encyclopedia (altgriech. εγκυκλοπαιδεία, in an educated manner out egkyklios in a circle and paideia teachings, education) are original from Hippias of Elis in 5. Jh. v. Chr. coined/shaped name for universal education. Today understandsone under an encyclopedia a structured, as comprehensive a representation of human knowledge in a detailedness as possible sufficient for the everyday life use. One differentiates between universal and specializedspecific encyclopedias. First serve the representation as much as possible fields of knowledge, the latters treat only a reduced range, this however oftensubstantially in more detail. The term of the encyclopedia is investigated in the science of the Enzyklopädik; you are the basis an encyclopedia theory .
demarcation and restriction of the term
oneEncyclopedia must be not necessarily a reference book; Encyclopedias can represent knowledge in different organization forms, begun from a Allegorie over a curriculum, a cosmogony, to the Dekalog, the Katechismus up to systematic or alphabetical arrangements. Their characteristic Characteristic in relation to other literature kinds is requirement for universality.
Above all enzyklopädische reference books with a limited specialized extent are called rather specialized technical or special dictionary (for example Computer encyclopedia, language encyclopedia or animal encyclopedia). The encyclopedia is investigated in the science of the Lexikografie; you are the basis an encyclopedia theory .
As Zwischenform between encyclopedia and dictionaries the term dictionary can be considered. It examines the use from words idea and/or socialhistorical perspective and is scientifically more fastidious thereby than the special dictionary. Typical examples are historical fundamental ideas and the historical dictionary of philosophy.
The term encyclopedia became at the beginning 16. Century from the equivalent frz. encyclopédie takes. This again too lat. encyclopaedia out altgr.: εγκύκλιος and παιδεία, a inkorrekten composition out egkýklios, „“, „going into circles “and paideía , „teachings “, „education “too egkyklopaideia , „basic teachings of all sciences and arts “, „science customer “what
is enzyklopädisch in a circle?
There an encyclopedia no pure encyclopedia, no pure word meaning reference book and/or. Dictionary to be is, but a field of knowledge or the general knowledge to enumerate is not only, is enzyklopädisch such a work then, if it contains articles to a large extent, the single topics (and/or.individual terms of importance) deepening treat, however without out banks, possibly. with literature data and denomination of the author and/or. the authors (the single article). For larger fields of knowledge or more comprehensive encyclopedias of the general knowledge than compromise was in-patriated, encyclopedia-typical word explanations beside deepening articlesto permit, since in the long run also as much as possible terms are to be explained.
To history and development
To encyclopedias after languages
Comparison of some encyclopedias
|name||title||medium||number of articles||Words||illustrations||video||audio||Web on the left of|
|Encyclopédie of d'Alembert and Diderot||Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné the sciences, kind métiers, edition of 1750-1772 of 28||volumes 71,818||20||millions et||2.885||no||no||no|
|Britannica||Encyclopaedia Britannica (EB)||of 32 volumes||>65.000||44 millions||>24.000||no||none||?|
|Britannica||Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite 2005||6 CDs or 1 DVD||> 100,000||> 54 millions||>17.650 (*)||?||?||165,000|
|of Brockhaus||the encyclopedia 20. , again edition worked on 1996 to 1999||24 volumes||> 260.000||?||>35.000||no||none||?|
|Of Brockhaus||the encyclopedia 21. , again edition worked on 2005 to 2006||30 volumes||> 300,000||33 millions||>40.000||no||none||?|
|Of Brockhaus||the encyclopedia digitally||USB stick and 2 DVDs||> 300,000||33 millions||>40.000||300||3000/70 hours||> of 22.000|
|Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo americana||Enciclopedia Espasa of 2004||90 volumes + 1 DVD||> 900,000||> 200 millions||>100.000||?||?||?|
|Encyclopédie universal Larousse||L'Encyclopédie universal Larousse 2003||4 CDs or 1 DVD||> 150,000||> 25 millions||?||10,500 video + audio +Fig.||?||2,300|
|Microsoft Encarta||encyclopedia Professional 2006||4 CDs or 1 DVD||> 50,000||> 20 millions||>24.000||> 300||> 2,800||6,000|
|Meyers||Meyers large bag encyclopedia in 26 volumes||of 26 volumes + CD||> 150.000||?||>5.000||no||none||?|
|Pauly Wissowa||Paulys Realencyclopädiethe classischen antiquity science (1890 - 2000)||of 86 volumes and a CD-ROM||?||?||?||no||no||no|
|Wikipedia||the free encyclopedia (German)||on-line, PDA, mobile telephone, CD-ROM, DVD, paperback row, starting from end of '06 printout (about 800.000Sides?) planned||at present -1||>,120 millions||>181.000||?||>81||> 335,000|
(*) inclusively Audio and video files
typology of the encyclopedias and encyclopedias
- General encyclopedia and/or. Universal encyclopedia
- special encyclopedia
- national - and culture encyclopedia
see also: Encyclopedia theory, encyclopedia theory
new one forms of the encyclopedia
in former times one understood an accumulation from explanations and explanations, printed on paper, by an encyclopedia to various thes subject of the human knowledge, which of recognized authorities and connoisseursthe respective articles was written. But these authorities lost their projection/lead in regard to quality and depth now. They lost above all their projection/lead in the speed. A modern encyclopedia is characterised by the following: It makes oldlike new knowledge in Sofortzeit and largest reliability for each humans with an Internet entrance accessible. It does not give consideration to traditions. The old (were based) encyclopedias serve only more than reinsurance. Since these old encyclopedias are written by a closed society however,serve they an open society as a discussion topic. The old form of the publishers was and is beyond that aligned to monetary profit, while the new is aligned to mental profit.
