The Ivory Coast

République de Côte d'Ivoire
Republic of Côte d'Ivoire
Flagge der Elfenbeinküste
Wappen der Elfenbeinküste
[ detail ] [ detail ]
Wahlspruch: Unité, Discipline et Travail
(frz., „agreement, discipline and work “)
office language French
capital Yamoussoukro
seat of the government Abidjan
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Laurent Gbagbo
surface 322.460 km ²
number of inhabitants 17.298.040
(source: CIA 2005)
Population density of 53.7 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 775 US-$ (2004)
independence from France to 7. August 1960
currency CFA franc
time belt UTC
national anthem L'Abidjanaise
national holiday 7. August
Kfz characteristic CI
Internet TLD .ci
preselection +225
Lage der Elfenbeinküste in der Welt
Karte der Elfenbeinküste

The Ivory Coast,officially the République Côte d'Ivoire calls itself, is a state in west Africa. It borders on Liberia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso and Ghana and in the south on the Atlantic.

Since 1983 Yamoussoukro is the official capital,the earlier capital Abidjan represents however further the economical center of the Ivory Coast.

National holiday is the independence day to 7. August, on which the independence from the former colonial power France is celebrated.

Table of contents

name of the country

Côte d'Ivoire [kotdiˈvwaːʀ] is French and meant on German literal „the Ivory Coast “.

In the German-speaking countries the designation is more strongly common „the Ivory Coast “in the linguistic usage and in the media than the French expression. In official traffic for example the German Federal Government becomes however the official name Côte d'Ivoire uses. In the country is forbidden the use of another than the official designation under punishment. Also literal translations of the name into other languages fall under this prohibition.

President Houphouët Boigny (1905-1993) ordered 1985 that „the Ivory Coast “, sodesignated to their once most important export product, with the French colonial name Côte d'Ivoire to be only led and not translated may. Contrary to other states, among other things by change of name of their colonial inheritance got rid of and with designations from that, held Côte d'Ivoire regained own history their identity also after the acquisition of independence in the year 1960 at the close connections to France.

geography

the Ivory Coast is northward certain of the south by in west Africa typical vegetation zones, with increasing aridity (dryness): at the coast in the south of the country first the tropical rain forest zone, northward followed from a transition and finally the Savannenzone: first the Guinea savannah, those finally in the extreme north of theCountry into the Sudan savannah changes. The north of the country becomes also from a part of the upper Guinea threshold pulled through. In the west of the Ivory Coast and/or. exactly on the border to Guinea the Mount Nimba, with 1.752 the m is and. NNthe highest mountain of both states is.

Lage der Elfenbeinküste in Afrika
Situation of the Ivory Coast in Africa

in the country are several national park and other protected areas, among other things Taї (in the southwest of the country), Comoé national park (in the northeast). The climate is tropical semiarid along the coast,(half drying) in the north.

The largest cities are (conditions 1. January 2005):

  • Abidjan of 3.692.570 inhabitants
  • Bouaké of 572,149 inhabitants
  • Daloa of 217,876 inhabitants
  • Yamoussoukro of 200,659 inhabitants

see also: List of the cities in the Ivory Coast

population

the citizens of the Ivory Coastbecome - in accordance with StAGN - as Ivorer and/or. Ivorerinnen designates.

The population consists of approx. 60 Ethnien, which lived together long time peacefully. Marriage ceremonies between different Ethnien are not particularly in the cities rarity. The most well-known groups are:

  • Akan (Baoulé 23% of the population, Agni; about 40% of the total population) in the center
  • Mande group:Malinké / Dioula 5.5% of the population, Dan (5% of the population) & Yacouba in the west
  • Voltaic:Senufo (about 15% of the total population) in the north
  • Kru group: (Bété,Kru; about 16% of the population) mainly in the south as well as
  • Wê.

Due to the migration from the land and the increasing urbanization one finds all Ethnien in the cities practically. Particularly in the smaller cities there is a certain tendency, in ownTo live quarters together.

