 with general of engine into the industriellen production. Robots are today in most diverse industries, howe.g. the automobile industry, an important building stone of the automatic control engineering.

In the year 1968 Marcian Edward invents hopes, admits as Ted hopes, at the company Intel the microprocessor and rings thereby the era of the PC. Hoffs invention was the basis inOrder of a Japanese company for a Desktop computer, which it wanted to realize as low-priced as possible. The first realization of a microprocessor was 1969 Intel 4004, 4 bits a processor. But only Intel 8080, an 8-bit processor, from the year 1973made possible the building of the first PC, the old air for 8800.

The company Philips invents 1978 the Compact disk (CD) for the storage of digital information. 1982 result then from a co-operation between Philips and Sony the audio CD. 1985 follow the CD-ROM.

In the year 1996 the company Honda presents that world-wide first to functional humanoiden robot, the P2. 1976 the Japanese which since university already developed a first prototypischen humanoiden robot, which was however not yet fully functional . From the P2 resulted toTime current Android, Honda approx. 1.20 m of large Asimo. Apart from many electronic and electrotechnical components humanoide robots consist also substantially of mechanical components, whose interaction one calls Mechatronik.

electro-technology as academic subject

electro-technology becomes at many Universities and professional schools as course of studies offered. There are also upper stage centers with special field electro-technology, where one can retrieve extended main graduation or material graduation or the specialized Abitur. The average period of study amounts to at the University of 9 to 10 terms, at the professional school (FH) 7until 8 (with practice term) terms. The conclusion happens with the diploma as Dipl. - engineer or master OF Science and/or. Dipl. - engineer (FH). Meanwhile it is to be acquired also possible the Bachelor OF engineering, then the average period of study amounts to only 6 terms. The studyelectro-technology contain various topic relatives fan: Bases of electro-technology, physics, higher mathematics, network and system theory, control engineering, communications technology, various laboratory practical courses and specialization fan.

see also

Wiktionary: Electro-technology - word origin, synonyms and translations
portal: Electro-technology
portal: Semiconductor
Portal: Electro-technology/list of electrotechnical topics
list of electronic construction units
list personalities of electro-technology
list of the measuring instruments and measuring procedure
electrical industry

literature

  • Manfred Albach: Bases of electro-technology 1. Experience sets, elements, direct current circuits. Pearson study, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-8273-7106-6
  • Manfred Albach: Bases thatElectro-technology 2. Periodic and not periodic signal forms. Pearson study, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-8273-7108-2
  • Lorenz Peter Schmidt, Gerd Schaller, Siegfried Martius: Bases of electro-technology 3. Networks. Pearson study, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-8273-7107-2
  • Gert Hagmann: Bases of electro-technology. 11. , durchges. Aufl., Wiebelsheim2005, ISBN 3-89104-687-1
  • Jens Heinich: A short chronicle of radio history. Dessau: Radio publishing house Bernhard Hein, 2002. ISBN 3-936124-12-4
  • Winfield Hill, Paul Horowitz: The high school of electronics, Tl.1, analog technique, Elektor publishing house 2002 ISBN 3895760242
  • Winfield Hill, Paul Horowitz: Thosehigh school of electronics, Tl.2, digital technique, Elektor publishing house 1996 ISBN of 3895760250
  • briefly hunters (Hrsg.): “Encyclopedia of the electrical engineers”, VDE publishing house, 1996, ISBN 3-8007-2120-1
  • Wolfgang king: “Technique sciences”, Chur: G+B publishing house Fakultas, 1995, ISBN 3-7186-5791-0
  • Küpfmüller, Kohn: Theoretical electro-technology and electronics (14. Aufl.) Springer publishing house, ISBN 3-540-56500-0
  • Pascal shining man: Introduction to the electromagnetic field theory. Pearson study, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-8273-7144-9
  • Lindner, Helmut; Brauer, Harry; Lehman, Constans: Paperback of electro-technology and electronics technical book publishing house Leipzig in the Carl Hans he publishing house 1999 ISBN 3446210563
  • Ulrich Tietze, Christoph give: Monolith technology. (12.Aufl.) Springer publishing house, April 2002, ISBN 3-54042-849-6

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