This article or section requires a revision. Details are indicated on the QA side. Please to improve it and removes afterwards this marking helps.
The emotion fright
the emotion wines
the emotion pain

an emotion (v. lat.: ex „“and motio movement, excitation “) is out a psychophysiologischer process, which is released by the cognitive evaluation of an object and with physiological changes, specific cognitions, subjective feeling experiencing and a change of the behavior readiness accompanies. Emotions step with humans and with higher animalsup.

With emotions concern themselves among other things psychology, psychiatry, philosophy, neurology and brain research, physiology and biology - see. Emotions (biology) -, behavior research and sociology.

Table of contents

conceptual demarcations

an emotion is a complex process, which runs off on different psychological function levels. Of it to differentiate the term is feeling, which designates only the subjective experiencing of the emotion, like e.g. Joy, desire, security,Love, mourning, annoyance, Wohlbehagen. Feelings become usual as different by perceptions, feelings and thinking, in addition, can connect itself of wanting outstandingly, however with all other experience ways. Often it is accepted that feelings have desire and Unlustcharakter and by their pleasantor unpleasant its to the experiences a value profile impress (see.Worth).

Contrary to tendencies emotions are relatively short and intensive. While tendencies and their trip remain often unnoticed, the releasing object and the psychological and physiological emotion components are with emotionsusually in the focus of the attention.

References emotions action intentions or they cause actions, which are not controllable any more or in smaller measure, then speak one of Affekten (“affect action”). While with the feeling the cognitive aspect quite to be missing can - over for exampleTo feel, one must not understand pain, what happens -, emotions contain always also any kind of understanding. This applies also to Affekte, which are connected then usually with a Werturteil as “correctly”, “wrongly”, “well” or “badly”.

Tendencies differentiateitself of feelings, emotions and Affekten among other things because they are temporally longer expanded experienced as (“good mood”, “depression”). Similarly as usually only brief feeling impressions tendencies are able “to dye” the perception, as if one experiences the reality by feeling eyeglasses. Which thereby, is primarily not not a cognitive classification is experienced (e.g. “I am in a good mood”), but this follows normally only the experience of the Gestimmtseins. Are crucial as with the feeling and the emotion, in addition, the affect the respective pleasant andUnpleasant its. To that extent all kinds of feeling resemble themselves. Without unpleasant its of feeling for example no bad tendency is experiencable.

to constitute worth driving

feeling further functions has functions of feeling apart from its characteristic:

1) Feelings, emotions, tendencies andAffekte are a part of interhuman communication.

2) Feelings, emotions, tendencies and Affekte accompany a recognizing, z. B. in the feeling of the evidence and during the estimate whether something is regarded as probable or improbably. Also the intuition, stillthe explicit realization steps are been based substantially missing, on positive and negative and thus “confirming” or “negative” feeling.

3) With social behavior standards and customs and in moral acting feelings and emotions indicate whether we behave in accordance with the valid standards.

4)In the language feeling the negative and positive feeling represents the adherence to the language rules, e.g. according to the grammar.

5) In the estimate of the own health and in the medicine feelings interpret on diseases or on the convalescence, both in the physicalas within the psychological range (Phobie, self value feeling).

6) During physical and psychological load feelings indicate fatigue, overloading and stress conditions.

7) With the motivation the feeling plays an important role owing to its value character as a action-releasing moment.

8) Thatan individual character is coined/shaped over far distances by an individual feeling profile (“Attractio Aversio profile”). Inclinations, in addition, abilities are contributed substantially by feelings.


more details on the classification by emotions is to be found in the article emotion theory.

Emotions leave themselves roughinto pleasant (euphoric, see. also “Attractio”) and unpleasant (disphorische, see. also divide “Aversio”) of feelings. They have usually a quality („which kind of emotion? “) and a strength („as the emotion is intensive? “).

After Izard (1994) ten different feelings exist, upseem to the whole world and in each culture: Interest, wrong, aversion, joy, anger, surprise, shame, fear, Verachtung and debt feeling.

Older theories divide the feelings in four main groups:

Further examples of single emotions are disappointment, Compassion, envy, pride and falling in loveness.

A further classification consists of differentiating between feelings and Affekten. The feelings are from this the emotions, which connect, while Affekte are the emotions, which separate. To the feelings belong thus: Love, friendship, sympathy, solidarity, community feeling. To the Affekten belong: Envy, hate, fear, jealousy, inferiority feeling, debt feeling.

release conditions

emotions are released, according to the two-component theory, by physiological attractions(like e.g. Heart lawns, Erröten etc.), these are interpreted in the respective situation and aligned in such a way to a certain object. Thus beating of the heart was noticed with the sport as effort, referred with flirting however to the flirtation partner and interpreted in such a way as emotion.The intensity of the emotion is determined thereby by the strength of the physiological attraction, while the quality of the emotion depends on the interpretation. This was partly proven 1962 by an experiment by Schachter and Singer. In the course of the experiment places itselfhowever out that the bare subjective perception one is sufficient physiologischens attraction around an emotion to release, although this attraction is objectively not at all present. Thus it is to be caused possible emotions, if one causes with a test person only physiological attractions and for thesebut supplies an interpretation beginning.

has components

of the emotion an emotion usually a cognitive, a physiological, a feeling and a motivationale component. That is called persons, who have a certain emotion,

  • has evaluating thoughts
  • to notice physical changes
  • to experience usuallyfrequently similar behaviors show
  • definable and designatable feeling in the consequence of the emotion.

emotion regularization

emotions can be released very fast or developed themselves slowly. They are not directly influenceable, probably however own handling them: oneshe can see as enriching or disturbance, one can her ignore (not in the long term) or it to someone communicate etc.