Immigrants from the northern neighbour states place about a quarter of the population. The immigrants as well as the inhabitants of the north are predominantly Muslims (35-40% of the total population), while the inhabitants of the south predominantly Christian (20-30%; above all catholics)or indigenen religions ( 25-40% of the population) are belong.

history

the “Ivory Coast”, the area of the today's Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, does not know state formation up to the colonial age up. The Portuguese drove 15 since that. Century trade with the coastal trunks, becamebut since that 17. Century of the Frenchmen displaces, who established 1843 the naval base Grand Bassam and which area 1893 as the colony Côte explained d´ to Ivoire. Striking down of rebellions, particularly the master chieftain Samory Toure, took however still several yearsin requirement.1895 became Côte a d'Ivoire part of French west Africa, 1956 received it internal autonomy and became 1958 autonomous republic within the French community.

To 7. August 1960 received d´ Ivoire full independence under Felix Houphouet Boigny to Côte, toto his death 1993 president (until 1990 also head of the government) was. Houphouet Boigny, the founder of the unit party “portion of Democratique de Côte d'Ivoire” (PDCI), pursued a pro-Western policy. It ordered also that the “Ivory Coast”, so designated after their once most important export product, since endthe 1980er years with the French colonial name Côte d'Ivoire to be only designated may. Unrests under the population led to the fact that 1990 a multiple party system as well as the office of the Prime Minister were introduced. The pro-Western and according to the free market oriented policy of the presidentFelix Houphouet Boigny made d'Ivoire one of the richest states of west Africa from Côte and led to political stability.

Successor Houphouet Boignys became 1993 Henri Konan Bédié (PDCI). The elections in October 1995 confirmed Bédié in the office for president, boycotted by the opposition. A change thatpräsidialen condition of 1960 extended 1998 the term of office of the president of five on seven years and strengthened its executives of powers.

The purge of the cocoa prices led 1999 to economic crisis features. In December 1999 became Bédié, which had increasingly suppressed oppositionals of circles,fallen in a unblutigen Putsch of the military under guidance of general Robert Guéï. The country fell thereby into a deep crisis. Under the key word „Ivoirite “came it to xenophoben tendencies and to discrimination in the north of the country resident Ethnien.In the year 2000 Laurent Gbagbo presidency elections won, from which the most important opposition candidate (Alassane Ouattara) had been excluded. This was justified with the fact that Ouattaras parents originate from the neighboring country Burkina Faso. The continuous controversy over it, who a true „Ivorer “is and who not, 2002 finally led to an armed rebellion against Gbagbo and to the current crisis.

current conflict

in September 2002 rose a part of the army against the government and brought the northern halfthe state under their control. They hold also the second largest city of the country, Bouaké. This development has its background also in ethnical tensions, in Côte d'Ivoire lives many humans immigrated from the adjacent states. In addition, it is inConflict around the entrance to resources.

Under switching of France one was formed „government of the national reconciliation “. This turned out however as fragile and of the representatives of the north in September 2003 was again left. To 26. March 2004 explainedthe opposition after bloody arguments the day before their retreat from the government of the national unit. In the context of the peace process a planned disarmament did not come off.

On behalf the UN became the separation of the rebels in the north and the southern regionmore in the country stations than 6,300 blue helmets. About 4,500 French soldiers are additional in the country. The latters act likewise on behalf the UN, were however already stationed before the crisis in Côte d'Ivoire. France has its largest African in this countryBase.

At the beginning of November 2004 escalated the situation recently. To 4. The government troops of air raids began November on goals in the north of the country. At the same time in Abidjan offices were devastated by opposition parties and independent newspapers. On the third day of the air raids nine French cameSoldier around the life. When reaction to it became destroyed of French armed forces the entire Air Force (2 combat aircraft, 5 combat helicopters) Côte of d'Ivoires within a daily. The latter was later explained justified by the UN for.

In the middle of November 2004 had France already 5.200Soldiers in the country, who were again strengthened. At this time already approximately 1,600 French civilians (partially with two nationalities) had been evacuated. They reported of dozens of plunderings and rapes by an uncontrolled mobilization. Victim gave it underthe civilians none. The data concerning victims under the black citizen Côte of d'Ivoires vary between 25 and 70 dead ones as well as more than 1,000 hurt. These persons became usually victims of the air raids of the government troops or with arguments with the French army,and further foreigner protected itself.

