Hagere Ertra (Tigrinya)
aluminium-Dawla aluminium-Iritriyya (arab.)
State of Eritrea
Flagge Eritreas
Wappen Eritreas
(detail) (detail)
office languages Tigrinya and Arab
capital Asmara (Asmera)
president Isayas Afewerki
head of the government Isayas Afewerki
system of government Republic of
establishment 24. May 1993 (declaration of independence)
surface 121,144 km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 132 US-$ (2004)
number of inhabitants 4.447.307 (conditions July 2004)
population density of 36.7 inhabitants per km ²
currency Nakfa (Nfa)
time belt MEZ + 2 (UTC +3)
national anthem Ertra, Ertra, Ertra
Kfz characteristic IT
Internet TLD of .er
preselection +291
Lage Eritreas in Afrika
Karte von Eritrea

Eritrea [eriˈtreːa] (Tigrinya: Ertra, Arab: إيريتريا Iritriyya) is a state in the eastern Africa and borders on the Red Sea, Ethiopia, the Sudan and Djibouti. Yemen is only few kilometers far away because of the opposite bank of the Red Sea.The name Eritrea is probably derived from the Greek Ερυθραία and this from ερυθρά θάλασσα, erythrá thálassa - Red Sea .

Table of contents


  • the Trockensavanne at the Red Sea is very hot and drying.
  • In the high country of the interior against it fall annually up to 600 mm rains, above allin the time of June until Septembers.
  • The largest cities are (conditions 1. January 2005): Asmara of 563,930 inhabitants, Assab of 72,114 inhabitants, Keren of 57,604 inhabitants, Massawa of 37,077 inhabitants and Nakfa of 26,662 inhabitants.


  • the growth rate of the population amounts to 3.8% (estimation 2002).
  • Age structure of the population (estimation 2002):
    • 0-14 years: 42.9% (male 958,564/womanlike 955,625)
    • 15-64 years: 53.9% (m 1.192.454/w 1.213.313)
    • 65+ years: 3,2 %(m 73,017/w 72,678)

there are

ethnical groups within Eritreas nine ethnical groups. The individual groups and their spreading are Tigrinya (41%), Tigré (32%), Afar (8%), Kunama (5%), Saho (4%), Bilen (3%), Hedareb (3%), Nara (2%) and Rashaida (2%).


the population Eritreas divides too nearly same parts into approximately 50% Christian (Eritreisch orthodox Tewahedo church, Protestanten, catholic, orthodox one)and likewise 50% Muslims (Sunniten), whereby the Christianity outweighs easily. Besides still some small native nature religions exist. Despite the very different opinions and the population forms a national unit for the Konfliktpotenzial resulting from it. The Christian population hasitself predominantly settled in the Hochebene around Asmara and the Muslim parts of the population mainly in the low country and near the coast. Christians, who do not belong to the few certified churches, are pursued.


the official office languages Eritreas are Tigrinya and Arab. As traffic languages still additionally English and Italian are added . The languages of the nine Ethnien Eritreas are Tigrinya (1.9 millions), Tigré (0.8 millions), Afar (0.3 millions), Saho, Kunama, Bedawi, Bilen and Nara (ever 0,1Million). These languages are divided in three language families: semitische languages Tigrinya, are called Tigre and Arab the four hamitischen languages are Saho, Bilen, Afar and Hedareb and as nilotische languages apply for Nara (Baria) and Kumana/Baza. The Ethnien of theseLanguage families are related originally culturally with one another, and/or. belong to a group of people migrations.


major item: History Eritreas

before Eritrea 1889 Italian colony became, controlled different overseas powers the country.

Only 1941 were terminated the affiliation to Italy by allied armed forces.The area became British protectorate. After that 2. The United Nations decided world war on a federation with Ethiopia. After Ethiopia the political rights of the eritreischen population from 1952 to 1961 systematically scooped out and afterwards 1961 by application of military force thatsmaller neighboring country annektierte, seized the Eritreer to weapons. The movements of independence received large inlet to the following years into the 1960ern and.

After the dreissigjährigen war of independence, that only 1991 with the victory of the Eritrean People's liberation front (EPLF) and the äthiopischenResistance EPRDF over the centre government of Ethiopia, followed independence Eritreas ended.