Since this has certain reactions to the feeling life, one can partly strengthen, slowly convert the own

Newer attempts with EQ-training in such a way specified (“EQ” for “emotional quality” or “emotional intelligence quotient”) point on in higher measure the will subjected an influenceableness of feeling and the emotions than expected. A condition for it is among other things a deepened knowledgeover feeling (Peter Schmidt 1999, 2005) (see. Feeling).

emotions strong

effects on the achievement of a person to have there apart from the term intelligence, so far rather on the technical and the mathematical know, move emotional intelligenceAchievement and/or. Intelligence aimed at, also emotional intelligence in such a way specified ever more into the center. The validity of the Konstrukts emotional intelligence is however disputed in the empirical psychology.

see also

Web on the left of

emotion expression in the culture comparison

the study of different cultures showed that feelings are not inevitably identical to the emotion shown. The resulting distinction stresses „the internalness “of the feeling in relation to the observable expression of emotions, ofcultural factors one affects.

A multiplicity at fundamental emotions exists in each culture at each time. These emotions are closely coupled with neural processes arising at the same time. One assumes the fundamental emotions a close relationship to the pertinent face expressionexhibit.

In culture-comparative studies rage was for example always expressed with lowering and the pulling of the brows, schlitzförmigen eyes and a pressed together mouth together. One assumes thus the mimische expression of the basic emotions is universal.

emotions inthe animal world

only humans can reflect to present knowledge conditions over his emotions. In addition, the signals of the emotions are to be observed with higher animals clearly and only the strangeness of the emotions with us furthermore standing kinds have us thatIt locked insight that animals seemed to react nearly forceful to their emotions. In addition, with humans it suggests itself that the emotions did not lose anything as motivation for behavior shown at meaning.

emotional behavior control

the emotions findtheir origin in phylogenetisch older parts of the brain and hold with neuralen and neuroendocrine processes a key position for the behavior of the kind concerned. The alleged alternative of a behavior control by intelligence stands and falls with the proof of the influences for thatEmotions on this intelligence.

an outstanding role

plays applications of the emotion research emotion within many applied ranges. When psychological disturbances emotional or affektive symptoms are often the central problem. In the Psychotherapie are important emotions for the long-termChange of experiencing and holding back. The advertising psychology and psychology of selling try v.a. to produce positive emotions in connection with the angepriesenen products, in order to produce a better evaluation by the customer. Purposeful causing of emotions a means, that is generalTo change experiencing and holding back from humans and animals to. However one should point out that a control of emotions affects by intensive psychological as well as physical training strongly, to be even prevented can.

history of the feeling term

already inThe philosophers air tip pos (435-366 v. designated antiquity. Chr.) and Epikur (341-270 v.Chr.) “desire”, and/or. (depending upon translation Epikurs) also “joy”, “pleasures” (hêdonê) as substantial characteristic of feeling. As “unclear realizations” and reasonless and nature-adverse emotions became the feelings of thatStoikern (about 350-258) determines; the desire principle of the Epikureer is questioned. Older philosophy and psychology preferably treat the topic emotions and feelings under the term of the “Affekte” (lat. affectus: Condition of the mind, griech.: pathos; see.Affect), and/or.also the “passions” and here particularly under the criterion of the ethics and life accomplishment. “The determination of the term of the Affekte varied often. Soon the Affekte was seized more closely only than emotions, soon is it further also than will proceduresmeant, soon they were mixed as temporary conditions, soon also as continuing conditions defined and then with the passions. “(Friedrich Kirchner, 1848-1900). For the Kyrenaiker (4. Jahrh. v. Chr.) are two Affekte substantially: Unlust and desire (ponos and hêdonê).Also Aristoteles (384-322) understands mental experiencing, whose substantial characteristics are desire and Unlust by Affekten.

Descartes (1596-1650) differentiates between six Grundaffekte: Love, hate, demand, joy, sadness, admiration. For Spinoza (1632-1677) there is against it three Grundaffekte: Joy, sadness and demand. Also Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) saw a feeling as mental real estate property of the desire and Unlust: “All soul abilities or abilities can be attributed to the three, which cannot be derived furthermore from a joint reason: the realization ability, the feeling of the desireand Unlust and the desiring ability ".