The fact that an encyclopedia of their own requirementago to be final structurally and contentwise actually never, is a challenge can to the new media. Thus it the media made for CD-ROM and DVD possible that important publishers as a result that new Economy of printed encyclopedias on electronic publication formschanged over; the medium is economical, and also pictures, clay/tone and video documents can be easily merged.
For large attention in the year 2002 the announcement, the English Encyclopædia Britannica provided in the future only in electronic form will be available. Meanwhile are the publishers of this plan again moved away, and the Encyclopædia Britannica further also in printed form one offers.
Related literature kinds
see also: Reference book
the science of the research of enzyklopädischen reference books is the Enzyklopädik.Among them above all the historical investigation is understood about encyclopedias. Besides there is the designation encyclopedia TIC. Both words are also synonymously used . The Lexikografie concerns itself rather with the production of dictionaries as with enzyklopädischen encyclopedias. Other sciences alsoPurchase for the view of encyclopedias are the culture science, medium science and science theory.
- Robert Collison: Encyclopaedias. Their history throughout the ages. A bibliographical guide with extensive historical notes ton the general encyclopaedias issued throughout the world from350 B.C. ton the present day. Hafner, New York, London 1964
- Hans Joachim Diesner, Günter Gurst (Hrsg.): Encyclopedias yesterday and today. Leipzig 1976
- spring, Werner: Small history of large encyclopedias. Gütersloh 1980
- George hunter: The encyclopedia publishing house. In: History of the German book trade in 19. and 20. Century. Bd. 1: The empire 1870 - 1918. Bookseller combination GmbH, Frankfurt/Main 2001
representation of individual epochs
- Philipp Blom: The reasonable monster. Diderot, D' Alembert, de Jaucourt and the large encyclopedia.Calibration fount publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 2005 (the other library 243) ISBN 3-8218455-3-8
- Senya Mueller: Language dictionaries in the national socialism. The ideological influence of Duden, Sprach-Brockhaus and other reference books during „the third realm “. Stuttgart 1994
- Ulrike Spree: Striving for knowledge: Onecomparative generic history of the popular encyclopedia in Germany and Great Britain in 19. Century. Tübingen 2000
- Carsten cell (Hrsg.): Encyclopedias, encyclopedias and dictionaries in 18. Century. Goettingen 1998
- walter Goetz: The encyclopedias 13. Century. A contribution for emergence thatLayman formation. In: Magazine for German history of ideas. 1-3/2/1936. S. 227-250
- Christel Meier: Fundamentals of the medieval Enzyklopädik. To contents, forms and functions of a problematic kind. In: Ludger border man, Karl stack man (Hrsg.): Literature and layman formation in the late Middle Ages and in thatReformation time. Germanisti symposiums, report volumes V. Metzler 1984
Etymologie and term history
- Jürgen Henningsen: „Encyclopedia “. To the speaking and meaning history of an educational term. In: Archives for term history. 10/1966, S. 217-362
- H. Fox: Article Enkyklios Paideia. In: Material encyclopedia for antique onesand Christianity. Special dictionary for the argument of the Christianity with the antique world. Bd. 5. Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1962. Columns 365-398
- Ulrich Dierse: Encyclopedia: to the history of a philosophical and scientific term. Suppl. - H., also: Archives for term history. Bouvier, Bonn 1977
- Ingrid Tomkowiak (Hrsg.):Popular encyclopedias: Of the selection, order and switching of the knowledge. Chronos, Zurich 2002
- Gert A. Zischka: Index Lexicorum: Bibliography of the lexical reference books. Hollinek, Vienna 1959
- Hugo Wetscherek (Hrsg.): Bibliotheca lexicorum: commentated listing of the collection Otmar sailor; a Bibliografie of the enzyklopädischen literature of the works printed from the beginnings to the present, with special consideration in the German linguistic area starting from the year 1500. (treatment. of Martin of pitches). Inlibris, Vienna 2001. ISBN 3-9500813-5-6
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Encyclopedia - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Wikiquote: Encyclopedia - quotations|
on the left of to individual encyclopedias see reference books in the Internet.
- http://www.enzyklopaedie.ch - research project with a list of historical encyclopedias
- http://www.kruenitz1.uni-trier.de/biblio/toel.htm - economic Encyklopädie: Bibliografie - Enzyklopädi surrounding field - technological-economic encyclopediasfrom the modern times to the end 19. Century
- COMERS Encyclopedia Project: Encyclopedia - Working Bibliography - Medieval Latin (Peter Binkley) (English)
- Medieval Encyclopedias, Bestiaries, and Lapidaries (Medieval Studies) (English)
-  philosophical view of Hans Jörg sand radiator (University of Bremen)