Elsass

Alsace

Flagge der Region "Alsace"

Wappen der Region "Alsace"

Lage der Region "Alsace" in Frankreich
base data
administrative seat Strasbourg
president of the regional advice Adrien Zeller U.M.P.
Population

- entire 1999
- density

Rank of 12 of 26

1.734.145 inhabitants
209 Einwohner/km 2

surface

- entire
- Portion of France:

Rank 23 of 26

8,280 km ²
1.3%

Départements Bas Rhin (67);

Skin Rhin (68)

Arrondissements of 13
cantons 75
municipalities 904
ISO 3166-2 - code FR-A

the Elsass and/or. Elsass (frz. Alsace [alˈzas]) is a region in the northeast of the Republic of France. It borders in the north andThe east to the Federal Republic of Germany and in the south to Switzerland. Their capital is Strasbourg (frz. Strasbourg).

The Elsass consists of the districts (frz. Départements) Unterelsass (Bas Rhin) with seat of the regional administration (frz. Prefecture) in Strasbourg and Oberelsass (skin Rhin) with seat of the regional administration in Colmar.

Table of contents

geography

the Elsass has a size of 8.280 km ². It has a north south expansion of 190 kilometers, while the west east expansion amounts to only 50 kilometers.In the east the Elsass is limited by the Rhine, in the west by the main comb of the Vogesen.

The elsässische region borders in the north on Rhineland-Palatinate, in the east on Baden-Wuerttemberg, in the south on Swiss of cantons Basel city, Basel landscape, Solothurn andin the southwest to the free county Franche Comté as well as in the west at Lorraine.

In the Elsass are three different landscape types:

Landschaftsbild aus den Vogesen im Elsass
Landscape from the Vogesen in the Elsass
  • in the east lies the elsässische level (Plaine D' Alsace), those with bathing thatsouthern part of the upper Rhine ditch forms. It is flowed through of the Ill and is coined/shaped of cultivation of grain. There are still large forest areas like the Hagenauer forest in the north and the Hardter forest in the south.
  • In the west becomes the landscape of that Vogesen dominates, which pulled through from the broad valleys of the Illzuflüsse is. Here one finds high pastures (striking width unit Chaumes), which alternate with forests. The large Belchen (frz. Grand balloon) is the highest mountain in the Elsass.
  • The hills of the Untervogesen connectthe landscape types specified above. For this Piemont of the Vogesen the elsässischen vineyards are typical.

economics

with a gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) of 20.750 euro per inhabitant is located the Elsass in second place of all regions in France.

The Elsass is a region, in which many industries reside:

in Europe is economically strongly internationally aligned: at approximately 35% of the enterprises in the Elsass are foreign companies from Germany, that Switzerland, which take part the USA , Japan and Scandinavia.

In the year 2002 approximately 38.5% of the elsässischen imported goods came from Germany. The there crisis on the job market was passed also to the Elsass. So far from high work lot numbers exemptsremained, this changed meanwhile and the numbers rose strongly (+20% between March 2002 and March 2003 on 6,8%). This was caused by the economic crisis of the industrial companies, in which 26% the Native of Alsace are busy. The elsässische economy triestherefore and new fields of work on the service sector and in the research umzuorientieren themselves to open.

In the mining industry, which promoted one century long approximately 560 million tons potash salt, about 13,000 persons employed still worked in the year 1950. Today is the mining industryonly topic of a museum with Wittelsheim.

The Elsass is one of the largest European cultivation areas for white herb, which is continued to convert to sauerkraut.

Since the Middle Ages also the cultivation of flax and the linen weaving mill played in particular in the area overColmar a large role. A typically elsässisches Leinengewebe is the cross-hatched Kelsch.

history

see: Major item history of the Elsass

since the victory of Franconias over the Alemannen 496 belonged the left Rhine bank between Basel and the Pfalzas duchy for the realm of Franconias. In this time the name Elsass developed, from old high German ali saz (foreign seat). Strasbourg, since 614 bishop seat, was the most important city of the region. The so-called Strassburger of oaths, the Karl thatBald ones and Ludwig the German on the occasion of the Frankish handing hurrying 843 to Strasbourg sworn to, are early written certifications of the old French and the old high German. By the contract of Mersen 870 the Elsass came to the eastFrankish realm, the later holy one Roman one Richly German nation, and part of the master duchy became Swabia. Originally the Elsass was divided into two counties, the north gau and the Sundgau, disintegrated however soon into a multiplicity of small rule, among them beside Strasbourg the ten Realm cities Hagenau, Rosheim, Colmar, Schlettstadt, white castle, Oberehnheim, Mülhausen, Kaysersberg, Türkheim and Münster. Beside the cities only the bishop of Strasbourg and the having citizens could form as land counts Sundgau larger territories.When Rudolf was selected from having castle to the German king, the Sundgau was its most important territory.

