Elias Lönnrot

Elias Lönnrot (* 9. April 1802 in Sammatti; † 19. March 1884 ebenda) was a Finnish Philologe, Volkskundler, a physician and a Botaniker. It became famous as collecting tank of Finnish myths, from which it forged Finnish national pos the Kalevala.

Elias Lönnrot auf dem 500-Finnmark-Schein
Elias Lönnrot on the 500 Finnmark - light
Erstdruck of the Vanha Kalevala (1835)

it was born as figure eight son of the cutter Frederik Juhana Lönnrot. Since it learned valley animal width unit to already read with five years and as a child applied, its parents sent it despite their relative poverty on the school in Tammisaari (Swedish Ekenäs), where it learned Swedish and latin. 1822 it began a medicine study first at the academy to Turku (Åbo academy, since 1827 University of Helsinki). it received the license to practise medicine to 1827 as a physician.

During its study time it was inspired by the awaking national consciousness of the Finns. Finland was at this time a Grand Duchy under the Russian emperor, in which beside Russian office language was only Swedish, not however Finnish, the language of the population majority. Lönnrot and other prominent heads as for instance Johan Ludvig rune mountain used up themselves the task to make the Finnish a modern language. It undertook it, the rich treasure of Finnish legends and songs up characters. By his professor Reinhold von Becker it became lively, its Magisterarbeit over the Väinämöinen - legends too write. To this Behufe it undertook starting from 1828 journeys in Finland, in order to operate source research and the ursprünglichste version of these narrations eruieren. 1829-30 it published four volumes of own lyric poetry (“Kantele”), which was strongly by the verbal excessive quantity of the Finnish legend materials coined/shaped. 1831 it became first chairmen of the again-created Finnish literature company (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura).

it received a place to 1833 as a district physician in the northFinnish Kajaani, where it should practice to 1853. The region had been afflicted before by harvest failures and hunger emergencies, and so is in Lönnrots of official correspondence, one might food instead of medicine into the bitter-poor region have sent. 1839 it published “Suomalaisen Talonpojan Kotilääkäri” (“the family doctor of the Finnish farmer”) with observations to the Finnish land life.

In its youth he was a strong drunkard, but in later years he created the first Finnish Abstinenzverein Selveys Seura, which however hardly someone might have joined. 1849 he married the twenty years younger Pietistin Maria Pipponius. 1853 were appointed Lönnrot as the professor for Finnish language and literature of the University of Helsinki.

In the time as country doctor it undertook some journeys by Finland, honing-lapping country, Karelien and Estonia, in order to collect the legends of the Finns and related peoples; its it recorded impressions in travel diaries (“Vaeltaja”). Particularly in Ostkarelien beyond the borders of the Grand Duchy of Finland many age-old legends were still well-known from the time before the Christianisierung, and from the singing, which was spoken there him, it wanted to join a Epos, which should be inferior to Homers Ilias in nothing. to 28. February 1835 appeared a first version of the Kalevala (the so-called “Vanha Kalevala”, thus “old Kalevala”); today this date in Finland is celebrated annually as a “Kalevala day”. After numerous extensions and changes 1849 appeared the final version of this seal (the so-called “Uusi Kalevala” or “new Kalevala”).

Besides it published 1840 the “Kanteletar”, a collection of Finnish, mostly karelischer Volkslieder, which traditionally to the Kantele sung gewurden. 1842 followed “Sananlaskuja”, a collection of Finnish proverbs, 1844 “Suomen Kansan Arvoituksia”, a collection of old mysteries. Besides it published a number of linguistic essays to the finno ugrischen languages. He spent the last Lebensjahre with the work on a Finnish-Swedish dictionary (“Finske Svenskt encyclopedia”), which appeared from 1866 to 80.

As Botaniker it went Suomen Kasvisto ” (1860) as an author of the “Flora Fennica -, a leader to the Finnish Flora, into action. It was one of the first popular-scientific works and enjoyed in Finnish like schwedischsprachigenen households long of large popularity.

Lönnrots Kalevala was criticized particularly in recent time as romatisches art product. The “old” Kalevala is a still quite pour-faithful rendition of the Finnish myths, by Lönnrots increased ambition came however increasingly to adding from its own feather/spring into the text. Except Mikael Agricolas Bible translation had however no work such a large influence on the development of the Finnish language. Until today each Finnish school child must learn considerable sections of the work by heart.

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