Epoch of the Nanban trade
the epoch of the Namban trade (jap. 南蛮貿易時代 namban bōeki jidai, dt. Southern barbarians - commercial period) in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans in Japan in the year 1543 up to of them almost complete driving out of the Japanese islands under the Sakoku laws in the year 1650. It falls thereby in the end of the Sengoku time, the Azuchi Momoyama time (1568-1600) and the Edo time beginning (starting from 1600).
Table of contents
Namban (南蛮, wörtl. southern barbarian) is a Japanese word, which originally designated humans from south Asia and Southeast Asia. One followed the Chinese custom to give to the surrounding „barbarian “peoples in the four directions one the direction appropriate collective term. In Japan the word took however a new meaning, when one named Europeans. The first Europeans landed first of them starting from 1543 in Japan, from Portugal, then from Spain and still later from the Netherlands and England. The word Namban was suitable from view of the Japanese for the newcomers, since their ships came from the south and their manners after Japanese yardsticks as rather unkultiviert published (which did not change in the last 400 years also with all Japanese).
Japanese narrations of Europeans
The Japanese were first rather repelled from manners of the newcomers. A contemporary Japanese report describes this in such a way:
- „You ate with their fingers instead of with Stäbchen, as we use as. They show their feelings without each self-check. They cannot understand the meaning of characters.“(after Boxer, Christian century).
Soon however transferred the Japanese some technologies and cultural practices of the visitors, thus in military area the Arkebuse and the cure ASS of European style, with the building of European ships, the introduction of the Christianity, in the decorative art as well as in the language with the integration of western vocabulary. Many foreigners were accepted by Japanese rulers friendly and their abilities were sometimes recognized to a so high degree that they were carried into the rank of a Samurai (see William Adam, to who a Lehen on the peninsula Miura, south of Edo was given).
European reports from Japan
the Europeans of the Renaissance were full admiration for the country. Japan was seen as country with immense wealth at precious metals, this particularly because of Marco Polos narrations of gilded temples and palaces, in addition, because of the origin of characteristic wealth superficial ore stores volcanic for a country, which were particularly wichig in a time before the emergence of a mining industry in large depths. Japan became in this time an important exporter of copper and silver.
Japan was seen also as a refined Feudalgesellschaft with a high culture and a highly developed technology. Populated and urbanized than each country was at that time more strongly in the west. In 16. Century had Japan 26 million inhabitant - opposite 16 million in France and 4.5 million in England. It had buddhistische „universities “, which were more largely than each comparable mechanism in the west, as for instance the university of Salamanca or the university Coimbra. Important European observers from this time seem to agree in it that the Japanese exceed „not only all eastern peoples, but also the Europeans “(Alessandro Valignano, 1584, Historia del Principio y Progreso de la Compañía de Jesús EN read Indias Orientales).
Early European visitors were surprised at the quality of the Japanese handicraft and the metal forging art. This results from the fact that Japan is relatively poor on in Europe frequent resources, particularly iron ore. Therefore the Japanese were extremely economical with their few resources. Few, which they had, used it however with the ability of experts. Copper and steel from Japan were unequalled the best world, the weapons the sharpest, the quality of the paper. The Japanese deseamed their nose with paper handkerchiefs from Washi, when most humans of the western world used still its sleeve or the fingers. When the Samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga visited 1615 Saint Tropez in France in the year, the sharpness of its sword and its paper handkerchiefs a sensation waen:
- „You never affect the food with their fingers, but use instead of its two small Stäbchen, which hold them with three fingers. They deseam their nose with soft, seidigen paper of the size of a hand, which they used never twice and which they throw after the use on the soil, and they were surprised that our people sought to überteffen itself around them to waive these. Their swords cut so well that they can cut soft paper, if one puts it only on the cut and whereupon blows.“(Relation OF Mme de sp-Troppez, October 1615, Bibliotheque Inguimbertine, Carpentras).
Japanese military power was also recognized: A Spanish royal decree of 1609 did not instruct to risk expressly „the Reputation of our weapons and our state to Spanish commanders in the Pacific against Japanese soldiers “(Giving UP the gun, Noel Perrin). Troops of Japanese Samurai were used later on the spice islands into Southeast Asia in the fight of the dutchmen against the Englishmen.