The French expansion toward Rhine set in 14. Century. After the dreissigjährigen war emperor Ferdinand III. had. in the Westfäli peace 1648 the habsburgischenPossessions in the Elsass at France transfer. 1678 received also still the remainder of the Elsass to France except Strasbourg and Mülhausen. 1681 became Strasbourg on instruction Ludwig XIV.occupied and had to likewise bend itself the French rule. Mülhausen belonged until 1798as turned place to the Swiss Confederation. The French rule was favourable for the Elsass in economic regard, since now the uniform French king rule stepped to the place of a multiplicity of German small rule. In cultural regard tore however also after thatFrench occupation the gang to remaining Germany not off. In 18. Herder and Goethe at the University of Strasbourg studied century, at which still on German one taught. The French spread as administrative, handels and diplomat language howeverincreasingly within the urban and rural elite. After the French revolution in the course of the centralization of France the province Elsass was dissolved and the two Départements skin Rhin and Bas Rhin) was based.

After the defeat of France in the French-German war 1871 that becameElsass and some of Lorraine in peace surrendered from Frankfurt to the again created German empire. Only the französischsprachige city Belfort and its surrounding countryside remain as Territoire de Belfort with France. A part of the inhabitants of the Elsass took thosePossibility truely of deciding for the retention of the French nationality. As consequence a large part of the französischsprachigen elite as well as the French officials left (approx. 100.000) the country toward France. As part of the realm country Elsass Lorraine became the Elsass to 1911 directly of the German realm Reich administer. Afterwards the realm country the remaining German Federal States became on an equal footing. In the French policy that developed in the recuperation of the Elsass and after the war defeat against the German States of the so-called Revanchismus,for 1871 the principal purpose of French foreign policy in relation to the German empire to the retaliation saw. The memory of the loss of the Elsass was alive held thereby by exilierte Natives of Alsace and nationalistic French politicians by thinking marks and propaganda meetings. The Revanchismuswas not however under any circumstances a social mass phenomenon.

After the defeat in the First World War the German Reich the realm country Elsass Lorraine had 1918 France transfer. A popular vote over the national affiliation did not take place despite protests of the realm-German gesinnten Natives of Alsace. ThatElsass was integrated again into the centralistic French administrative structure and the French language as obligatory office and school language was introduced, in order to force a rapid adjustment to conditions in the rest of France. Those elsässischen politicians, who itself for a retention of the1911 furnished autonomy status also within the French state began, by the French state as national traitors was pursued and some also to death condemned (e.g.Karl Roos). The realm-German officials and only after 1871 tightened Germans from the remainingThe Elsass had to leave realm area. In response some French and German Natives of Alsace returned, who had opted to 1871 for France. „The Départements skin Rhin” and „Bas Rhin” was repaired 1918 by France. The Territoire de Belfort,until 1871 the part of the Départements skin Rhin had been, however not again with this was combined.

During intermediate wartime the relations between France and the German Reich ambivalence developed: Beginning of the 1920er years poisoned the war question of guilt, French Reparationsforderungen and Ruhr occupation the climate. Only the diplomacy of the ministers of foreign affairs Gustav Stresemann and Aristide Briand led to a careful approximation between the German Reich and France. In the contract of Locarno the German Reich 1926 accepted the new west border, over therebyto break through the international isolation and to repel large French requirements on the Saarland and the Rhine country. Although the revision of the Versailler of contract was after 1933 one of the principal purposes of the National Socialist dictatorship in the German Reich, had a recuperation of the Elsass forthe dictator Adolf Hitler not first priority.

Equal to beginning of the France campaign 1940 the realm-German army occupied the Elsass, subordinated it to its civil administration and attached it as realm area (a party) gau bathing. However neither a Annexion nor one found formalTransfer of the area by France instead of. The able-bodied German Natives of Alsace were drawn aspeople Germans “into the armed forces and the weapon SS, partly against their will, partly also as Freiwillige. Had turned around before already many German Natives of Alsace of the FrenchDrawn in, these had followed or belonged army voluntarily later to the French resistance (Résistance). Now Native of Alsace fought against each other in two disliked armies. 1945 drew itself the German armed forces before the approaching westallied military federations also from thatElsass back and France subordinated it again to its administration. Since the late Middle Ages the Natives of Alsace changed altogether their national associatednesses for six times.

