Ore mountains

the ore mountains (Czech: Krušné hory) forms the natural border between Saxonia and Böhmen. Scarcely north the comb line runs the state border between Germany and Tschechien. The highest collections are Fichtelberg (1215 m ü.NN) and wedge mountain (tschech. Klínovec) (1244 m and. NN). The western ore mountains belong to the nature park Erzgebirge/Vogtland with its top . The eastern ore mountains stand as LSG east ore mountains under landscape protection.

Lage des Erzgebirges
Situation of the ore mountains

table of contents

Topografi description

the mountains about 150 km are long and on the average 40 km broad. East closesitself the Elbsandsteingebirge, west the Elstergebirge and the Saxonian part of the Vogtlandes on. South the east ore mountains lies the Nordböhmi basin, opposite the Böhmi low mountain range. Southern the west ore mountains lie Ohřegraben (Egergraben) and Duppauer mountains. Northwardthe border is indistinct, because the ore mountains - as clearest representatives of the Pultschollengebirge - drop very flat. This border can geological be determined - it is substantially far north on the height of the Collmberges. Topographically however is to define it with difficulty, since there is no clear landschaftliche development. One calls this landschaftliche Übergangszone, which lies between Zwickau and Chemnitz, also ore mountain before country. The mountains are subdivided usually into the west and the east ore mountains, separately throughthe valley of the Flöha. The west ore mountains are again additionally in west and central ore mountains divided more rarely.

Quellgebiet der Freiberger Mulde bei Moldau (Tschechien) im Osterzgebirge
Source area of the Freiberger hollow with Moldau (Tschechien) in the east ore mountains

The tradition following Zwickau still ranks amongOre mountains, Chemnitz lie scarcely outside of its and free mountain are again to it-counted. The presumed border of the ore mountains approaches then southwest Dresden on the Elbsandsteingebirge . North the ore mountains changes the landscape gradually into the Saxonian hill country and the Saxonian Elbland.The border between Tschechien and Germany (Saxonia) runs usually north the ore mountain comb. The ore mountains within the central mountain threshold count on the one hand to Böhmi mass the mountain stick mentioned, in addition from Oberpfälzer forest, Böhmerwald, Bavarian forest, Lausitzer mountains, Isergebirge, giant mountains and the innerböhmischen mountains exists. Also it forms a ypsilonförmigen mountain complex, which carries no name , for Bavarian forest, Fichtelgebirge, Franconia forest , Thüringer slate mountains and Thüringer forest with Oberpfälzer forest, Böhmerwald, climatically however quiteuniformly to evaluate is.

remarkable collections

as Mückentürmchen: List of the mountains in Saxonia

important rivers

see also: List of waters in Saxonia

climate

the climate of the ore mountain comb situations is rough. The upper ore mountains become often jokeful with the further surname Saxonian Siberia designates. The temperatures lie the whole year over substantially lower, than one is used to it from the low country. The summer is noticeably shorter, cool days is more frequent also in this season. From northwest to southeast the risingPultscholle of the mountains, which a long continuing Abregnen as pilot rains with west - and northwest weather conditions makes possible, calls nearly an amount of precipitation twice as high in the comparison to the low country and a powerful and in many years in the winter into Aprilcontinuous Schneedecke out. The comb situations of the ore mountains belong to the snow-safest areas of the low mountain ranges. Foehn hoist can occur, in addition, the Böhmi wind in such a way specified with special south weather conditions. Due to this climate and the large snow quantities it gives with statutewithin the range of the border to Böhmen on scarcely 900 m and. NN a natural Latschen Kiefern area. To the comparison: In the alps Latschen seem to 1800 m only starting from 1600 - ü.NN.

Central temperature in °C
time Fichtelberg Oberwiesenthal Anna mountain Chemnitz Leipzig
January -5.3 -4.0 -2.3 -1.2 0.2
June 11.3 13.6 15.4 16.6 18.7
year 2.8 ,4.7 ,6.4 ,7.9 ,9.3
middle precipitation sum in mm
time Fichtelberg Oberwiesenthal Anna mountain Chemnitz Leipzig
January 85 83 74 43 37
June 123 ,120 ,112 90 75
Year 1094 1073 982 ,701 ,560
Temperaturdiagramm Erzgebirge
temperature diagram ore mountains
Niederschlagsdiagramm Erzgebirge
precipitation diagram ore mountains

geological description

Im oberen Westerzgebirge bei Oberwildenthal
in the upper west ore mountains with Oberwildenthal