Soon after the first contacts in the year 1543 first Portuguese ships in Japan arrived. Since about 1515 gave it already a commercial route between Portugal and Goa, which consisted of annually three to four Karacken, which left Lisbon with silver, in order to buy in India cotton and spice. From this Karacken drove only to China, in order to buy in the exchange against Portuguese silver Chinese silk.
The charge of the first Portuguese ships, usually about four smaller ships per year, almost exclusively consisted therefore of Chinese goods (silk, porcelain). The Japanese were very avid to acquire such goods were nevertheless their export from China to Japan by the Chinese emperor as punishment for the assaults of the Wokou - Piraten forbidden. The Portuguese took the opportunity to serve as middlemen.
After the acquisition of Macao in the year 1557 and their formal acknowledgment as trade partners by the Chinese the Portuguese crown began to adjust the Japan trade, by auctioneering the annual „captain shank “to Japan at the highest Bieter. Thus these a Karacke, which drove each year to Japan, in principle exclusive commercial laws were lent. This Karacken was after yardstick at that time very large ships with usually between 1000 and 1500 tons; this was about the double or three-way size of a large Galeone or Dschunke.
This trade continued with few interruptions until 1638, when it was forbidden of Japanese side for the reason that the ships smuggled Christian priests to Japan. Own commercial interests might have played however also an important role with this decision.
For the lucrative Portuguese trade arose besides increasing competition by Chinese smugglers, from the Japanese red seal ships licensed of the Shogun (about ten ships per year, for approximately 1592), from Spanish ships of Manila (starting from approximately 1600, about a ship per year), the dutchmen (starting from 1609), the Englishmen (starting from 1613, about a ship per year).
the dutchmen, those of the Japanese as Namban rather as Kōmō (紅毛, wörtl. red hair) were designated, reached Japan for the first time in the year 1600 on board „the Liefde “. The navigator of the ship was William Adam, the first Englishman in Japan at all.
1605 was sent two members of the crew of the Liefde from Tokugawa Ieyasu to Pattani, in order to invite Dutch dealers to Japan. The head of the Dutch commercial post Pattani, Victor Sprinckel, refused this however for the reason that it was too busy with the Portuguese competition in Southeast Asia. 1609 arrived however the dutchman Jacques Specx with two ships in Hirado and attained by the switching of Adam's trade privileges of Ieyasu.
The dutchmen operated also Piraterie and naval warfare, in order to weaken the Portuguese and Spanish navigation in the Pacific. Further the Protestant dutchmen were purely interested in trade, while the catholic Portuguese and Spaniard made themselves unpopular by their mission activities in Japan. At the end the dutchmen were the only one from the west, to who after 1638 and for the next two centuries an entrance to Japan remained over the small enclave on the island Dejima.
technological and cultural exchange
of Namban rifles
Portuguese Feuerwaffen were one of the many things, in which the Japanese were interested. The first Europeans, who reached Japan, were three Portuguese, under it Fernão Mendes Pinto which stranded on a Chinese ship on the island Tanegashima south of Kyūshū. They had Arkebusen and ammunition with itself. At this time Japan was in the middle in a civil war of many years, the Sengoku time. The Japanese were already with the gun powder invented in China trust and them at this time already used for approximately 270 years simple Chinese hand-held weapons and cannon pipes, called Teppō (鉄砲, wörtl. Iron cannon). The portugisieschen rifles were however more easily and technically more advanced. They possessed Luntenschlösser, and it was simpler to aim with them.
Within a yearly it succeeded to Japanese weapon waffenschmieden to copy the rifles and in mass production to finished, historical sources according to approximately 20,000 pieces. These rifles were equally, often even better in their material quality and execution the models.
The rifles played a crucial role in the combination of Japan under Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, as also in the battle of Nagashino and in the Imjin war, the invasion of Korea 1592 and 1597.