Friedrich Nietz (1844-1900) did not separate between emotional and cognitive aspect: “Behind the feelings stand judgements and appreciations, are left which in the form by feelings (inclinations, dislikes) to us.” A much considered attempt of the present was the multielement reason of the substantial factors of the feeling of William Wundt(1832-1920) by desire/Unlust, excitation/calming, tension/solution. Another, influential attempt at explanation comes from the American psychologist and philosopher William James (1842-1910). James believed, without strongphysical reactions are not feelings and/or. Emotions perceptibly. Emotions are for it nothing else as feeling physical changes. After James we do not cry, because we are sad, but we are sad, because we cry. We do not run before thatBears away, because we are afraid, but we are afraid, because we run away. Psychologists such as Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915) represented that linear model from desire and Unlust. The psychologist Philipp Lersch (1898-1972) argued against it: “That this criterionthe banality becomes, if we approximately to the phenomenon of the artistic seizingness apply it, is obvious. The artistic seizingness would be then likewise a feeling of the desire like the pleasure at the pack of cards or the benefit of a good glass wine.On the other hand moving were thrown such as annoyance and regret into the one pot of the Unlustgefühle. With the religious feeling however - just as also with feelings as attention and admiration - the regulation at all not possibly becomes after desire and Unlust. “

Franz Brentano (1838-1917)did not assume, the allocation of feeling and object is contingent, but can be correct (“as correctly recognized love”). Max of Scheler (1874 - 1928) and Nicolai Hartmann (1852 - 1950) saw feelings in the “value feeling so mentioned” similar as applicable characterisationsfrom worth driving (see. “Materiale value ethics”, “values as ideal Ansichsein”). Also for victory mouth Freud (1856 - 1939) are feelings to essentially equate with desire and Unlust (“desire Unlust principle”), with the variant that each desire feeling is sexual in the core. Freud was thatOpinion: “It is simply the program of the desire principle, which sets the life purpose - to its expedientness can no doubt be, and its program nevertheless is in the Hader with the whole world. ” Carl Gustav young (1875-1961) stressed likewise the role ofDesire and Unlust, doubted however that ever a definition will be “able, the specific of the feeling in only to some extent a sufficient way to show”. The American brain researcher Antonio Damasio (geb. 1944) defines feelings and emotions predominantly cognitive and asBody conditions: „Recapitulatory can be stated that the feeling consists of a mental evaluation process, which can be simple or complex and arrangemental reactions to this process “(...). - „In my opinion the nature of the feeling lies in numerous changes ofBody conditions, which are caused in innumerable organs by nerve ending. “

In the present the situation is rather unclear regarding the feeling and emotion term: Numerous beginnings try to determine a character and regularities of feeling to obtain however without an agreement: e.g. Marañón1924, Cannon (1927), Woodworth (1938), Schlosberg (1954), Schachter and Singer (1962), Valins 1966, Burns and Beier (1973), Graham (1975), marshal and. Zimbardo 1979, Rosenthal (1979), Schmidt Atzert (1981), is enough (1998). The American philosopher Robert C. Solomon placed to that in view of diversityInterpretations recently firmly: „Which is a feeling? One should assume the fact that the science found to it long an answer but that is not like that, as the extensive psychological technical literature points to the topic. “(Robert C. Solomon:Feelings and the sense of theLife, Frankfurt/Main 2000, S. 109).

see also


  • Martin Hartmann: Feelings. As the sciences it explain.Campus, Frankfurt/Main 2005. 184S.
  • Heiner haste EDT: Feelings. Philosophical remarks. Reclam, Stuttgart 2005. 164 S.
  • Victory hard Neckel: Emotion by Design. The self management of the feelings as cultural program. In: Berlin journals for sociology. 15. Jg., number 3/05. VS, publishing house for social sciences, Wiesbaden. 140 S.
  • Rainer Maria Kiesow and Martin Korte:Emotional law book. Dekalog of the feelings. Given change of Kiesow and A. Böhlau, Cologne and Weimar 2005. 320 S.
  • Omega publishing house: The blue rider. Journal for philosophy No. 20 (2/05). Omega publishing house, Stuttgart. 114 S.
  • Hermann Schmitz: The feeling area. Bouvier, Bonn 2005. 560 S.,
  • Jürgen H Otto, Harald A Euler and Heinz Mandl: Emotion psychology. A manual, Weinheim: Beltz, 2000.
  • James William: What is at emotion? Mind 9 (1884) 185-205.
  • Long Carl: Over striving movements. Leipzig:Thomas, 1887.
  • Cannon walter B: The James long one theory OF emotion: A critical examination and to alternative. American journal OF Psychology 39 (1927) 106-124.
  • Bard, Philip: On emotional expression after decortication with some remarks on certain theoretical views. Part II. Psychol. Rev. 41 (1934) 424-49.
  • Schachter, Stanley and Singer, Jerome (1962): Cognitive, social and physiological determinants OF emotional state. Psychol. Rev. 69 (1962) 379-407.
  • Schmidt, Peter: Kraft of the positive feelings. dtv, Munich 2001.
  • Schmidt, Peter: Scanning.Beluga new Media, heart 2005.
  • Solomon, Robert C.: Feelings and the sense of the life. Two thousand-unity, Frankfurt/Main 2000.
  • Merten, J. (2003). Introduction to the emotion psychology. Stuttgart: Kohl hammer.

Web on the left of

physiology, body language]


  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)