Degenerate art

„degenerate art “ is a devaluing term for modern art, coined/shaped by the national socialists, which did not insert itself into the art understanding of the National Socialist ideology and which dekadente representation of illness features and excrescences of the civilization designated. As sign of decay thatfor cultural vitality applied therefore also pessimism and Pazifismus and all other beginnings of the degeneration, thus for also kind stranger of influences as well as immoral and abnorme deviations from the kind and race term. As were degenerated accordingly works of the expressionism and the abstract art throughConfrontation with pathological features diffamiert.

see. also „degenerate music

table of contents

prehistory

from the National Socialist national education Minister of the Thuringias William Frick caused decree against the negro culture for German nationality (5. April 1930) was the starting point of the further clearing of un-German influences, those in October for re-painting over the Wandmalereien of Oskar Schlemmer and with the aid Paul Schultze Naumburgs for clearingWeimar lock museums of works of Ernst Barlach, Charles Crodel, Otto DIX, Erich Heckel, Oskar Kokoschka, Franz Mark, Emil Nolde, Karl Schmidt Rottluff among other things led. Minister became Frick at the 1. April 1931 thatConfidence of the Thuringian federal state parliament extracted, but the elections of the federal parliament of 31. It brought and opened July 1932 to the National Socialist parliamentary group the absolute majority the access of Weimar on Berlin which led consequently to the fact that exemplary the straight to the Goethe year 1932 with Wandmalereienhealth establishments renewed by Charles Crodel by bath allium city in the summer 1933 were partly burned, re-painted over partly, while in Berlin a erbitteter direction fight was led, the Alfred rose mountain in the winter 1934-1935 for itself decided and after the citizens of Berlin Olympiad of 1936converted.

Gedenktafel in the Köpenicker road in Berlin before a former depot for „degenerate art “

prelude of the recent pursuit wave was the locking of the new department of the citizens of Berlin national gallery in the crowning prince palace to 30. October 1936 and the decree of 30. June1937, which authorized the new realm art chamber president Adolf Ziegler, those in the German Reich to select and guarantee land and local possession of works present of German purge art since 1910 on that areas of the painting and the sculpture for the purpose of an exhibition.

thoseExhibition „degenerate art “

the exhibition „degenerate art “became to 19. July 1937 in Munich opens and showed 650 konfiszierte works of art from 32 German museums. Until April 1941 it moved into twelve further cities. It tightened over 3 million visitor.The exhibition was initiated by Joseph Goebbels and led by Adolf Ziegler (1892 - 1959), the president of the realm chamber of the forming arts. At the same time set with the seizure of altogether approximately 16,000 modern works of art, partially inForeign country were sold or destroyed, „the cleaning “of the German art collections. Professionals disqualification for artists and museum people, who had purchased modern art, or university teachers were there already immediately after the seizure of power of the national socialists since 1933.

As „degenerate art “were considered inLV regime all works of art and cultural currents, which were not to be brought with the art understanding and the ideal of beauty of the national socialists in agreement:

Expressionism, Impressionismus, Dadaismus, new Sachlichkeit, Surrealismus, Kubismus or Fauvismus. As „degenerate “were considered among other thingsthe works of George Grosz, Elfriede Lohse Wächtler, Karl Hofer, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, max Ernst, Karl Schmidt Rottluff, max pitch stone, Paul Klee, Otto Griebel, Otto DIX or Ernst Barlach. In the exhibition„Degenerate art “their exhibits were equated with designs of mentally handicappeds and combined with photos of crippled humans, who should excite abhorrence and anxieties with the visitors. So the art term of the avant-garde modern trend should ad absurdum led and modern art as„degenerate “and as sign of decay to be understood. This presentation „ill “, „Jewish bolschewistischer “art served also for the legitimacy of pursuit „rassisch inferior “and political opponent. To the exhibition „the national socialists of handbills (printing distributed degenerate art “in Munich on thin red paper, 134 x 200mm):


“ Tormented canvas -
Mental decay -
Diseased Phantasten -
Spirit patient Nichtskönner

by Jew cliques price-crowned, by man of letters praised, were
Products and producers of one „art “, for the national one
and urban institutes gewissenlos amounts of millions Germans
National wealth dissipated, during German artists to
resemble time verhungerten. So, like those „state “was its
„art “.

