Ernst Thälmann

Seriousness Thälmann monument in Weimar
Ernst-Thälmann-Denkmal in Stralsund
seriousness Thälmann monument in Stralsund

Ernst Thälmann (also teddy called) (* 16. April 1886 in Hamburg; † 18. August 1944 in the concentration camp beech forest) was a Hamburg worker and from 1925 at chairmen the communist partyGermany.

Table of contents

lives

parents

The father Johannes Thälmann, called January, originated from Weddern in Holstein and worked there as a farmhand. The nut/mother Maria Magdalene (geb. Kohpiess) was born as a daughter of a Carpenter from Kirchwerder into the four-landing. They married in Hamburg, and seriousness fatherhired itself first as Speditionskut.

Parents were party-politically not organized; in contrast to the father the nut/mother was deeply religious. After seriousness birth transferred parents a cellar restaurant in the proximity Hamburg port. They became later because of salesand/or Inzahlungnahme of thief property of Hamburg regional courts to two years the penintentiary condemns. This condemnation won 36 years of late meaning, when in the election campaign was tried to bring Ernst Thälmann in discredit. A suppression affair in circles of the KPD, into which Thälmann entangleswas, as argument against his person one used (see Wittorf affair). In the course of this election campaign it came the political opponents convenient that already the father had been „a convict “.

youth and professional activity

at the age of 4 yearsit had to rise at 4 o'clock in the morning and go with its father on the market. That could be done into the school time, in which it worked up to the school teaching at its father. To the school it went to its father again toHand. (Ernst and its younger sister Frieda were accommodated 1892 for 14 months separately at other families, its parents became prematurely 1893 from the detention to dismiss.) in the consequence the nut/mother sold vegetables on the market, in the middle of the ninetiesthey develop themselves laboriously a small vegetable, hard coal and a cart business. From 1893 to 1900 Ernst visited the elementary school. Retrospectively it described late history, natural history, Volkskunde, counting, doing gymnastics and sport as its favourite fan. Religion however likedit not. He was a very good pupil, that learning joy prepared. Its career aspirations to become, its parents could not fulfill teachers to him, since the money for a study was missing. He had to thus work of far in the small firm his father,which for it was very bad. By the early “Schuften” in the parental enterprise, it came to many arguments with its parents. Ernst wanted the correct wages and not only a pocket money for his work. It looked for itself, there it much, as “unskilled one” a work was consistent in the port. Ernst Thälmann left its parents' house at the beginning of of 1902 in the controversy and found accomodation first in a homeless shelter , later in a cellar dwelling. Starting from 1904 it drove as heater on a freighter to sea, underother one into the USA. Its military service ended with a premature dismissal, since it already applied in its unit as a political agitator. In the years up to the First World War Thälmann worked as consistent Streiter for the interests that Hamburg ones Dock labourer. From 1913 to 1914 he worked as a Kutscher for a laundry.

one

day before its summoning to the war service he married family to 13. January 1915 pink cook. Out of this marriage the daughter Irma Thälmann went (laterIrma fork Thälmann) (* 6. November 1919; † 10. December 2000) out.

political career

seriousness Thälmann Debkmal of Lew Kerbel in the citizen of Berlin seriousness Thälmann park

Thälmann became to 15. May 1903 member of the SPD. At the 1. February 1904 steppedit the central association of the handels, transportation and traffic workers of Germany . At the end of of 1917 became Thälmann member of the USPD.

In Hamburg he took part in the structure Hamburg worker and soldier advice. Since March 1919 he was a chairman of the USPD inHamburg and member that Hamburg citizenry. At the same time he worked as a state of emergency worker in Hamburg city park. In November 1920 those united Hamburg USPD with the KPD on its operation. With its earnings/services were it that 98% of the members thatUSPD into the KPD occurred. In December he was selected into the central committee of the KPD. In March 1921 it became because of its political activity of the service in the labour office to dismiss. In the summer of the yearly Thälmann drove as a KPD representative to III. Congressthere the Komintern to Moscow and became acquainted with Lenin . To 18. June 1922 was committed an assassination attempt on its dwelling. Belonging one of the nationalistic organization Consul threw a hand grenade into its Parterrewohnung. Its wife and its daughter remained intact. Thälmanncame only late homes.

