Emigration

emigration or emigration (of lat.: e outside; migrare move) are leaving the homeland in the long term. The emigrants or emigrant leave their homeland either voluntarily or force-measured for economical, religious, political or other individual reasons. In historyit gave emigration of a whole people or from large parts of a people and from individuals or individual families.

The emigrants come as an immigrant (immigrant) into the strange country taking up it.

German emigrants go on board one intothe USA of driving steamer (around 1850)

table of contents

term clarifying

from the emigration to differentiating is the ethnical cleaning or driving out, which represents a forced Massenwanderung and represents a measure contrary to international law. The place, at that refugeesafter their driving out live, exile one calls.

It always gave migration movements, either due to existenzieller threat by wars or natural catastrophes or by hope for better economic conditions in another country. In the research one speaks of push andPull factors, thus on the one hand of the situation in the country of origin, on the other hand of the alleged or material advantages in the host country.

To that extent each emigration has two aspects, i.e.

  • the situation in the delivering country: Population and gift loss, in addition, discharge with scarce resources
  • thoseSituation in the taking up country: Problems of the Akkulturation (above all learning the language) and integration, in addition, Zuwanderung of workers, specialized knowledge and cultural varieties.

history of the emigration in Europe of the modern times

in the early modern times - after that People migration - later driving the Mauren out from Spain is to call the transfer of Indian trunks to new domiciles (reservations) and the penal colonies.

A strong emigration movement occurred after the dreissigjährigen war, as a work emigrant from thatover-populated Switzerland (particularly from the cantons Thurgau, Zurich and pc. Gallen) and from Vorarlberg in the destroyed, partial deserted areas of South West German country became resident and helped to bring the devastated country again up.

In the age of the Konfessionalisierung (1550-1750)many emigrants had to leave their homeland for faith reasons, because since end 16. Century the principle was ever more strictly implemented cuius regio eius religio by the princes. Who did not want to cross national gentlemen to the denomination its, the country had to leave. Thatconcerned for example the Protestanten in Böhmen, which emigrated since 1623 to approximately 1680 in several waves. During early 18. Century are above all the large Emigrationen of the Huguenots remarkable. As particularly the protest anti-mash very strong in Southern Franceby the abolition of the edict by Nantes 1685, left thousands of members of the Protestant Oberschicht its homeland was forbidden and pursued and settled in England or Prussia. 1733 became the Protestanten from the country standing under bischöflicher ruleSalzburg drove out. Partially the national gentlemen promoted the settlement of the faith refugees by privileges, because they expected impulses for their economics.

In the second half 18. Century emigrierten many Germans eastward: to Hungary, Romania and Russia,partly encourages also here by the national gentlemen. In some settlement areas the language and culture of the original homeland remained over centuries, there the settlements outward to a large extent isolated was nearly impossible and in particular to marriage connections with inhabitants of the taking up countrywere. Meanwhile the emigrants developed an important resource.

Religiously motivated emigrants already pulled in 18. Century into the United States, in order to be able to live with the freedom of religion without Repressalien, granted there. Above all the State of Pennsylvania pulled humans to everythingreligious directions on.

In 19. Century reached the emigration in the German-speaking countries a high point. It came occasionally to mass emigrations, which were connected closely with the development relating to market conditions. Related to South West German country, one can speak of three phases of the mass emigration:

  • 1816/1817:Under the outbreak of the volcano Tambora in Indonesia, one of the strongest well-known volcanic eruptions at all, so much ash was hurled into the atmosphere that it came in the northern hemisphere to extremely wet, cold summers and the harvest of twoFailed years. Therefore it came to a large emigration movement. In South West German country many humans on the Danube embarked themselves and settled in south Russia (Bessarabien, area around Odessa, area over low-read in the Caucasus). A smaller part thatA new homeland looked for emigrants in the United States.
  • 1845-1855: Again a continuous economic crisis solved the largest mass emigration 19. Century out. Now the emigrant stream depended nearly without exception on the United States. There far regions were opened andsettled, by fighting and driving the natives out Indians. The messages of gold finds in California formed, admit an additional incentive for emigration since 1845 become under the term gold fever. One called the emigrants of this phase also Forty Eighters. After1855 left the strength of the emigration and came during the American civil war (1861-1865) nearly completely to succumbing.
  • 1880ff.: After 1880 it came again to oneEmigration wave into the United States, which did not reach however no more the strength of the other emigration movements.

In the economic depression after the First World War whole groups emigrierten to Argentina and south Brazil (Federal State Rio Grande DO Sul). Developed also hereGerman-language settlements; a region in south Brazil is called today still new Württemberg.