the ore mountains ranks earth-history among the Variszi mountains and is a Pultschollengebirge, which by a whole set of river valleys, of themRivers to the hollow and/or. directly to the Elbe drain, one cuts through. It resulted from one-sided rise of a Scholle. On German side the mountains rise slowly, on Czech side drop it steeply. Very well to observe one can do this on that Mückentürmchen at a value of 807,5 m NN (Czech: Komáří vížka) (east of tin forest on Czech side), which is exactly on the edge of the desk. That is appropriate for the ore mountains north pre-aged , to the west of Chemnitz and around Zwickau, howeveronly in geological regard well-known, Erzgebirgi basins. Here are hard coal stores, in which the mining industry was already left open. A similar, however smaller basin with left open hard coal stores, the Döhlener basin, is southwest from Dresden at the northern edgethe east ore mountains. It forms the transition to the Elbtalzone and is also predominantly in geological regard well-known.

The ore mountains are to be seen geologically as one world-wide at the best investigated mountains.

Important occurring rocks: Mica slate, Phyllite and granites also Contact contacts in the west, basalt as remainders in the Plessberg (Plesivec), disk mountain, bear stone, Pöhlberg, Geisingberg as well as Gneise and Quarzporphyr (bald mountain) in the east. The soils, which consist in the western and middle part of the mountains of weathered granite,consist of Grus and are fast leached out. Phyllite result in a lehmigen soil. Fast weathering Gneise in the east of the mountains results in a light soil. The use of land consists on the undergrounds of granite and Quarzporphyr of forest, on which Gneisböden is the cultivation of flax been operated in earlier centuries , late rye , oats and potatoes into high situations possible and. Today the predominant use is pasture grassland. More and more finds one however orientation by nature mountain meadows.

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Restaurant economics

representation of the historical mining industry on the Annaberger mountain altar (1522)
Nachbau eines Pferdegöpels und Huthauses in Johanngeorgenstadt
reproduction of a Pferdegöpels and a hat house in Johanngeorgenstadt
technical museum Frohnauer hammer

with the beginning of settling the ore mountains in 12. Century finally also the first Silbererze in that becameEnvironment today's free mountain discovers. Berggeschrey rose. Almost at the same time also the first Zinnerze at the south foot of the ore mountains were discovered. Tin grains (barley) were won in the Seiffenbergbau and gave the böhmischen mountain city barley (tschech. Krupka) their name. Sincethe second half 13. Century held also the glass production introduction, as the oldest glasswork location applies for Ulmbach. This wood-intensive industry lost however with the increase of the mining industry, which was privileged opposite, at meaning.

With the further settlement of the ore mountainsbecame in 15. Century finally new, rich ore occurrences around snow mountain, Anna mountain and pc. Joachimsthal (Jáchymov) discovers. The second Berggeschrey rose and released an enormous settling wave. In short consequence developed generally speaking ore mountains new, according to plan establishedMountain cities in the proximity of further newly discovered ore occurrences. Typical examples of it are the cities Marienberg, Oberwiesenthal, God-gave (Boží), Sebastiansberg (Hora sports association. Šebestiána), plates (Horní Blatná), and Johanngeorgenstadt. Became toothis time only the silver - and Zinnerze economically used. The wealth of Saxonia was finally justified at that time. As Münzmetall silver became locally in the mountain cities to money converted, famous the Joachims coined/shaped in Joachimsthal more thaler. This ore mining industry came into 17. Century to a large extent for succumbing. By the now very strongly decreasing/going back mining industry, the Erzgebirger new branches of trade had to look for each other. Many inhabitants were already active in textile production in this time. There these however not toLiving costs handed, made you your flexibility and relating to craftsness too use themselves and settled the wood goods and the toy production particularly in the east ore mountains. After the invention cobalt-blue revived the mining industry however again. Particularly in snow mountain now cobalt becamepromoted, which was too cobalt-blue processed in the national blue color works. It succeeded to protect the production secret for long time, so that the blue color works for approx. 100 years the Weltmonopol held. Off approx. 1820 were diminished in Johanngeorgenstadt also uranium ore, whichamong other things for coloring glass one used. Still rich occurrences at uranium ore were however in Joachimsthal. But toward end 19. Century came the mining industry then slowly to succumbing. The ever more cost-intensive dewatering led already since the center of the19. Century for the constant decrease of the yields despite the development of the ditch and Röschensysteme for the supply of the necessary moving water of the comb of the mountains, like for example the institute for district watercourse of the Freiberger of district or the Reitzenhainer things ditch and the propulsion of deeperErbstolln. Only few pits could obtain profits during a longer period. To them the sky prince find pit belonged with Erbisdorf, which looked back 1818 with the publication of their first Ausbeutetalers on a 50-jährige continuous profit phase, which persisted until 1848. By richOre incipient cracks became later the Ascension Day find pit the most productive Freiberger pit in 19. Century. Also the propulsion of the Rothschönberger Stollns as the largest and most important Saxonian Stolln, which served the drainage of the entire Freiberger of district, could not stop the fall of the mining industry.Still before the completion of this technical master achievement 1871 were introduced to the German Reich the gold currency. The rapid purge of the rate of silver using thereby led to the unprofitableness of the entire erzgebirgischen silver mining industry. At this situation also brief rich finds in individual pits could or the national buying up of all Freiberger bills and their bringing in in 1886 created state enterprises the upper management of the royal Erzbergwerke nothing more change. 1913 was shut down the last silver mines and the enterprise was dissolved.

