Emmy Noether

Emmy Noether
Emmy Noether

Amalie „Emmy “Noether (* 23. March 1882 in attaining; † 14. April 1935 in Pennsylvania, the USA) was a German Mathematikerin.

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origin and youth

Emmy Noether originated from a well situierten Jewish family. Its father, max of Noether was a mathematician and professor in attaining. Their younger brother,the mathematician Fritz Noether, fled before the national socialists into the Soviet Union, where he was condemned and shot in the course of the Stalin cleanings because of allegedly antisoviet propaganda. Emmy Noether did not show special earlyripe in mathematical direction, but had asDte rodent interest in music and dancing. In the year 1900 she takes the state examination to the teacher of the English and French language at Mädchenschulen. 1903 retrieve it in Nuremberg the Abitur.

study and occupation

1904 became womenfor the first time at German universities to the study certified, which permitted also Emmy Noether the inscription in attaining. It had before visited already with permission of individual professors as Gasthörerin lectures in Goettingen, had to do however due to an illness back after attaining.There it one attained a doctorate to 1907 in mathematics. In the year after it became member of the Circulo matematico di Palermo, 1909 joined it the German mathematician combination .

1909 were called it by Felix Klein and David Hilbert to Goettingen, there iton the Forschungsgebiet of the differential invariants meanwhile a real size was. Goettingen was also world-wide at this time the prominent mathematical center of Germany and.1915 fail a first Habilitationsversuch because of the private lecturer order, which permitted expressly only men to the Habilitation. Hilbert is to it said, “that he it do not see, why the sex of the candidates should be an argument against a permission as a private lecturer. Finally one is, after everything which he knows, a university and not a public swimming pool. “You informed thereupon asHilberts female assistant, who their lectures for example to the invariant theory under its name announced.

To the First World War and the collapse of the empire it came in the Weimar Republic to a general legal good position of the women. Apart from the right to vote became alsothe Habilitationsordnung changed and thus female candidates to the Habilitation certified. Emmy Noether could habilitieren itself 1919. She got nevertheless only 1922 an extraordinary Professur and only 1923 their first paid training order. Up to the large inflation in the same year it livedvery economically of an inheritance. 1928/29 transferred it a Gastprofessur to Moscow, 1930 in Frankfurt/Main. With its return from the Soviet Union she expressed herself exclusively positively over the there situation, which their later on the part of the Nazisthe reproach of communism brought in. It professed itself to the Pazifismus and was from 1919 to 1924 member (U) of the SPD. Together with Emil Artin received it to 1932 the Ackermann Teubner Gedächtnispreis for its entire scientific achievements.

the USA

1933 you becameextracted by the Nazis training permission and it emigrierte due to its political opinions and its Jewish descent into the USA. Before Noether had still considered to go to Moscow. But the efforts of its there friend Pavel Sergeevic Aleksandrov with thatRussian authorities dragged on to for a long time. In America you helped her former Göttinger colleague Hermann Weyl to find a place. It received an employment as Gastprofessorin at the Women's college Byrn Mawr in Pennsylvania. Besides it held for lecturesin Princeton. Emmy Noether died at the complications of an abdominal operation to 14. April 1935 in the US-American Federal State Pennsylvania.


Emmy Noether belongs to the founders of modern algebra. Their mathematical coinage came through above allthe Erlanger professor Paul Gordan, the “king in such a way specified of the invariants”. Therefore it concerned itself until 1919 mainly with the invariant theory. Starting from 1920 it shifted its main point of research on the general ideal theory. In Goettingen it created its own school: SinceCenter of the 1920er years was a set of high-talented pupils from all world, around it the scharten to Noether. Their student it called its “satellites” or the “Noether boys”.

After Emmy Noether are designated and also the noetherschen rings and modulesthe noethersche normalization set carries its names. In the last quarter 20. Century developed the Noether theorem to one of the most important bases of physics.

After their the Emmy Noether program of the German research council is designated, which promotes young scientists and scientist inside.


  • Renate Tobies: Emmy Noether - “my Mr., a university is nevertheless no public swimming pool!” Spektrum der Wissenschaft, August 2004, S. 70 - 77, ISSN 0170-2971
  • Augusts thick: Emmy Noether. Basel: Birkäuser 1970

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