Eschweiler mining industry

Eschweiler-Aue im 19. Jahrhundert
Eschweiler Aue in 19. Century

the city Eschweiler in the circle Aachen carries the title “cradle of the rheinischen mining industry”, where companies have such as Thyssen and Hoesch their roots. In the Aachener hard coal district already sets the industrialization in the first half 19. Century , with which it can be regarded as the first industrial region of Germany. For this high occurrences of coal, quartz sand, limestone, different ores and water power , technical achievements gave excursion such as steam engine and railway as well as a very close spatial binding of the manufacturing plants to ore stores. A further milestone was 1834 the establishment of the Eschweiler of mine association EBV with pits in when village (here: Pit Anna), Eschweiler and environment. Furthermore Eschweiler personalities such as Christine Englerth , Franz Reuleaux and August Thyssen are to be called. Which was missing to Eschweiler, was a water way. The Rhine Maas channel, which would have run by the city, never realized and in such a way moved away Thyssen and others to Duisburg and in the Ruhr district .

Table of contents

premature mining industry history in Eschweiler

Celts and Romans claimant in the Eschweiler district mining industry and will have already used the close spatial binding, why can be assumed Schürfstellen, manufacturing plants and settlement area formed a favorable unit. With Eschweiler Volkenrath already in before-Roman time iron ore and late limestone one diminished.

Eisenzeit and Celt

the Celts were a large mining industry people with montantechnisch high standard and left themselves terms of the mining industry nature as isarno (= iron), scagadt (= pit, cave, column), mina (= mine) and clocca (= bell). In the Eschweiler district became in particular in the 1. to 3. Century iron -, zinc - and lead ore to a large extent diminished and metallurgically used. A wreath/ring celtic a settlements around Eschweiler Scherpenseel and further celtic settlements in Eschweiler are occupied. Thus between Eschweiler Scherpenseel and Eschweiler Volkenrath at the foot of the Korkus a celtic mine from the Eisenzeit one discovered, in which already 400 v. Chr. Miners worked. The extensively put on and well interconnect lugs extended beyond the Korkus. With a pit attempt “for good hope” from 1880 to 1884 one encountered there the old lug system: The ore was completely diminished from the Celts. The ruins of “for good hope” as well as the neighbouring pin gene and pit entrances are to be visited this very day. In the Eschweiler district proved extremely favorably that the ore courses at the surface withdraw and by the remarkable vegetation of the so-called. Galmeiflora is indicated. The ways to the removal of the ores were at the celtic time the Gracht or running ways already existing.

In southwest the “Propsteier forest “on Eschweiler city scarcely a kilometer from the Propsteier mansion removes 1905 a quadratförmiger building of 8 meters of side length with roofing tile remainders, a piece of cinder and a piece of hard coal found: probably a Roman iron smelt. The fact that the Romans in the Eschweiler area already used hard coal lies near, since she steps here in many places completely to day and must no Roman mining industry enterprise be accepted.

copper time, Bronzezeit and Romans

after by softer copper coined/shaped and approximately two centuries continuing copper time the Bronzezeit followed. Bronze and/or. Brass was won a harder and more versatile material, from copper, which was hardened by admixture of tin or zinc in the relationship 1:9. Also mixing proportion between 1:49 and 1:3 are possible.

The Romans was well-known, predominant the production of brass in the cementation procedure for poured articles. Appropriate pieces of find come among other things from the “Propsteier forest”. The cementation procedure was up to 19. Century the only procedure for the brass production in the Eschweiler area. Here pots are filled with pieces of copper big as a fist, gemahlenem Zinkerz and gemahlener charcoal, which are then heated up in the furnace on nearly 1000 °C. With the Roman metal casting technology one needs Klafterholz for heating the furnaces and charcoal as cementation reducing agent (so-called. Aggregate). As Zinkerz the Romans have the easily processable probably predominantly ground galmei used.

The Roman Imperium controlled the Eschweiler area of the 1. to 4. Century, which the many Roman roads, Villae rusticae and pieces of find occupy. From their expanded digging activities and the metallurgical use in 2. and 3. Century follows in the Eschweiler area a continuation celtic mining industry tradition by the Romans. Since with free of doubts occupied the Roman iron and remaining suppl. building activities Zinkerz naturally results in the form of Galmei, a which condition for desired brass commodity and - gerätschaften of the elevated need is, the Romans seem to be successors of the Celts also here. Among the most well-known Roman brass articles the “Hemmoorer (or Gressenicher) ranks buckets “in the federal state museum Hanover, when its place of origin the ore fields in the southeast Eschweiler district are assumed.