Thälmann was participant and supervisor Hamburg rebellion of 23. to 25. October 1923. The rebellion failed, and Thälmann had to submerge for one while. After the death of Lenin to 21. January 1924 traveled Thälmann afterMoscow and held on Lenin Bahre occasional honour guard. Starting from February 1924 it was deputy chairmen and starting from May of realm tag delegates of the KPD. In the summer it became on V. Congress of the Komintern in their executive committee and short time later inPresidency selected. At the 1. February 1925 he became a chairman of the red front fighter federation and to 30. October of the yearly of chairmen of the KPD, when successor of Ruth Fischer, which was excluded short time later than “Rechtsabweichlerin” from the KPD. Thälmannstood as a candidate in the same year also for the office of the realm president. In October 1926 it supported the there dock strike in Hamburg. He saw this as a sign of the solidarity with an English mountain worker strike, since that to the 1. May held on and(positively) on the economic situation of the enterprises in Hamburg port affected. Thälmanns intention was to prevent this „strike breaker business “from Hamburg. To 22. March 1927 took part Ernst Thälmann in a demonstration in Berlin, where it by a sword blow one hurt. 1928 drove Thälmann to VI. Congress of the Komintern in Moscow to Leningrad, where he was appointed the honour member of the crew of the tank cruiser Aurora. To 28. September 1928 became Thälmann of the ZK of the party of all itsFunction relieved, after it admits had become that Thälmann had not followed to larger defrauding gene of party funds appropriately on the part of the prominent Hamburg functionary John Wittorf. The executive committee the communist international one (EKKI) set Thälmann to 6. October after an intervention Stalins again inits party functions.

On that 12. Party Congress of the KPD of 9. to 15. June 1929 in Berlin Wedding went to Thälmann in view of the events of the blood corn, which course-carried before there had, on clear confrontation course to the SPD. Apart from commitment relating to domestic affairs,even if it supported interests with regard to foreign policy and national, especially it criticized the national socialists, who were not correct for the requests of the KPD, which demanded a withdrawal from the Völkerbund and a removal of the Reparationslasten. Thus it wrote in oneLetter in the new German farmer newspaper No. 4 of 1931: The National Socialist and German national cheats promised you fight for tearing the Youngplanes, removal up of the Reparationslasten, withdrawal from the Völkerbund, but they did not even dare in Reichstag for the communistRequest for attitude of the reparation payments to tune withdrawal from the Völkerbund. In the letter it stresses also, its national intentions also forward for national and social release!. To 13. He stood as a candidate to March 1932 again for the office of the realm president against Hindenburg. Slogan of the KPD was: „Who selects Hindenburg, selects Hitler, who selects Hitler, selects the war. “ Short time he later suggested the anti-fascist action than unit front to the SPD against the Nazis .

As the NSDAP to 30. January 1933 power was transferred, suggested Thälmann of the SPD a general strike, in order to fall Hitler, but in addition it did not come any longer. To 7. February of the yearly found from the ZK a called up in the sport house goat neck when king wild livingConference of the political secretaries, ZK-Instrukteure and department managers of the KPD instead of. At the meeting prepared by harsh ore Wehner spoke Thälmann for the last time before leading KPD functionaries to the forthcoming realm tag elections and affirmed the necessity for the fall by force of Hitler.

Shank during the National Socialist rule

Ernst Thälmann became at the 3. March 1933, two days before the elections in Germany, in the dwelling Lützower road 9 (today: Old Lietzow) in Berlin arrests and after Moabit brought in remand. Its wifePink one, which lived in Hamburg, experienced only later from the arrest of its man. It was kept strictly isolated at first in solitary confinement, in order to prevent any contact to the external world. Pink one could visit it however, around it with something money and laundryto supply. The laundry washing was used, in order to smuggle plentifully notes into that and from the prison. Thälmann had fought for however with the time in remand some privileges. Thus he got a newspaper and could letters write, howeverstrictly were controlled.

Its process - which he here-longed himself for own data - never one opened. Thälmann interpreted it so that its both defenders, both checks up NSDAP members, to whom he had nevertheless certain confidence sometime had that it thoseAccusation before the world public would turn and it this the court first communicated. Thälmann continued to assume after Nazi regime the Schlappe of the realm tag fire lawsuit against Georgi Dimitroff further bare one did not want to give itself. To its 50. Birthday to 16. April 1936 he got congratulations from the whole world, among them from Maxim Gorki, Heinrich man, Martin Andersen Nexø and Romain roll and. In the same year the Spanish civil war broke out . Two battalions of the international brigades designated themselves afterErnst Thälmann.1937 were transferred of Thälmann of Berlin into the penintentiary Bautzen (“yellow misery”) as a “protective custody prisoner”. Thälmann got later a larger cell, in which he could receive attendance now. This was a pretext, in order to hear Thälmann in the cell. Howeverit the information about secret hearing was passed on.