1973 were created from the Départements skin Rhin and Bas Rhin the region Elsass (Région Alsace). 1976 received thoseRegion Elsass a cultural, however no linguistic autonomy. Still the French applies as exclusive office and school language also to the German-speaking Natives of Alsace. The number of the native ones (old residents), which today still their German dialect, which Elsässi control,is declining for years. Also in the meantime many Zugewanderte with French live or another native language in the Elsass.

The Elsass with its state capital Strasbourg became meanwhile seat of the European Union parliament and to an important region in the European Union and in Europe.By the Schengener agreements were abolished the border controls between Germany and France, so that the felt distance between the border regions Elsass and bathing was reduced. Also by the close economic entwinements within the Regio Basiliensis and contacts into German Germanin particular the southern Elsass moved nevertheless again closer to the German linguistic area.

Topografie

of cities

the largest cities of the region (more than 15,000 inhabitants in the year 1999) are:

traffic

work on []

Road system

the most important road connection in the Elsass is the duty-free motorway A 35, it is the north south connection of Lauterbourg (dt. Loud castle) to Saint Louis with Basel. South of Strasbourg runs A 35 on a short distance as national route,whereby is planned to close this gap.

Much-traveled A 4 leads from Strasbourg to Zabern (frz. Saverne) and further to Paris. It is starting from the Mautstelle with Hochfelden (20 km northwest from Strasbourg) duty requiring. A 36 leadsfrom German A 5 of the motorway interchange new castle out to the west toward Paris/Lyon and becomes starting from the Mautstelle with Burnhaupt duty requiring.

In the 1970er and 1980er years became the motorways in transit distances and in arterial roads for thoselarge densely populated areas converted. Since then the transit traffic flows into 2 to 3 lanes into 1 km distance around Strasbourg and into 1,5 km distance around Mülhausen. The high density of traffic causes strong environmental impacts, applies particularly on A 35with Strasbourg with 170.000 vehicles per day (conditions: 2002). Also strong city traffic on A 36 with Mülhausen entails regularly Verkehrsbehinderungen. This could be decreased only temporarily by the extension to three lanes per direction.

Around thatNorth south transit traffic to take up and Strasbourg relieve, one plans a new motorway route west the city. This route is to connect the motorway interchange with Hördt in the north with interior home in the south. The opening is set on at the end of of 2011. One expects then a traffic volumeof 41.000 vehicles per day. The use is however disputed, according to some estimations the new route only 10% of the traffic volume of A 35 with Strasbourg will take up.

In addition a substantial increase comes because of the introduction of the truck duty to Germany 2005before load traffic on the parallel running and duty-free elsässische motorway, driven over German A 5. Therefore beginning demanded 2005 Adrien Zeller, the president of the Région Alsace, the expansion of the German Mautsystems madly Collect on the elsässischeDistance.

Eisenbahnnetz

the Vogesen only over the Zaberner Steige, which is surmountable Burgundi gate and some less accessible passports, gives it there different projects to attach the Elsass better to the remainder of France:

The Vogesentunnel of Sainte Marie aux Mines (Markirch) after Saint Dié the Vosges (dt. Pc. Didel) was until 1973 a railway tunnel. Since 1976 it is reserved as Mautstrecke the traffic. The tunnel is closed from 2004 to 2007 for the extension of the safety devices.

water ways

In the elsässischen ports over 15 million tons goods are turned over. Three quarters of it are allotted to Strasbourg, which has the second largest inland port of France. The extension of the Rhine Rhône channel, that the Rhône and thus the Mediterranean with the Central European river net (Rhine) and thus the North Sea and the Baltic Sea connects, 1998 because of the costs and the destruction of the landscape, particularly in the valley of the Doubs, was adjusted.

air traffic

it gives two international airports in the Elsass:

both airports had together 1998 arising 5.155.380 passengers.

(Germans) the language of the Natives of Alsace

since the alemannischen and Frankish settling in the early Middle Ages in the Elsass by the majority native of Alsace German was spoken. This alemannische dialect exhibits - like each German dialect - large regional differences, in particular between north (Strasbourg) and south (Mülhausen).

After conquest of theElsass by French troops 1639 remained the German language and/or. the elsässische dialect up to the time of the French revolution the controlling colloquial language. After the French revolution changed the language politics of the French state, thereafter for France the linguistic unitpublicised. Thus the French language penetrated in particular into Strasbourg as well as in civil circles of the other cities. On the country against it the measures of the French Staatsmacht could not change the dialect fundamentally. Here if necessary French words spread, howalso sonstwo in the German linguistic area, which were however in most cases subjected to the traditional alemannischen grammar and stress.