Regard you! Judges!

Visit the exhibition

„degenerate art “

yard garden arcades, gallery road 4

entrance freely For young people forbade ”


Parallel to „degenerated to art “showed the national socialists in „the large one German art exhibition “in the resident of Munich „house of the German art “, which one has to understand by „German “art.

The destruction attack on the modern trend and its Protagonisten concerned all sections of the culture such as literature, film art, theatre, architecture or music.Modern music like the Swing or „the Nigger jazz “became on to 24. Exhibition opened May 1938 “degenerate music” just as inconsiderately diffamiert as „the music bolshevism “from internationally well-known composers as Hanns Eisler, Paul Hindemith or Arnold beautiful mountain.

LV art politics

after „the distance by force “Jewish, communist and „more unwanted “artist from public offices and the book burn to 10. May 1933 on the citizen of Berlin opera place, became already in the first months clear after the seizure of power of the national socialists,that those was irrevocable variety of the art work of the Weimar Republic to end.

The new National Socialist German art should be an art „of the nordisch arischen people “. „Art is always the creation of certain blood, and the form-bound nature of an art becomes onlyunderstood about creatures of the same blood “, Alfred rose mountain in its book published writes 1930 „the myth 20. Century “(S. 120). Actually “it rejected „ an art resident in the whole world strictly. To of the LV art politics preferredand motives converted by artists such as Arno Breker, Willy Meller, Josef Thorak (1889 - 1952 ) and Ivo Saliger (1894 - 1987) belonged among other things the hard life of farmers and workers, satisfying mothers, muskelbepackte sportsmen,heroful soldiers, mythologische scenes and ästhetisierte woman shapes.

All in all the NS time brought however hardly original works out. The new art publicised by the national socialists attached within all ranges - screen end art, literature, music, architecture - essentially to thoseRegional arts and crafts and „the farmers, blood and soil “- literature of the Wilhelmini era on.

1936 were issued a total prohibition of any art of the modern trend. Hundreds of works of art, particularly from the range of the painting, were removed from the museums and either for the exhibition „degeneratedArt “konfisziert, abroad sells or destroys. Painters, writers and composers received - so far they abroad were not emigriert - work and exhibition prohibition. That since 1933 existing purchase prohibition for not arische and modern works of art was already intensified.

1937 opened those„Large German art exhibition “in the newly built house of the art in Munich. The goal of the exhibition lay not only in the presentation of German art, but also in the attempt of näherzubringen to the simple people „its “art. An official competition loaded all German artists intoIn and foreign country to participate in it. Well 600 was issued and offered by the 16,000 sent in works for the sales. Remarkable was however the absence of recent talents. Most of the issued artists, like Fritz Erler (1868 - 1940), Ferdinand mirrors (1879 - 1950) or Conrad Hommel, had already issued their works before the power start of the national socialists at other places.

In the conception world of prominent national socialists Kitsch and size size of a synthesis were received: Collecting such „Blut-undSoil “- art was a personal request of the unsuccessful painter Adolf Hitler. After the First World War it already briefly noted the idea for the first time to furnish „a Hitler art museum “. It wanted to open a gigantic art museum after the Second World War in its home city Linz,in that works of art from the conquered areas to be issued should. It should be built directly beside a palace on the Danube bank, in which the dictator planned to spend its old age.

art burn

Charles Crodel

expressed professionals disqualification

Ernst Barlach
Karl Caspar
Heinrich Maria Davringhausen
Otto DIX
max Ernst
Otto Griebel
William largely
George Grosz
Karl Hofer
Paul Klee
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Emil Nolde
Otto Pankok
Leo finery
max pitch stone
Franz Radziwill
Joachim Ringelnatz
Karl Schmidt Rottluff
Fritz stucco mountain

literature

Hildegard burner: The art politics of the national socialism. Rowohlt: Reinbeck with Hamburg 1963 (= rde 167/168)

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