The ships of the southern barbarians were also rather influential on Japanese shipbuilding and energized many Japanese foreign enterprises. The Bakufu established a system of licensed trading vessels („red seal ships “), which bereisten east and Southeast Asia. These ships over name many elements of the western ship Design, so sails, control fin at the tail and the list of the cannons. They so e.g. brought many japansiche dealers and adventurers into Southeast Asiatic ports, which became often rather influential in local regard. the adventurer Yamada Nagamasa in Siam, or they became later well-known Japanese people shapes such as Tenjiku Tokubei.
At the end 17. Century built the Bakufu several ships in purely western design, usually with the help of foreign specialists, so the Galleone San Juan Bautista, which crossed the Pacific on legations to new Spain (Mexico) two times.
catholicism in Japan
With the arrival of the prominent Jesuiten Francisco de Xavier y Jassu in the year 1549 the catholicism developed increasingly to a religious Kraft in Japan, which came a certain meaning. Although one bore the western „Padres “first rather from commercial interest, could do the catholics at the end 16. Century, mainly on the island Kyūshū in the south of Japan book about 200,000 Konvertiten. The Jesuiten attained even the jurisdiction in the commercial town Nagasaki.
The first reaction of the Kampaku Toyotomi Hideyoshi took place 1587, when it the prohibition of the Christianity announced and the departure of all Padres arranged. To this arrangement however was not responded (only 3 of 130 Jesuiten left Japan), and the Jesuiten could to its activity essentially further attend. Hideyoshi had written that:
- „1. Japan a country of the Gods is and it a despicable and teuflisches thing is the fact that the Padres comes here and a teuflisches law preaches…
- to 2. It so far a not seen outrageous event is the fact that the Padres comes to Japan and to their faith converts humans and for this purpose seeming ton shrines and buddhistische temples destroy… to goad on to commit such enormousnesses heavy punishment earns the Pöbel.“(after Boxer, The Christian century in Japan)
an alliance with the foreigners brought crucial advantages above all naturally to the war-prominent Daimyo, access to western technology. In response they were gladly ready to accept the Christianity. In addition the Christianity a suitable Gegenpol was to be set up against the strong buddhistischen monasteries, which were powerful at this time enough, around own armies of armed monks and a substantial power factor represented.
other influences of the Namban
The Namban had also different other influences:
- Nambandō (南蛮胴) designates Japanese cure ASS, which covers the entire trunk in a piece; this from Europe imported Design offered a better protection against Feuerwaffen than the traditional arms of the Samurai completely unsuitable for it.
- Nambanbijutsu (南蛮美術) describes Japanese art with Namban topics or western influences in the organization.
- Nambanga (南蛮画) designates the numerous figurative representations, those from the new foreigners developed and definerte a completely new style in the Japanese art (examples:  and )
- Nambannuri (南蛮塗り) designates lacquer articles, which are verziert in Portuguese style. These were of late 16. Jh. much likes on. (Examples:).
- Nambangashi (南蛮菓子) is a kind cake, which descends from Portuguese and Spanish prescriptions, particularly the popular Kasutera (カステラ), designated after Kastilien. These cakes of the Namban, often still with representations of the barbarians 16. Century on the packing, are sold today in many Japanese supermarkets.
- Nambanji was the first Christian church in Kyoto. With support of Oda Nobunaga builds the Jesuit Padre Gnecchi Soldo Organtino the church in the year 1576. (1587) Hideyoshi Toyotomi Nambanji let eleven years later destroy. The bell is aubewahrt as Nambanji NO kane (bell of Nambanji) in the Shunkoin temple in Kyoto.
the fall of the Namban exchange
Nachem the country 1603 under Tokugawa Ieyasu befriedet and united was, operated the Shogunat increasingly a policy of the bulkheading opposite the “southern barbarians”. The principal reason was that above all the Daimyo of the south profited from the trade, which was to be controlled in previous epochs only heavily from the centre government to. The Tokugawa Shogunat wanted to prevent that the freshly geeinte realm drifted apart again. In addition the Shogunat of William Adam and other one from the colonial efforts of the Spaniards and Portuguese in America and Asia had experienced. The bulkheading was meant also as measure to the safety device of the independence of Japan.