With the connection of the Elsass to the German Reich 1871 high German was introduced again as office language. The language question became in oneLaw regulated from March 1872 first so that in principle the official commercial language was German, however in the regions with predominantly French-speaking population the public proclamations and issuing a French translation to be attached should. In a further law from 1873 becamefor the district administrations of Lorraine and the district administrations of those circles, in which the French language was totally or partly people language, the use of the French as commercial language certified.

In a law over the schooling of 1873 it was regulated that into thatAreas with German as people language this also exclusive school language was, while in the areas with predominantly French-speaking population instruction should be kept exclusive in French language.

When the Elsass fell 1918 France, the French state changed theseliberal phraseology and returned to restrictive language politics. In schools and administration excluding the French language certified, occasionally with punishment was forbidden speaking of Alsace (or high German). A goal of this politics was, the elsässischen dialect (just like the othersMinority languages in France such as Bretonisch to displace Korsisch or Okzitanisch) systematically by the French high-level language. Among other things as consequence of this politics native of Alsace German is today threatened from becoming extinct.

In the schools the standard-German writing language becomes predominant as a foreign languageinformed and otherwise French. In bilingualen schools instruction is held however into standard German. In September 2003 13,000 children in the Elsass visited this bilinguale school form. The majority of the older German generation speaks colloquially further its elsässische dialect; the youngerGenerations, in particular in the larger cities, predominantly speak French, which might be to due in addition, to a stronger mixing of the population and more intensive contacts to other French centers.

According to data in Strasbourg of the resident „office for language and culture inElsass “(Office pour la Langue et Culture D' Alsace - OLCA) speak still 600,000 humans of Alsace. Particularly in the rural area, in villages and smaller cities, the regional language culture carries out still for resistance against disappearing the elsässischen dialects. Under the slogan“E Friehjohr more fer unseri Sproch” are since 2001 theatre and groups of music, dialect poets, associations for local history and language male nurses together, in order to make advertisement for the receipt Elsässi. Besides the regional advice subsidizes courses in Elsässerditsch.

Intellectual one, about singer-songwriter and poet (z.B.André waking man) describe the tragedy of slow becoming extinct of the elsässischen dialect (see also there). So that the Elsässerditsch is not lost completely, France 3 Alsace sends from Monday to Friday the newscast “approximately over”, in excluding of Alsace spokenbecomes.

culinary specialities

  • Tarte flambée (flaming cakes)
  • Gugelhupf (heavy yeast cup cake)
  • Tarte aux pommes (Native of Alsace apple cake)
  • Bretele (Butterplätzchen with Zimt and Nüssen)
  • Mignardises (sweet Törtchen)
  • Friands (sweet paste pies)
  • Crémant (elsässischer sparkling wine)
  • Baeckeoffe (= “baker furnace”, pot from meat, potatoes andBulbs, the elsässische main court) [1]
  • Galettes de pommes de terre (small potato pancakes)
  • Choucroute (sauerkraut)
  • Quiche Lorraine
  • Coq outer vin (using Native of Alsace Riesling)
  • Foie grass (Paté from the liver of plugged geese or ducks)
  • Münster (intensively tasting, cremiger cheesewith reddish crust)

see also

to newspapers, magazines, Periodika

literature

  • the Elsass (2002): historical landscape in the change of the times/Michael inheritance (Hrsg.). Stuttgart: W. Kohl hammer. 198 S. : Ill. ISBN 3-17-015771-X
  • Haeberlin, Mark (2004): Elsass, my large love. Orselina: La Tavola, 279 S., zahlr. Color photo ISBN 3-9099-0908-6
    - review over the “Schlaraffia” Elsass
  • Ungerer, Tomi (2004): Elsass.The open heart of Europe. Strasbourg: Édition La Nuée Bleue/DNA, 48S., 40 color. Fig.
    ISBN 2-7165-0618-3
  • (2001): The Elsass. A literary travel companion. Frankfurt A.M.: Island publishing house, 251 S., more. Fig. ISBN 3-4583-4446-2
    - Impressionen of fifty writer/inside from five centuries over the Elsass
  • Vogler, Berne pool of broadcasting corporations and Lersch, Hermann (2000): The Elsass. Morstadt: Éditions Ouest France, 127 S., 240 usually color. Fig.
    ISBN 3-8857-1260-1
    - Review
  • writer, Hermann (1996): The Elsass and its history, a culture landscape in the area of conflict of two peoples. Augsburg: Conception of the world, 358 S., Ill. (out of print)
  • Faber, Gustav (1989): Elsass.Munich: Artemis Cicerone art and travel guide (out of print)
  • Mehling, Marianne (Hrsg.): Knaurs culture leader in color Elsass. Munich: Droemer Knaur, 1984, 259 S., überw. Ill. (out of print)

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