When Germany and the Soviet Union 1939 had improved their relations (Hitler Stalin pact), obviously did not use Stalin itself not for Thälmanns release.

At the beginning of of 1944 wrote Ernst Thälmann in Bautzen its answerto the letters of a dungeon comrade. They remained received and to form an important source over Thälmanns years in the shank. To 17. August 1944 was brought Ernst Thälmann von Bautzen in the KZ beech forest, where it on the early morning of the18. August without legal proceedings on instruction Adolf Hitler was shot. Its corpse was burned immediately. Short time was spread later by the Nazis the message, it is together with Rudolf broad-separates with a Fliegerangriff to 23. August around the life come.The murder Thälmanns was committed in a Heizungskeller near the crematorium in all secretness. The murder became only by the circumstance admits the fact that a prisoner could observe the act - hides behind a heap of coal -. That prisoner testified that heit heard that one affirmed the murderer the question of another, whether it concerns with the shooting Thälmann. At least one the murderer is in particular well-known. This concerns SS-Scharführer Wolfgang Otto.

appreciations

besidethe designation of units of the international brigades (see Thälmann battalion) after Ernst Thälmann still during its lifetimes 1948 were created into the SBZ „the pioneer organization Ernst Thälmann “. Pioneers of the older classes (about 10 to 14 years) called themselvesstarting from 1974 Thälmann pioneers.

Many work collectives, schools, roads, places, places and/or. Settlements and enterprises, like as one of the most well-known examples the VEB SKET (S chwermaschinen k ombinat E rnst T hälmann) in the GDR or the officer university of the ground forces the NVA carried likewise its names. Also an island in the pig bay was designated south of Cuba after it, the seriousness Thälmann island. Into the 1980er years in Berlin in the Prenzlauer mountain the seriousness Thälmann park was put on, in addition a large monument becamethe Soviet sculptor Lew Kerbel establishes. In Hamburg a road (the today's Budapester road) was designated after it. After bloody striking down of the rebellion in Budapest 1956 the road was renamed however in Budapester road, there one in this timeno West German road after communists to have designated wanted. However there is the seriousness Thälmann memorial place in its birth house (this memorial place is further opened) at Ernst Thälmann Place in Hamburg Eppendorf. In addition there is Ernst Thälmann Memorial place in goat neck with Berlin. There offeredit 1933 in its goat neck speech of the SPD the Antifaschiti action as unit front against German fascism on.

criticism

in its time as a boss of the KPD strove Thälmann, the German communists of the hegemony of the communist party thatTo subject Soviet Union. Trailers of an independent course were pushed from the party. Straight one under German linking is regarded often critically Thälmann. Clara Zetkin characterized it as „knowledgeless and theoretically untrained “; it is embarrassed „in uncritical self-deception and self glare “, „thoseon size illusion borders “. The strategy of the KPD during the Weimar Republic, in which SPD a main enemy to see (thesis of social fascism), often interpreted as attenuation of the anti-fascist forces. Also a relevant communism researcher such as Hermann weber judges critically: “Thälmannit must be after-said with all respect for his steadfastness in Hitler's dungeons that he was only one province politician with demagogischem talent. “

literature

  • Hermann weber; Bernhard H. Bavarian flax (Hrsg.): The Thälmann scandal. Secret correspondences with Stalin, Berlin 2003. (Archivescommunism - paths of the XX. Century. 2).
  • Irma Thälmann: Memories on mean father. The child book publishing house, Berlin 1973.
  • Thilo fork man: Thälmann is never pleases?. New Berlin. Berlin 1996.
  • Institut for marxism Leninism at the central committee of the SED. Author collective: ErnstThälmann. A biography. 804 S., Berlin (GDR) 1982 and more frequently (the official book to the Thälmann cult)
  • Willi Bredel and Michael Tschesno bright: Ernst Thälmann - leaders of its class. Publishing house sport and technology 1955. A literary scenario to the film.
  • Willi Bredel: Ernst Thälmann. Dietz publishing house Berlin 1961. Contribution to a political life picture.
  • Peter Przybylski: Murder thing Thälmann. Military publishing house of the German democratic Repubik 1986
  • Institut for marxism Leninism at the central committee of the SED:Ernst Thälmann - answer to letters of a dungeon comrade. DietzPublishing house GmbH, Berlin 1961

films

work on []

Web on the left of

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