Third reason was the progressive Christianisierung, Japan was already christianisiert to a third according to estimations, at least which concerns the Daimyo. Particularly Spanish and Portuguese Jesuiten had been very successful. In the civil war the Christianity was a welcome means, in order to develop a Gegenpol to the strong buddhistischen monasteries. Meanwhile the power of the monasteries was however broken by force, and now firmly the Buddhismus controlled by the Shogunat became now a means the Gegenwehr against the Christianity. Baptized Japanese had to swear off the Christianity or with drakonischen measures were pursued.
The most well-known event of Christian pursuit occurred in the year 1597, when a shipwrecked Spanish Galeone brought some Franziskaner to Japan. These became with the so-called Martyrium of the 26 holy ones of Japan to 5. February in Nagasaki gekreuzigt, altogether 6 Franziskaner, 17 its Japanese Neophyten and (erroneously) 3 Japanese Jesuiten Laienbrüder. It seems that this decision Hideyoshis of the encouragement followed on the part of the Jesuiten to switch the rivaling medal off. Reasons may have been also the Spanish Prahlerei that the catholic Missionierung usually follows military conquest, as well as Hideyoshis personal desire to acquire itself the charge of the ship. Although in the consequence more than hundred churches in Japan were destroyed, the Jesuiten remained in Japan.
The crucial impact came 1614 with Tokugawa Ieyasus stiktem prohibition of the Christianity, which led to underground activities of the Jesuiten and their participation in Toyotomi Hideyoris revolt during the FE storage of Osaka. After Tokugawas death in the year 1616 was strengthened the pursuit of the Christians. About 2,000 Christians (70 Europeans, the remainder of Japanese) were tortured and killed. The remaining 200-300,000 went into the underground. The last larger action, in which Christians played a role, was the Shimabara rebellion in the year 1637, whereby it was a Dutch ship, which shot the last fortress of the Japanese Christians storm ripe with its cannons.
Starting from 1650 all foreigners, with exception of the Chinese and the dutchman, were referred the country. The freedom of movement of the dutchmen was limited to a commercial post on the artificial island Dejima in the port of Nagasaki, the Chinese had its own quarter in the city. Feuerwaffen were melted and the sword again to the most important weapon. Journeys abroad and the building of large high-sea-suited ships were forbidden likewise. 1825 culminated the measures in the edict for driving strange ships out.
With it began one period of the self isolation, the peace, prosperity and the slow progress, which admit as a Edo time became. „The barbarians “would return only more than 200 years later and 1854 - strengthened by the industrialization - of Japan isolation with the help of the American fleet under Commodore Matthew Perry by force would terminate.
use of the word Namban
the term Namban disappeared only during the Meiji restoration from the linguistic usage, when Japan decided to turn radically to the west in order to it better to resist to be able. Therefore one stopped regarding the west as generally uncivilized and „barbarianly “. Words such as Yofu (洋風, ocean style) and Obeifu (欧米風, European-American style) replaced Namban in most applications.
Nevertheless was the principle of the Verwestlichung Wakon Yōsai (和魂洋才, wörtl. Japanese spirit - western talent), that implies that, which is still superior Japanese spirit to the European, although one took over the technology of the west. Perhaps however no more in an extent, which justifies the use of the word „barbarian ". Today the word Namban is only used in the historical context and has one „romantic “and „affectionate “Nebenbedeutung. Also sometimes jokeful their civilization can be used regarding western humans and.
In the Japanese kitchen Namban for a certain style of the preparation and the courts is used. These Namban meals are not American or European courts, but their own accumulation of courts, which use Currypulver and vinegar instead of Sojasauce or Miso as spice. Some of these courts remind of the Southeast Asiatic kitchen, are however as strongly adapted to Japanese taste notes as Ramen that they should be treated as independent courts.
- 1543 - Portuguese sailors (under them possibly Fernão Mendes Pinto) arrive in Tanegashima and introduce the Arkebuse.
- 1549 - Francisco de Xavier y Jassu arrives in Kagoshima .
- 1555 - Acquisition of Macao by Portugal, annual trading vessels to Japan.
- 1570 - Japanese Piraten occupies parts of Taiwans, from where out they afflict China.
- 1575 - Battle of Nagashino, decided by Feuerwaffen.
- 1577 - First Japanese ships travel to Cochin China.