the Eschweiler Kohl mountain

the Kohl mountain up to 18. Century

of the Eschweiler Kohl mountain is the northeast part of the Indemulde durchzogenen of hard coal seams. The Indemulde - weiestgehend identically to “Indian four” - is the hollow durchflossene of the underflow of the Inde in the strip Atsch, Eschweiler Aue, Eschweiler city forest, Eschweiler, Eschweiler Nothberg and Weisweiler, which contain hard coal seams, which partial is enough to to the daily surface in their underground. The Indemulde is limited in the north by the Aachener Devonian saddle, at which that likewise follows coal prominent worm district with Würselen , when village , Herzogenrath and Siersdorf in the worm hollow. The Indemulde is divided far into the “Eschweiler lying northeast Kohl mountain” and the “cathedral Kohl Muenster” lying southwest. The name “cathedral Kohl mountain” comes of to the realm abbey Kornelimünster, to which it belonged. That already 1394 mentioned “Eschweiler Kohl mountain” documentary lay in the rule area of the counts von Jülich.

Bulk purchasers for the coal promoted in the Eschweiler Kohl mountain are main in the Eschweiler area the so-called. Copper or brass master, already around the center 17. Century with a whole year quantity of 15.000 tons.

  • 1394 are mentioned documentary coal dismantling and the Eschweiler Kohl mountain as “Koylberg to Eschwylre”. First in innumerable pin gene and smaller pits coal without larger technology is promoted with small Teufen. With increasing depth the Grubenwässer became the problem, so that a high meaning is attached to the dewatering - also “Rosskunst” and “gentleman art” mentioned -.
  • 1555 are mentioned a Rosskunst.
  • 1571 (at the latest) are water wheels in the use.
  • 1632 are established the gentleman art - designated after the Mr. von Jülich -, important for the dewatering.

Wültgens, Englerth and the EBV

  • 1784 begin Johann Peter Wültgens to extend its concessions held in the Eschweiler Kohl mountain by additional purchase. It had received it as remuneration for a lease of the castle Kinzweiler.
  • 1794 are installed in direct neighbourhood of the gentleman art at the inlet of the “Luisenstrasse” in Eschweiler pump those probably first steam engine of Germany.
  • 1805 receives Ferdinand Wültgens and Carl Englerth a large concession after French right to the entire surface extending of the seams and up to the eternal Teufe due to a decree from Napoleon I.. The dewatering and seam delimitation by the rule of the counts von Jülich were hereby terminated.
  • 1834 are created after death Christine Englerths of the Eschweiler mine association EBV.

pump pass and first steam engine

EBV-Brückenpfeiler von 1912
EBV Brückenpfeiler of 1912
Pumpenhaus (Standort der Dampfmaschine)
pump house (location of the steam engine)

pump pass are consisting southwest quarters of the city Eschweiler, of the residential areas Aue, in the Hag, Konkordiasiedlung, pump, settlement hunter path, settlement forest school, pass, center as well as the thunder mountain barracks. It is the oldest and was the most important industrial area of the city Eschweiler. The Konkordiasiedlung is designated after the former “Concordia hut”. The name “pass” (in the dialect “Steech”) is derived from high-German “bar, staircase, Steige”, because, if one wanted from Eschweiler to pump, one had “dr Steech erop”. The name “pump” decreases/goes back to the fact that itself there since the transition of the pin gene - to the gallery construction end 16. Centurygentleman or hydraulic architectures “found, who propelled by means of large water wheels pumps, which provided for the dewatering in the coal pits. The former pump house with one of the first steam engines of Germany as well as the riser house and further buildings stand under monument protection. Eschweiler pump is the place of birth of Franz Reuleaux.

Eschweiler pits

"EBV"-Lore bei Nothberg
“EBV” - “ Padtkohl
” were divided truck with Nothberg business premises of the Eschweiler of Kohl mountain as border into the within and external works with the seam. The Binnenwerke within the range of the hollow core is the pits “Aue”, “Centrum” and “reserve”, the external works “Atsch”, “Birkengang” and “Propstei”. The mining districts (or pit fields) in the Eschweiler Kohl mountain were “field-end” at the northern hollow wing, “shrub-end” in the range of the hollow idiom and “dog-end” at the south wing. After shrub-end is the road to shrub-end in Eschweiler William height and after field-end is designated the road field final road in the northern Eschweiler Bergrath. There in November 2005 the last buildings of the former pit “reserve” were torn off.

pit Albert

“Albert” is an ore pit south of Eschweiler Hastenrath.