To 24. May 1993 was explained after a popular vote independence. This day is the national holiday Eritreas.

1998 broke out a border war with Ethiopia, that despite truces by Ethiopiaended to military victory. Since then UN were sent - observers into the border region, in order to mark the legal course of the border.


the policy Eritreas are dominated by the People's front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ). The PFDJ, outthe once times war party Eritrean People's liberation front (EPLF), takes up with its chairman of the party Isayas Afewerki came out also at the same time the posts of the president and head of the government. Other parties are not at present certified. Even if by official side it is affirmed thatone for a party law exerts oneself, is rather critical these efforts of seeing. Within the country there are still some oppositionals groups of fragments, which could exert however so far no larger influence on the policy of the country.

political structure

The head of state and the head of the government are the highest instances of the eritreischen government. Together with the 24-köpfigen state agency, consisting of 16 Ministers and further state representatives, they form the executive Eritreas.

The legislation is formed by one, 150 members comprehensive, national assembly. Those150 members are 75 members of the Zentralkommitees of the PFDJ and 75 representatives of the people, which are selected directly by the people. Among these 75 representatives of the people eleven women and fifteen emigrants must be. The national assembly selects the president, issues laws and regulationsand worries about their observance.

The Judikative Eritreas consists of one highest Court of Justice, 10 province courts and 29 district courts. In order to become fair the needs of the Muslim population, it in addition still another small number of courts gives, those the lawsthe Schari'a intersperse.

political arrangement

until 1996 was arranged Eritrea into ten provinces. These, still from the colonial age coming provinces and their province capitals were Akule Guzai (Adi Qayeh), Asmara (Asmara), Barka (Agordat), Denkalia (Assab), Gash Setit (Barentu), Hamasien (Asmara), Sahel (Nakfa), Semhar (Massawa), Senhit (Keren) and Seraye (Mendefera).

Since the administrative reform of 15. July 1996 became the number of the provinces upsix reduces. These six provinces are:

  1. Maekel (cent ral region) (Asmara)
  2. Debub (Southern) (Mendefera)
  3. Gash Barka (Barentu)
  4. Anseba (Keren)
  5. Semenani Kayih Bahri (Northern talk Sea) (Massawa)
  6. Debub Keih Bahri (Southern talk Sea) (Assab)


the road system in Eritrea is relatively well developed for African conditions. Most roads are however crushed stone runways. Between Massawa and Asmara there is a railway connection. A further between Asmara and Agordat (western low country) becomesstraight extends. Large deep sea ports are Massawa and Assab, in Tio are a smaller port in the structure. Airports are in Asmara, in addition in Massawa, Sawa and Assab. In Nakfa there is a long crushed stone runway, however hardly approachedbecomes. However the infrastructure developed very well by the Italians was destroyed as far as possible later first by the British and by the Äthiopiern, so that today only a small part formerly for African conditions well developed country remained.Good airline connections exist to the European metropolises Frankfurt, Amsterdam and Rome with Eritrean airlines, to Frankfurt with Lufthansa and over Sanaa and/or. Khartoum with Yemenia.



about 75% thatPopulation are in the agriculture busy. Nevertheless food must be imported, since about 50% of the persons were drawn into the military service. The main cultivation area is the western low country and the high country (grain, coffee, cotton, Rohrzucker, Corn, vegetable like also a multiplicity of fruit). In the coastal region partially Viehwirtschaft and fishing are operated. About 15,000 tons fish are gained annually.


Eritrea has Bodenschätze such as gold, silver, copper, Sulfur, nickel, potash, marble, zinc and iron. There is also oil - and natural gas. Salt is produced to large extent. There is cement, textile and food industry, among them several brewery enterprises, alcohol and wine production. Eritreahad a multiplicity of spare part and furniture enterprises. For some years in the eritreischen industrial city Dekemhare penalty, transport, cleaning and refuse collector are produced by the eritreischen enterprise Tesima.

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Wiktionary: Eritrea - word origin, synonyms and translations

coordinates: 15° 29 ' N, 38° 15 ' O


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