Invention of the telephone
of these articles is concerned with the different historically well-known persons and events, who led to the development of the telephone. Who may be considered here as the true inventor, often controversially one regards.
In front it is to be regarded that the American Samuel Finley Morse alsothe transmission of signals by electrical Stromleitungen, which went with its invention of the Morse telegraph, had converted already 1837 important preconditions into the practice. With the “invention” of the telephone it concerned only to convert the acoustic waves of the Lautsprache in reverse into electrical signals and.
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1837 - PAGE
of the AmericansPAGE knows 1837 after that by means of one of the river durchflossenen wire spiral, which is hung up freely between the Poland of a horseshoe magnet the magnet with the occurrence and disappearing the river into sounding oscillations be shifted can.Source: http://susi.e-technik.uni-ulm.de:8080/Meyers2/seite/werk/meyers/band/6/seite/0153/meyers_b6_s0153.html
1854 - Charles Bourseul
first starting pointsto a telephone it gives around 1854 as on the part of the military the desire for faster means of communication arose. That Paris Telegrafenbeamte Charles Bourseul (1829-1912) writes on it a paper on possible techniques of the electrical speech transmission. He suggests a mobile plate, which opens alternating an electric circuitor closes. Neither scientists nor the public of the time at that time recognize however the meaning of Bourseuls idea; one calls it dreamer and „harmless erring “. Bourseul gives on it its plans up for the conversion of the idea.
1854 - Antonio MeucciNew York the theatre mechanic Antonio Meucci coming made of Italy develops a telephone connection for his wife, who cannot leave their room due to rheumatism tables of suffering.
Meucci demonstrates its equipment 1860 publicly and describes it in a italienischsprachigen newspaper in New York.
Burns throughMeucci force a Kesselzerknall 1866 on a three-month patient camp, which leads to its dismissal. At the same time financial losses force its wife, its work models, by speculative transactions among them a telephone to sell. Meucci continues the work later nevertheless and places on it to 1871 a patent request. For thosefinal registration cannot it however the costs apply and the validity of the reservation expires 1873. Also an establishment of contact with the Western union telegraph company is unsuccessful for Meucci.
Alexander Graham Bell arrives in the course of these events into the possession of Meuccis materials and documents.When Meucci 1874 reclaims its Gerätschaften and documents, one communicates to him, one lost these. After Bell announces 1876 „his “telephone to the patent, Meucci tries, to contest this. Despite disputes for many decades and to receive at least financial remuneration from Bell to to it this does not succeed to the attempt. Itdies as a become impoverished man.
In October 2001 the “House OF Representatives” appreciates the achievements of Meucci in a resolution “Expressing the scythe OF the House OF Representatives ton of the American congress honor the would run and achievements OF 19th Century Italian American inventor Antonio Meucci, and hiswork into the invention OF the telephones. “
1861 - Philipp rice
from German side is stated gladly Philipp rice (1834-1874) as an inventor of the telephone. The baker son originating from the hessian gel living received in Frankfurt and Friedrichsdorf higher training and becomesas teachers for physics and mathematics at Institut of the yard advice Garnier adjusted in Friedrichsdorf.
1861 he tinkers a device for electrical clay/tone transmission. Basis is a wood model of a cap, which it developed for physics instruction. As drum skin a piece servesSausage skin with a fine platinum strip, which is affected by a wire. Meetings acoustic waves on „the drum skin “, shifted them this in oscillations, which interrupt the electric circuit between metal strips and the wire spring. In the course of his attempts it recognizes rice that instead of the ear model also with a diaphragmcovered acoustic horn to be used can. As a receiver a copper wire coil wound around a cord needle serves it, by which the current pulses sent by the transmitter flow. The moved needle translates the impulses again into acoustic waves; for the reinforcement of the tones rice a wood small box begins as resonance soil.developed accomplished by Philipp rice it leads one 1947 of the telephone company STC, by rice to the statement that it conveyed language very well.
Technically regarded the device could function only during very weak contact of the platinum metal strip by the wire spring.This attitude could be brought from each small mechanical vibration and change of temperature to case. Also the well-meaning sponsors, whom the young rice had obviously, could not begin much with this unausgereiften equipment. Some devices were bought by laboratories, many important scientists left themselves howeverof Reis' idea does not convince, which besides seemed underlaid to the more functional development of the Telegrafen.
1875 - Elisha Gray
1875 begin Gray of attempts with the electrical transmission of tones, whose result he lays down 1876 in a request for patent. This patent request however Alexander Graham Bell forestalls by two hours and becomes the request ofGray preferred. Gray allies itself on it with the Western union telegraph company, the then largest Telegrafengesellschaft, which was not interested by Bell in the purchase of the patent before. „The Western union “begins likewise to develop a telephone network. Soon thereafter the first patent processes begin, in thoseBells portion of the invention of the telephone to the debate stands. Gray and the Western Electric company allied with it do not succeed it to intersperse their requirements against Bell.
1876 - Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson
A short coincidental transmission of tones instead of of impulses gives Bell references, how the current change is controllable. It makes itself with its assistant Thomas A. Watson to build an apparatus - similarly the telephone of the Philipp rice - the oscillations of oneDiaphragm into electrical oscillations converts.
After some attempts Bell lets its lawyer a patent request in February 1876. Later also Elisha Gray tries only two hours to announce similar equipment. Three weeks later, to 7. March, receives the patent for its telephone to Bell.Bells request contains only the idea to a telephone. It benefits it with the fact that few years before the patent office the renouncement of the collecting main of a functioning model to the patent request had decided. The patent, which is awarded Bell, has the inestimable value that Bell thereby allother competitor the activities in the area of the telephone forbid to let knows. Also the powerful Western union telegraph company, which has Elisha Gray under contract and in reaction to the Patenterteilung of Thomas Alva Edison another equipment than that from Bell develop lets, failsafter countless processes to it. Bell can decide all that altogether nearly 600 the following process for itself, since the courts usually to the fact appoint yourself that Bell received the patent as the first.
The realization of a telephone in accordance with the patent request does not succeed however yet, on the contrary Bell must Ideas of its competitor Elisha Gray use. Also then this telephone, which works with a acid-filled metal box, is not yet use suited. Bells expert assistant Thomas Watson (not to confound with first president of the same name IBM (1874-1956)) makes further changes, furthermore Bell uses the coal microphoneafter the patent of the Englishman Blake, in order to make its telephone apparatus application ripe.
As already Charles Bourseul before has to inspire however also Bell difficulties, the public for the invention. Scientists finally bring for success celebrity to his necessary invention as a result of the emperor at that timeof Brazil, Pedro II., which the telephone on an exhibition is demonstrated in June 1876. The scientists see in the apparatus „the largest miracle achieved, ever in the area of the electricity are “and contribute so crucially to the spreading. Bell is the value of its invention quite consciously, and he creates in such a way 1877 Bell Telephone company, which should transfer the building of a telephone network in the United States. Bell Telephone company designates itself 1885 in American of telephones and telegraph company (AT&T) over and becomes thatto today world largest telephone company.