  • 1840 licensing takes place on zinc -, lead - and iron ores to the agents Albert Ostländer and the widow J. W. Heinen from Hastenrath. After Albert Ostländer the pit is designated.
  • 1851 are operated the pit after changing property by the alliance, which she leases Metallhütte Concordia between 1853 and 1859 to the Eschweiler. To liquidation of the alliance the Albert pit comes over Rainer ears made of mountain home 1863 into the possession of the mining company narrow brook and with the pit “satisfaction” is combined.
  • 1906 receive the Albert pit the type of firm of a trade union.
  • 1917 are closed the Albert pit with a reached Teufe by 138 meters. The foundations of the Erzwäsche are still good in the waste dump area left to recognize.

pit Atsch

“Atsch” is a former hard coal mine in the western part of the Indemulde at the border between cathedral Kohl mountain and Eschweiler Kohl mountain. The hard coal seams storing here became since that 14. Century in pin gene diminished. In 18. Century are used water-driven pumping plants, so that a dismantling enterprise became possible below the ground-water level and underneath the low of the Inde.

  • 1738 become the so-called. At associate by cure prince Karl Philipp as a duke given of Jülich permission for the building of a “recess pump”. To 1772 the dismantling enterprise reaches a Teufe of approximately 40 meters.
  • 1784 are adjusted the pit enterprise, after the art downward gradient another owner used for the dewatering became to transfer. Starting from 1810 the hydroelectric power plant serves the enterprise of a mill.
  • 1800 place Carl Englerth a unsuccessful concession request for exploitation of the Binnenwerke as well as the external works “Birkengang” and “Atsch”. Up to the year 1832 its daughter Christine Englerth succeeds in acquiring 62/72 of all portions of the Atsch. With the remaining 10/72 of the Grobschmieds Johann carrots, which as only refuses to sell, for the restarting operation of the Atsch created 1832 a Sociation civile.
  • 1845 are again furnished the pit “Atsch” with new promotion pit, their highest promotion rate however only 15% of the total mechanical handling capacity of the EBV is reached.
  • the pit their maximum Teufe of 220 meters reaches 1860.
  • 1870 are given up it because of coal supplies lacking and build-worthy.

pit Aue

“Aue” is a former Steinkohlengrube of the Binnenwerke of the Eschweiler of Kohl mountain in the quarter Eschweiler Aue.

pit Birkengang

“Birkengang” is a former hard coal pit field in the northern external work of the Eschweiler of Kohl mountain. The pit field Birkengang was essentially formed by a terrain strip lain on both sides the today's Birkengangstrasse, where already early coal in pin gene was diminished. From the early discharge time here the pit names “Birkenwerk”, “Birkenkohl” and “Honerblech” are well-known.

  • 1581 is mentioned for the first time digging activities in the calculation report of the Eschweiler Vogtes and coal master Thomas Borcken. The dismantling enterprise developed very many more slowly, because to the water wheel drive necessary running waters are missing. A use of the discharge of the Vichtbaches was prevented by the “Stolberger copper master”.
  • 1800 receives Carl Englerth and Ferdinand Wültgens for the coal dismantling in the entire Birkengang and in the Binnenwerken a provisional operating permit and 1802 the appropriate concessions.
  • 1812 are again prepared the horse-claimant “Göpelschacht” and developed up to 125 meters of depth, where the seam “large Kohl” was. The power of this seam large for Eschweiler conditions suggested a productive dismantling, however the available Pumpenleistung was not sufficient to drain the pit “Birkengang”.
  • 1816 will be adjusted completely the enterprise after an unusually wet summer.
  • 1817 are abgeteuft a new Wasserhaltungsschacht, whereby by means of the “Göpelschacht” one continues to promote.
  • 1834 are begun with the building of the pit “Christine” for the seams “small Kohl” and “large Kohl” and the 40-PS-Dampfmaschine of the pit “new large Kohl” of the pit “Centrum” is installed.
  • 1841 is exhausted their coal supplies of the sole set with 138 m.
  • 1847 fail an attempt to open further coal supplies for the neighbouring Zinkhütte because of extraordinarily strong water entrances.
  • 1855 succeed a second attempt.
  • 1857 are begun with the building of the pit “Matthias”, via whom 1862 take place with 183 meters a copy for the dismantling enterprise of the pit “Christine”.
  • 1883 are given up the pit “Birkengang” after the dismantling of the seams.

pit Centrum and/or. Center and/or. United Centrum

“Centrum” was the most important and hard coal pit most productive with distance in the Eschweiler Kohl mountain with nine promotion and six art pits.

  • 1805 are operated it by the families Wültgens and Englerth, later by the EBV.
  • Around 1850 it takes about 30% off of the total promotion capacity Aachen/Eschweiler of district . Their largest staff strength is reached 1855 with 1348 persons employed, and it is at this time regarding promotion rates, staff strength and technical equipment the most important Steinkohlenbergwerk of Germany in private property.
  • 1891 are finally adjusted the enterprise.