To the raw material extraction in the war years of the 1.and 2. World war the mining industry in the ore mountains was again revived. It came during the third realm also to the resumption of the silver mining industry. Afterwards settled wood goods - and toy production particularly in the east ore mountains. The clocks industry has in glassworkan emphasis. In the west ore mountains economic alternatives were mechanical engineering and textile industry. In the years before 1945 the mines in Joachimsthal applied as only uranium ore pit of the world. At Joachimsthaler uranium is discovered the radioactivity by Marie curie. End of the 1930er yearsbecomes finally interesting after the discovery of the nuclear fission the uranium ore also for military purposes. After the affiliation of the Sudetenlandes at Germany 1938 entire production is seized by uranium for the development by nuclear weapons. After the employment of the American atom bomb in Japan 1945 also the Soviet Union begins feverful with the development of such weapons. On it bismuth A.G. begins directly under the cover name.the promotion of uranium ore for the Soviet Union in all ore mountains. For the third time in the history of the ore mountains flowedThousands of humans in the ore mountains, in order to develop itself a new existence. Emphasis of the dismantling was Johanngeorgenstadt, Schlema and Aue. Also in the böhmischen Joachimsthal uranium ore stores were exploited completely for the Soviet Union. To 1991 uranium ores then still became inAue Alberoda and Pöhla diminished. Since 1168 the mining industry operated in free mountain was terminated after 800 years finally 1968. In old person mountain and Ehrenfriedersdorf one operated ore mining industry on Zinnerz, lead ore and Zinkerz to 1991. Smelting these ores found among other thingsin hollow huts to beginning of the 1990er years instead of. In sank Egidien and Aue were important locations for the nickel smelting. In the westerzgebirgischen Pöhla with investigation work into the 1980er years for the SDAG bismuth new, rich tin ore stores were found. Thosedeveloped at that time attempt-diminish are today considered as the largest tin chambers in Europe. A further well-known place of the tin production was Seiffen. The village in the east ore mountains is today center of the wood goods - and toy production. Here smoking men , Nussknacker , become Schwibbögen, Weihnachtspyramiden and play doses from wood manufactured. With Zwickau, Lugau/Erzgeb., Oelsnitz/Erzgeb. as well as with free valley 20 became into the next to last third . Century hard coal diminished.

To more than 800 years ago (11. Century) still completely also Forest (Miriquidi) existed mountains was transformed by mining industry and settlement nearly completely to the culture landscape. Into high situations of the mountains the population density is high and with Oberwiesenthal lies in the ore mountains the high-altitude city of Germany. Only into that, one finds still larger coherent forest areas, however since that the 18 to relatively inaccessible, climatically more unfavorable comb situations. Century to be forest-economically used (Monokultur of spruces). Under the high need mining industry and metallurgical engineering at Grubenholz and fuels took place sincethat 12. Century wide clearing, also the nationalwonderful forests could for the increasing wood need any longer cover. The receipt of the forests 18 became since that. Century the use of coal as fuel promoted and in 19. Century finally anbefohlen. Into that1980er years were determined with old person mountain and with Reitzenhain first signs by forest dying, but already since that 19. Century local damage to the forests had become visible by hut smoke.

tourism

ore mountains with old person mountain in the winter

as in 19. Century the ore mountain passes was chausseemässig developed and also the upper ore mountains by the railway were opened, developed the tourism. Mountain hotels were established on the highest collections and ski sportsmen discovered the snow-safe comb situations already at that time. Today are from thisTime coming narrow-gauge railways popular tourist attractions operated with steam engines. With the Fichtelbergschwebebahn developed 1924 the first aerial ropewayaerial ropeway aerial ropeway in Germany, which brings visitors up to the today's day on the highest mountain of Saxonia. With the comb way one of the first remote moving ways finally becamecreated. This led once from the shark mountain with Asch across the ore mountains, Böhmi Switzerland and the Lausitzer mountains up to the Schneekoppe in the giant mountains. Today exist not only a close network of moving ways, but also expanded Loipennetze and departure runways forwinter sports. With the Skimagistrale Erzgebirge/Krušné hory there is thereby one German/Czech ski-move-strains over the entire ore mountain comb.

