Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford

Sir Ernest Rutherford, 1. Baron Rutherford OF Nelson, COM (* 30. August 1871 in Brightwater with Nelson/New Zealand; † 19. October 1937 in Cambridge) was an atomic physicist of New Zealand of English descent, that that Nobelpreis for chemistry in the year 1908 received. He was since 1931 baron Rutherford OF Nelson.

life

Rutherford studied the University OF Canterbury at the Canterbury college, today. From 1898 to 1907 he worked on the McGill university in Montréal (Canada). Afterwards it returned to Manchester (England), where it worked on the university. it went to 1919 as a professor to Cambridge, where he was a director of the Cavendish laboratory. 1921 appeared its writing over the nuclear structurethe atoms. 1914 it was struck the knight and appointed 1931 the baron. 1925-1930 he was a president of the Royal Society.

is considered

Lord Ernest Rutherford of Nelson, Aufnahme um 1908
to achievements lord Ernest Rutherford OF Nelson, admission around

1908 Rutherford as one to the most important Experimental physicist. It already recognized 1897 that the ionizing radiation of the uranium consists of several kinds of particle.

it set up the hypothesis to 1902 that chemical elements change by radioactive decay into elements with lower ordinal number. It divided 1903 the radioactivity into Alpha radiation, beta-ray emission as well as gamma radiation after the positive, negative or neutral diverson of the jet particles in a magnetic field up and introduced the term of the radioactive half-life . This work was distinguished 1908 with the Nobelpreis for chemistry.

Afterwards it was first,that experimentally proved (1919) that by irradiation with alpha particles an atomic nucleus (in its case nitrogen) can be converted into another (in its case oxygen). With these experiments he discovered the proton. Its most well-known contribution to atomic physicsis the Rutherford atom model, which it derived 1911 from its strewing attempts from alpha particles at Goldfolie.

Sir Ernest Rutherford auf dem neuseeländischen 100-Dollar-Schein.
Sir Ernest Rutherford on the 100-Dollar-Schein of New Zealand.

Under its guidance “destroyed” John Cockcroft and Ernest whale clay/tone the first time with artificially accelerated particle oneAtomic nucleus; with protons fired at lithium split into two alpha particles, thus helium cores up. It succeeded to a further scientist in Cambridge, James Chadwick, 1932 to prove the neutron experimentally which Rutherford had already postulated years before theoretically.

His honours became1997 the element 104 as Rutherfordium designated, just like the Asteroid (1249) Rutherfordia.

Web on the left of

Commons: Ernest Rutherford - pictures, videos and/or audio files
  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and over Ernest Rutherford in the catalog that  DDB

}}


 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)