After this pit the road center is designated in pump pass.

pit Christine

“Christine” is coal pit at the upper Birkengang, designated after Christine Englerth.

pit luck castle

“luck castle” is southwest a former bill and ore pit from Eschweiler raw one at the Propsteier forest. Their characteristic is the so-called. “black crust”, one at the border to the coal slate ore-impregnated Lettenschicht.

  • 1838 are acquired their concession on Zinkerz, lead ore and brown iron stone of the Eschweiler “metallurgical society”, which she leases.
  • 1865 take over the “Eschweiler society “the pit enterprise, after a lead ore camp was discovered. The depth development precedes because of strong discharge only slowly, and the ores are only from middle to inferior quality.
  • 1884 are shut down with of 92 meters Teufe the pit. Thereupon it leases a former riser of the pit, ore however hardly wins.

pit Ichenberg

1824 acquires Christine Englerth the “pit Ichenberg “. 1825 are closed it.

Propsteier pit

“Propstei” is a pit field and a pit of the same name for the promotion of hard coal in the northern external work of the Eschweiler of Kohl mountain. The pit was in the southeast of the Propsteier of forest.

  • 1701 lie the there mining industry with a Teufe of 60 meters in hands of eight trades and a widow.
  • 1833 acquire Christine Englerth all rights of exploitation.
  • Only 1860 begin the new installation of the pit by the EBV to 301 meters Teufe. An old pit becomes as driving and Wetterschacht furnished.
  • 1861 take over a hoisting engine the Abteufung and do not durchteuft later than not build with dignity turning out seams “Jülcher” and “owl”. Likewise a copy takes place to the pit “Atsch”. The daily promotion rates exceed 100 tons.
  • 1870 are shut down because of dam failure of the collecting oak after a cloud break the enterprise. Despite this damage the Abteufung is advanced to the sixth sole.
  • 1879 however are given up the pit.

pit reserve

“reserve” is a former bill between the quarters Bergrath and Nothberg. Of the pit the Karnevalsgesellschaft kg reminds merry reserve.

  • 1856 are abgeteuft in Nothberg the first pit with name “William . Beginning of the 1890er years has the pit “reserve” of 700 coworkers.
  • To 21. February 1931 demands a Schlagwetterexplosion 32 dead ones.
  • To 28. Septembers 1944 failed because of power failure the pumps and the pit ran up to the daily surface within fewer days fully. It was guessed/advised briefly before into the range of the US-American artillery.
  • 1970 is broken off the remainders of the old coking plant and settled on the area new enterprises. The remaining buildings fall 2005 the excavator to the victim.

to pit William

see history of William height.

the Eschweiler Zinkhütten

Zinkhütte Velau

the Zinkhütte “Velau” was the first Zinkhütte Eschweilers and the Aachener of hard coal district. It is established and operated to 1819 by Matthias Leonhard Schleicher by change of the copper yard Velau. Later she changes the division lead into the possession of the EBV and forms there, together with substantial possession portions of surrounding ore pits , - zinc of the EBV. From this division 1848 the “Eschweiler society “follows.

Zinkhütte Birkengang and/or. Friedrich William hut

Zinkhütte Birkengang
Zinkhütte Birkengang
the Zinkhütte “Birkengang” is a Eschweiler zinc reduction hut, which was established from 1845 to 1846 as a successor of the Zinkhütte “Velau” by the EBV and Matthias Ludolph Schleicher at the upper Birkengang in direct proximity of the coal pit “Christine”. In the Zinkhütte Birkengang was developed a special zinc reduction furnace, whose heating with a regenerativ heat chamber system worked and which after the location of the hut Birkengangofen was called. In particular because of its good warming and/or. Utilization of fuel found this type of furnace world-wide to the zinc smelting use and became known English than Rhenish Furnace . After a change of firm's structure the Zinkhütte changed 1848 into the possession of the “Eschweiler society “. Briefly after their fusion with the “Stolberger society” 1926 the enterprise of the Zinkhütte was stopped, and into the early 1930er year it was torn off.

Zinkhütte stone ford

the Zinkhütte “stone ford” is 1850 developed, Zinkhütte claimant by the “alliance” in Eschweiler Steinfurt. With their at the beginning of six and later twelve reduction furnace had it only a comparatively small capacity. Comparatively at that time the neighbouring Eschweiler Zinkhütte “Birkengang” 36 and the Stolberger Zinkhütte “cathedral shrubs” operated 50 furnaces. After dissolution of the “alliance” the Zinkhütte “stone ford” was operated still until 1859 by the “zinc company of Baden” from Mannheim. From this developed in same place the “P. Peter's GmbH factory of fireproof products ".

Only 1935 and thus after quiet putting of the pits and the Zinkhütten become the Eschweiler of quarters Birkengang, stone ford and Velau as well as the Atsch after Stolberg expenditure for obligation.

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)