Following the historical silver route after 1990, between Zwickau and Dresden the whole ore mountains crossing, were created tourist road the all importantObjects of interest opens. To these above all the medieval city centres of the old Berstädte and their important Sakralbauten belong like the Freiberger cathedral, the pc. apart from visitor mines, mining industry didactic exhibitions and a multiplicity of technical and heimatkundlichen museums. Annenkirche in Anna mountain book wood or those Schneeberger pc. Wolfgang church.

In the Advents and Christmas season is the ore mountains with its traditions, the far-well-known Weihnachtsmärkten and large mountain parades a popular destination for short holiday-makers.

Since 2004 by the tourism federation ore mountains the ErzgebirgsCard are offered. With this map can over 100 museums and other objects of interest to be visited free of charge.

Annaberg-Buchholz, St.Annenkirche
Anna mountain book wood, St.Annenkirche

population

in the ore mountains live depending upon its exact demarcation between 800.000 and over 1.2 million humans. To the largest cities free mountain ( 42.000) belongs, to Anna mountain book wood (23.000) and Aue (19.000), as well as Teplice (55.000), Chomutov (55.000), Most (68.000) and Karlovy Vary (52.000) on Czech side. Already for several centuries it belongs to the most closely populated mountain regions of Europe, which is to due primarily to its tradition as ore extraction area. The largerCities are by the majority at the south slope of the ore mountains. On German side the population density decreases from the west ore mountains (circle Aue Schwarzenberg), with its many smaller cities, to the rural east ore mountains steadily. The population has since the reunification around on the average 10% to15% removed, which is to due to the generally bad economic situation. In the year 2004 the population density amounted to about 210 inhabitants for each km ² (about federal cut), which can fall due to the drift and a strong dying surplus however further.

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Belong

to religion about 42% of the population of the German ore mountains to the Evangelical-Lutheran regional church . In addition, besides different Christian free churches are partly strongly represented like the Evangelist methodistische church. The böhmische side of the mountains is contrary to the GermansPart with priority catholic coined/shaped. In Pockau also the community in Christo Jesu ( „Lorenzianer “) has its Zentralheiligtum, the Eliasburg.

culture

a Nussknacker from the ore mountains

the culture of the ore mountains became particularly by that, since the Middle Ages claimant, mining industry lastingly coined/shaped. The visitor recognizes this already with his arrival by here the daily used greeting formula “luck up!". The ore mountains have its own dialect, Erzgebirgi, that at the interface from upper German to Central Germanstands and therefore is not uniform.

Supraregional is also the various erzgebirgischen Weihnachtsbräuche , in particular in the form of traditional Weihnachtsschmuck such as smoking males , admits Weihnachtspyramiden, Schwibbogen or mountain man and angel figures. Particularly in the upper ore mountains transform in thatChristmas season the cities and villages with their decorated windows into a light sea. In addition, those everywhere to Christmas taking place Christmetten attract many visitors by their admitting heating degree of different place.

Musical Ambassadors of the ore mountains were at the beginning 20. Century Anton Günther and Hans Soph. Erzgebirgi dialect songs were spread also later by many groups of homelands. Among the most well-known the Pressnitzer musi edges, brothers and sisters Caldarelli, Zschorlauer nightingales as well as Joachim sweet and its ensemble ranked. Today there is above all De Randfichten,the erzgebirgisch sung songs admits make.

Interesting is also the erzgebirgische kitchen, which is rich at traditions.

See also: List of the landscapes in Saxonia

literature

  • Harald Häckel, Joachim Kunze: Our beautiful ore mountains. 4. Aufl. Häckel2001.ISBN 3980368009
  • NN: Ore mountains, Vogtland, Chemnitz. HB picture Atlas, booklet No. 171. 2. , act. Aufl. 2001. ISBN 3616062713
  • Bernd Wurlitzer: Ore mountains, Vogtland. Marco Polo travel guide. 5. , act. Aufl. Mairs geographical publishing house 2001. ISBN 3829700059
  • NN: Compass maps: Ore mountainsWest, center, east. Moving and wheel moving map. Government inspection department compatibly. 1:50.000. Compass publishing house 2002. ISBN 3854919549
  • NN: The face of the earth, volume I, VEB F. A. Of Brockhaus publishing house, Leipzig 1970

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Wiktionary: Ore mountains - word origin, synonyms andTranslations
 

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