After the seizure of power of the NSDAP in Germany 1933 Jew pursuit as well as a complete suppression of any opposition began. Humans, those early enough the danger recognized and over the necessary financialMeans ordered, left the country. The film metropolis Hollywood profited immensely from the inflow at creative personnel such as producers, directors and actors. The film classical author Casablanca (1942) was occupied for example nearly without exception with immigrated actors. Famous emigrants e.g. were. in 20. Century the scientist Albert Einstein, which to writer Thomas man and Bertolt break, the actress Marlene Dietrich, the director Billy of savages, who left and into the USA emigrierten Germany during the “ third realm” because of the national socialism.

After 1945 emigrierten again many humans from Germany. A cause was primarily the economic lack of perspectives of the post-war period. In addition the research restrictions issued by the allied ones with scientists, which remained in Germany until 1955 into force, came. Among the emigrants were also Author of the Nazi regime from Germany, those for emigration the so-called. Rat line used.

The GDR lost during its 40-jährigen of existence over two million inhabitant, those particularly before the building of the Wall in addition, in the 80's, usually from economic reasons, inthe west went.

In the Germany of the cold war one spoke also of a right to free emigration, whereby one more exactly meant the right to liberality: This right refused the GDR to its citizens.

internal emigration

internal emigrationdesignates the internal mental emigration, z. B. of intellectual ones or artists in a dictatorship, which maintain a distance from power without active or artistic resistance remaining in the homeland.

immigration to Germany

a large immigration wave to Germany setto the 1960er years, as in the course of a very favorable economic development of hundredthousands of “immigrant workers “particularly from the southern countries of Europe (Italy, Spain, Greece, Yugoslavia, Turkey) immigrated. Which as temporaryPresence to the Aufbesserung of the economic situation was meant, led in the predominant number of the cases to a firm settlement. Particularly in the catering trade one can recognize the cultural consequences of this immigrant movement very clearly, is it for example in common arisingthe Pizza or the Döner Kebab.

one

- however dependent on the cultural surrounding field of the country of origin - can speak integration in a large part of the regenerating generation from a large to complete integration. However it gives alsoSchichten von Einwanderern, bei denen Abgrenzungstendenzen und eine weitgehende oder vollständige Bewahrung der Kultur ihres Heimatlandes festzustellen ist. After 2000 in this connection above all the Islamism made the inclination to one in this regard about itself to talk, thusIslamic fundamentalism.

emigration from Germany up-to-date

2004 12,976 Germans emigrierten into the USA, closely followed from 12.878 into Switzerland. Switzerland has statistically regarded from year to year a ever larger immigration of the Germans. Itare in particular well trained specialists, who emigrieren.

emigration there are

reasons for emigration in almost all countries of the earth, for different reasons:

emigration in different countries

itgives classical emigration countries like the states to the second and third world in such a way specified. In addition, from states of the first world humans emigrate, e.g. for private, economic or other reasons (see:Brain drain). Immigration countries are: see immigration.

Andthere are countries, the emigration not to limit must, since due to the economic strength no or only minimum emigration pressure develops itself, e.g.THE USA, FRG.

Czechoslovakia

between the incorporation of the Sudetenlandes and the Okkupation by thirdRichly many endangered humans left the country, many of them had already once from Germany before the Nazis to flee.

After the war many emigrants returned, but some left their homeland disappointed rapidly again. Apart from driving the Germans outPopulation lost the country also thousands of Czechs and Slowaken. After the final communist seizure of power 1948 Czechs fled into the west until 1989 about ½ million (of it 60,000 immediately after February 1948, about 245,000 after striking down of the Prager of spring 1968) as well as after the classifications after the establishment of the Charter 77 in the year 1977.

see also

literature

  • Klaus J. Bath: German abroad - foreigner in Germany, migration in history and present. Beck, Munich 1992. ISBN 3-406-35961-2
  • Hans Ulrich angels: German on the way. Ofthe medieval east settlement up to driving out in 20. Century. Olzog, Munich 1983. ISBN 3-7892-7173-X
  • Jour fixed initiative Berlin (Hrsg.): Escape lines of the exile. Unrast publishing house, Münster 2004. ISBN 3-89771-431-0
  • walter G. Rödel, Helmut Schmahl (Hrsg.): Humans between two worlds. Emigration, settlement, Akkulturation.WVT Trier, Trier 2002.ISBN 3-88476-564-7 (emphasis German North America emigration in 18. and 19. Century)
  • Birgit Schmidt: If the party the people discovers. Anna Seghers, Bodo Uhse, Ludwig run among other things A critical contribution to the people front ideology and their literature.Unrast publishing house, Münster 2002.ISBN 3-89771-412-4 (emphasis man of letters in the exile)

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