Elio Vittorini

Elio Vittorini (* 23. July 1908 in Syrakus; † 12. February 1966 in Milan) was an Italian writer and a auto+didactical journalist and translator, one of the most important representatives of the literary Neorealismus.

life and work

1908 in Syrakus born, followed Elio Vittorini in the childhood its father, who came through completely as a railroadman by its transfers Sicilies. After the primary school it visited a professional school, without being interested in until it left 1924 Sicilies after some peeling off attempts finally. A time long he worked as an accountant in a building contractor in Friaul Julisch Venetien. it pulled 1930 after Florenz, where it found an employment with the newspaper La Nazione as Korrektor.

Meanwhile it began to write articles and smaller narrations it the Curzio mark-distinctive sent and with its assistance in the magazine Conquista dello Stato published. In June 1927 it succeeded to it, Ritratto the RH Gianpiero, its first important telling seal to publish in La fiera letteraria. To 10. September 1927 he married pink Quasimodo, a sister of the poet Salvatore Quasimodo, him two sons gave (Giusto, 1928 - 1955, and Demetrio, 1934). 1929 it began its cooperation at the magazine Solaria; and in L' Italia letteraria it deplored the provinzialistischen tendencies in the Italian literature in its article Scarico coscienza.

1931 came out in the expenditures of the Solaria its first book, a telling collection with the title Piccola borghesia, which was again presented 1953 with Mondadori. From 1933 to 1934 - likewise in Solaria - in continuations its novel appeared IL garofano rosso, which could be published because of the fascist censorship only 1948 completely and as Monographie with Mondadori.

Due to a lead poisoning Vittorini 1934 had to give its working premises up as Korrektor and from then on exclusively lived from its literature translations from the English (Faulkner, Poe, David harsh ore Lawrence among other things) and from its journalistic activity.

When it came 1936 to the Spanish civil war, it interrupted the work on its novel Erica e i suoi fratelli and planned with its friends Romano Bilenchi and Vasco Pratolini a war participation for the support of the republican Franco - opponents. In an article of the magazine Bargello, for which he already wrote since 1932, it requested to support its party as a member of the left-wing intellectual of wing of the Italian fascists openly in addition, the republican forces, which led to its exclusion from the PNF („Partito Nazionale Fascista “).

In the same year it published with Parenti Nei Morlacchi. Viaggio in Sardegna, which had won the price written out by the magazine Infanzia and 1952 under the title Sardegna come un' infanzia with Mondadori was again given change. Between 1938 and 1939 its novel appeared Conversazione in Sicilia in Letteratura in continuations, which came out 1941 first with Parenti, then with Bompiani as volume.

From the citizen of Milan Bompiani publishing house it received the order to 1939 to lead and bring out in co-operation with Cesare Pavese a Anthologie of American writers under the title Americana the row „La Corona . This could appear because of the fascist censorship only 1942 and/or. completely, with all held back comments of the publisher, even only in the year 1968. Also for private reasons Vittorini pulled 1939 to Milan, since he separated at the same time of its Mrs pink and with Ginetta, his second life companion, began a common life.

1942 he took part actively to the Resistenza and approached in the underground increasingly to the communist party (PCI) on. 1945 it became party member and led a time long the citizens of Milan expenditure of the party organ L' Unità. In addition and led he created IL Politecnico, a magazine, which was concerned until 1947 with the contemporary culture and the mutual relations between literature and politics. Likewise 1945 it published its resistance novel Uomini e NO with Bompiani. In the same publishing house 1947 IL Sempione strizza l' occhio aluminium Fréjus and 1949 Le donne di Messina, two further novels came out. The latter appeared 1964 in a fundamental revision of the author. The short novel La garibaldina came out 1950 in continuations in the florentinischen magazine IL Ponte .

1951 transferred it the a AUDI - publishing house the line of the row „I GET tonuses “, to which he took up above all the works of young authors (Italo Calvino , Beppe Fenoglio among other things), while he abqualifizierte Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusas „IL Gattopardo “as old-fashioned historical novel without society-critical relevance and rejected him for this reason. In the same year it justified ever more largely becoming disagreement with the PCI , which it divided in these years with numerous intellectual ones in an article of the daily newspaper La Stampa its (Le vie degli ex comunisti).

Between 1952 and 1955 he completed Erica e SI suoi fratelli, which came out 1956 with Bompiani. In addition it did not work on its last novel Le città del mondo, it the any more did not complete, since it felt it as too expressiv and aesthetically, which did not correspond to its self-willed understanding of a modern literature. Only after its death, 1969, appeared the rejected work with a AUDI. A further expression of its poetologischen self understanding come into the crisis is its attempt to regenerate the bloodily struck down rebellion in Hungary (1956) in unpublished a drama remained. Since it to its own postulate of a always innovative and more the truth than the aesthetics did not commit literature any longer become fair could, it gave the literary letter up in its last Lebensjahren completely.

1957 it published a collection of its time-critical writings as Diario in pubblico. 1959 it created the magazine IL Menabò appearing with a AUDI, which it led together with Italo Calvino. In the Mondadori publishing house he transferred the row starting from 1960 „La Medusa “(later „Nuovi scrittori stranieri “). In the same year he wrote a protest explanation against war and torture in Algeria and stood as a candidate with the Sicilian regional elections on the list of the socialists (psi). Starting from 1962 Vittorini and Francesco Leonetti strove in vain around the establishment of an international intellectual magazine under the name Gulliver.

Since 1963 the Vittorini gotten sick heavily was last for a AUDI, active as publishers of the row „Nuovo Politecnico “, and died to 12. February 1966 in its citizens of Milan dwelling. Its views and thought on the literature became from D. Isella in postum the published volume Le due tensioni (1967) gathered.


  • Ritratto the RH Gianpiero (1927)
  • Piccola borghesia (1931)
  • IL garofano rosso (1933/1934; The red carnation 1951)
  • Nei Morlacchi. Viaggio in Sardegna (1936; again as Sardegna come un' infanzia 1952; Sardinien 1964; Sardinien, a country of the childhood 1986)
  • Conversazione in Sicilia (1938/1939; Tears in the wine 1943; Discussion in Sicilies 1948)
  • Americana (1941/1942, Anthologie; again 1968)
  • Uomini e NO (1945; Humans N2 1946; Nevertheless humans 1963; The dead ones know answer 1973)
  • IL Sempione strizza l' occhio aluminium Frejus (1947; In the shade of the elephant 1949)
  • Le donne di Messina (1949; again 1964; The Mrs. von Messina 1965)
  • La garibaldina (1950; The Garibaldina 1960)
  • Erica e i suoi fratelli (1956; Erica and their brothers and sisters 1984)
  • Diario in pubblico (1957; Open diary 1929 to 1959 1959)
  • Le due tensioni (1967)
  • Le città del mondo (1969)

Web on the left of

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| | * Literature of and over Elio Vittorini in the catalog of the DDB



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