The rebels in the north kept still further, the peace plan were however nevertheless in a heavy crisis. So should already be according to it the disarmament of the troops of the north under way. Was actualhowever not so. In the long run in it an origin of the recent escalation was probably to be seen. Again is accused to the southern region under Gbagbo the division of power to have wanted real. Gbagbo destabilizes the situation since longer among other thingswith calls to hate and force over TV and radio. To 15. November approximately 6,000 foreigners were evacuated via air lift.

To 15. November 2004 imposed the security council of the United Nations a weapons embargo against Côte d'Ivoire. Of it is both the southernand the northern region concerned. In addition a travel prohibition was imposed over the members of the respective guidance of both regions and their external accounts was frozen. The weapons embargo came into force on the same day, the other measures only to 15. December, and onlyif up to then the armistice is not completely restored. All measures were for the time being limited on 13 months.

Army and rebels agreed to 9. July 2005 on a disarming agreement. This should the way free to presidency elections to 30. October2005. In the negotiations participated also the UN, France and South Africa. Already in the peace agreement, which the conflict parties signed in April 2005 under South African switching, laying down the weapons had been agreed upon.

Neither the disarmament nor elections became howeverconverted. In the middle of January 2006 escalated the situation again. Some dead ones and hurt one came in several places to violent demonstrations, with arguments between trailers Gbagbos and units of the UN gave it into Guiglo. The UN-soldiers stationed there pulled themselves thereupon itinto the few kilometers demilitarisierte zone lain north back. In the capital Tränengas and warning shots were used with demonstrations. The roads Abidjans are controlled by - usually young persons - trailers Gbagbos, among other things by means of road blocks.

After a relevant UN-resolutionAt the beginning of of February 2006 accounts were frozen by three opponents of the peace process. The sanctions are directed against Ble Goude and Eugene Djue, which as leaders of militant groups of young people and trailers of president Laurent Gbagbo are considered, as well as against rebel leader Fofie Kouakou. Those approximately7.000 in the country stationed blue helmets became approx. at the same time over men strengthens approximately 200. Additionally 4,000 French soldiers continue to be to the peacekeaping measures in the country.

past presidents

administrative arrangement

Côte d'Ivoire is since 12. July 2000 in 19 regions divided. These are (in parentheses the capital):

  • Agnéby (Agboville)
  • Bafing (Touba)
  • Bas Sassandra (San Pédro)
  • Denguélé (Odienné)
  • DIX Huit Montagnes (one)
  • Fromager (Gagnoa)
  • skin Sassandra (Daloa)
  • Lacs (Yamoussoukro)
  • Lagunes (Abidjan)
  • Marahoué (Bouaflé)
  • Moyen Cavally (Guiglo)
  • Moyen Comoé (Abengourou)
  • N'zi Comoé (Dimbokro)
  • Savanes (Korhogo)
  • South Bandama (Divo)
  • south Comoé (Aboisso)
  • Vallée you Bandama (Bouaké)
  • Worodougou (Séguéla)
  • Zanzan (Bondoukou)

economics

agriculture

Côte d'Ivoire is a largest cocoa producer of the world. Besides becomein particular coffee, pineapple, cotton and wood export.

there

are raw materials in the coastal region oil deposits, which are promoted.

corruption

a large problem of the state is the high degree at corruption. It occupiesone of the lowest places in the statistics of the Transparency international.

between 1992 and 2000 the portion

of the public expenditures for the health service was to public expenditures for health, education

sport

the most important and usually claimant sport in the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire is the football. The Ivori national soccer team is at present one of the ten most successful national teams of Africa. Largest successes with international tournaments were so far the profit of the Africa Cups 1992, a fourth place with the Konföderationen cup 1992, third places with the Africa Cups 1965, 1968, 1986 and 1994 and a fourth place 1970. To 8. October qualified itself the crew, beside thatCrews Tunesiens, Togo, Ghana and Angola, for the soccer world championship 2006, an important milestone in the Ivorer football history. Unfortunately they lost in an exciting play in the final against the soccer national team of Germany destroying with 1:7. The training camp inFramework of the football WM in Germany is in Magdeburg. The star of the Ivori national soccer team is Didier Drogba of the fiber plastic Chelsea.

Web on the left of

Commons: The Ivory Coast - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: The Ivory Coast - word origin, synonyms and translations



coordinates: 8° 0 ′ N, 6° 0 ′ W

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)