- 1579 - The Jesuit Alessandro Valignano arrives in Japan.
- 1580 - The Jesuiten receives Nagasaki from the Christian Daimyo Arima Harunobu.
- 1582 - Ito Mancio leaves Japan to the first official diplomatic mission to Europe, it returns 1590 .
- 1584 - Mancio Ito arrives in Lisbon with three other Japanese, accompanied from a Jesuitenpadre.
- 1588 - Hideyoshi forbids the Piraterie.
- 1592 - Japan begins the invasion of Korea with 160000 soldiers;
- - First mention of red seal ships.
- 1597 - Martyrium of the 26 holy ones of Japan, Kreuzigung of 26 Christians, by the majority Franziskaner, in Nagasaki.
- 1600 - Arrival by William Adam on the Liefde. The battle of Sekigahara combines Japan under Tokugawa Ieyasu.
- - William Adam reaches in April Japan.
- - Olivier van Noort meets a Japanese Dschunke in December with 110 tons of size on the Philippines
- 1602 - Dutch warships attack the Portuguese Karacke Santa Catarina in close proximity to Malaca.
- 1603 - Choice of Edo as seat of the Bakufu, establishment of English commercial posts in Bantam, Java.
- 1604 - First well-known red seal certificate.
- 1605 - two of William Adams's ship comrade are gschickt from Tokugawa Ieyasu after Pattani, in order to invite Dutch Händer.
- 1609 - The dutchmen open a commercial post in Hirado.
- 1612 - Yamada Nagamasa settles in Ayutthaya in Siam .
- 1613 - England opens an overseas trading station in Hirado;
- - Hasekura Tsunenaga starts 1620 to a diplomatic mission to America and Europe it returns.
- 1614 - Classification of all Jesuiten from Japan, prohibition of the Christianity.
- - William Adam begins itself to engage in the red seal trade to Southeast Asia.
- 1615 - Japanese Jesuiten begins to missionieren in Indochina.
- 1616 - Death of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
- 1621 - January Joosten has 10 red seal ships.
- 1622 - Mass pursuit of the Christians in Japan, death of Hasekura Tsunenaga.
- 1623 - The Englishmen close the overseas trading station with Hirado because of inefficiency;
- - Yamada Nagamasa segelt from Siam to Japan. In his company is an Ambassador of the siamesischen king Songtham. It returns 1626 to Siam;
- - Prohibition of the trade with the Spanish Philippines.
- 1624 - Abort of the diplomatic relations with Spain,
- - Japanese Jesuiten begins Missionierung in Siam.
- 1628 - Destruction of Takagi Sakuemons red seal ship in Ayutthaya, Siam, by a Spanish fleet. The Portuguese trade in Japan is forbidden for retaliation for three years.
- 1632 - Death of Tokugawa Hidetada.
- 1634 - Journey of Yamada Yahei from Japan to Indochina and Siam.
- 1637 - Shimabara rebellion of Christian farmers.
- 1638 - Final prohibition of the trade with the Portuguese.
- 1641 - The Dutch commercial establishment moves from Hirado to Nagasaki.
- Noel Perrin, David R. Godine (Hrsg.): Giving UP the Gun. Bad clay/tone, ISBN 0879237732
- Mitsuo Kure: Samurai. Tuttle publishing, Tokyo, ISBN 0804832870
- Christopher Howe: The Origins OF Japanese trade Supremacy. Development and Technology in Asia from 1540 tons the Pacific was. The University OF Chicago press, ISBN 0226354857
Web on the left of
|Commons: Nanban - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- Namban Faltschirme
- Namban art (jap.)
- Japanese art and western influence (English)
- Shunkoin temple - the bell of Nambanji
Jōmon time - 300 v.u.Z. - Yayoi time - approx. 250 - Kofun time - 538 - Asuka time - 710 - Nara time - 794 - Heian time - 1192 - Kamakura time - 1333 -
Muromachi time (north south yard, Sengoku time) - 1573 - Azuchi Momoyama time (Nanban trade) - 1603 - Edo time (Bakumatsu) - 1868 - Meiji time - 1912 - Taishō time - 1926 - Shōwa time - 1989 - Heisei time