of these articles treats the city meal in the Ruhr district, further meanings under meal (term clarifying).
Coat of arms map
Stadtwappen der kreisfreien Stadt Essen Lage der kreisfreien Stadt Essen in Deutschland
Wahlspruch: Meal, the purchase city
base data
Land of the Federal Republic: North Rhine-Westphalia
governmental district: Duesseldorf
landscape federation: Rhine country
regional association Ruhr
circle: Circle-free city
geographical situation:
Coordinates: 51° 27 ' n. Break, 07° 01 ' o. L.
51° 27 ' n. Break, 07° 01 ' o. L.
durchschn. Altitude: 116 meters and. NN
surface: 210.32 km ²
inhabitants: 584.295 (1. January 2006)
Population density: 2779 inhabitants for each km ²
postal zip codes: 45001-45359
preselections: 0201, 02054 (meal chaining TIG)
Kfz characteristics: E
municipality key: 05 1 13 000
of the city:
9 urban districts with
50 quarters
of the city administration:
Porsche place 1
45121 meals
web page:
mayor: Wolfgang cleaner (CDU)
debt conditions: 1.070342 billion €
(Conditions: 31. December 2002)
Population (conditions: 31. December 2002)
Unemployment ratio: 16.0% (April 2006)
foreigner portion: 11.5%
age structure:
0-18 years: 16.8%
18-65 years: 62.5%
starting from 65 years: 20.7%

meal is a city in the center of the Ruhr district in North Rhine-Westphalia. The circle-free city in the governmental district Duesseldorf is one of the upper centers of the country and counts with approximately 584,000 inhabitants to the largest German cities. Depending upon payment date andSource takes it beside Dortmund and Stuttgart to the 7. or 8. Place. The culture capital of the yearly 2010 is member in the landscape federation Rhine country and in the regional association Ruhr.

In former times one of the most important centers of the mining industry in Germany (with own Kuxbörse), meal developed today - like probably still industrially coined/shaped - a strong service sector. The city is since 1958 Roman-catholic bishop seat and since 1972 university town. At the beginning of of 2003 became the University of meal with the Gerhard Mercator university in Duisburg the University of Duisburg meal combined.

Table of contents


meals lie in the center of the Ruhr district north the river Ruhr, for which between the quarters copper trick, Heisingen and the Baldeneysee form. The middleAltitude of the city amounts to 116 meters and.NN. The highest collection of the city is in Heidhausen and amounts to 202.5, the deepest place in Karnap measures 26.5 meters and. NN.

The largest expansion of the city amounts to in north south direction 21km and in west east direction 17 km.

neighbour municipalities

the following cities border on the city meal. They are called in the clockwise direction beginning in the northeast:
Gel churches and Bochum (both circle-free cities), Hattingen (Ennepe Ruhr circle), Velbert, holy house and Ratingen (all circle Metz man), Mülheim at the Ruhr, upper living and Bottrop (all circle-free cities) as well as Gladbeck (circle Recklinghausen)

city arrangement

panorama of the Essener city center seen by the tetrahedron in Bottrop out. In the background thoseRuhr heights.
The city of meal consists of 9 urban districts. In each urban district there is a district agency with in each case 19 members. Chairman of the district agency is a district chief. The urban districts become with Roman numbers and the partial with a special name,also of several quarter names consists, characterized. The 9 urban districts are divided into altogether 50 quarters. Most of the quarters were in former times once independent municipalities and lost their independence by incorporation. The quarters are marked by a two digit Arab number.

of history

establishment of pin

around 850 creates the later bishop von Hildesheim, Altfrid, ladies a pin (coenobiumAstnide) supposed called on own reason, Astnithi (which möglw. “Area in the east” means). From this designation becomes later - over the Latinisierung “Assindia” - which today's city name deduces meals. As the first Äbtissin it set its related Gerswit (seealso:Pin meal).

Since approximately 800 (799) there is somewhat further south, in the today's quarter, the monastery, a Benediktiner - monastery, which is to advance the mission work with the Saxonia in the resin area (Helmstedt/Halberstadt). Lady pin is primarily thoseDaughters of the Saxonian aristocrats supply. Both, lady pin and monastery, stand already in the completely christianisiertem surrounding field. Over about 852 with the building of the pin church one begins, which is finished 870. Around lady pin there is already one before its establishmentAttachment and some farmsteads. The church is extended after a major fire 946, which destroys also the settlement, substantially; on its foundations today the Essener Münster stands in the center of the city. The first provable documentary date for meals is 898: at this time by the lothringischen king Zwentibold linksrheinische possessions are bequeathed to the pin. A document, which apparently from the year 870 originates and which establishment of pin describes, becomes today generally as falsification from that 11. Century regards; also seemat the time of the falsification no older documents to have been present, as was accepted until some time ago still.

This lady pin (in to the celebration the fair Kanoniker were) was not a monastery, but a kind living and education place for unmarriedDaughters and widows of the high aristocracy; it was led by a Äbtissin, this was obligated as only to the placing of a Keuschheitsgelübdes.

One of the most remarkable these ladies is the Äbtissin Mathilde. She is granddaughter of the emperor Otto I., and takes overthe pin line starting from 971. Forty years it directs the fate of the pin (and the associated Ländereien), and it creates it to enrich the church treasure around most valuable pieces (among other things the golden Madonna, the oldest full-plastic Madonna figure of the world).After Mathilde Sophia takes over the pin line, daughter emperor Ottos II.

1041 under the pin line by the third lady royal Geblütes in consequence, Theophanu, a granddaughter of Otto II., that already receives 1003 as city mentioned meals that Market right. Ten years later, 1051, Münster a further mark is changed and extended: this cultivation is the East part with crypt, in that the Hl. Altfried, Mathilde and Theophanu are bestattet.

Lady pin, that to date onlyinfluential land owner was, gets 1216 its position as prince seat officially confirmed: Emperor Friedrich II. the Äbtissin at that time in a letter calls realm princess - which places it to the abbott close of the convenient monastery .

1244 marches the Cologne archbishop Konrad ofHochstaden in meals and lets a Stadtmauer establish, together with the citizens of the city. Meal becomes the city, receives its own seal and the municipal law. The pin ladies are at least occasionally entmachtet thereby, and the Essener citizens develop in Citizen consciousness.

King Rudolf confirmed 1290 again the Fürstäbtissin their national sovereignty over the city, can re-establish these however not completely: The citizenry lies in the conflict with the pin, the increasing city demands the autonomy: 1336 give first itAttempt to receive the realm immediacy however still lasts it over forty years, until 1377, then emperor Karl grants IV. the city the desired title of the free realm city - five years, after it the Äbtissin Elizabeth von Nassau officiating at that timethe exact opposite had confirmed.

From that 14. Century come also the first vouchers over mountain one niche activities in meals: 1349 receive the Fürstäbtissin the right to exploit the Bodenschätze to 1354 as can be prove silver are diminished. Coal in meals becomes 1371first time mentions, but the first coal mine is only registered for 1450.

The arguments between city and pin around the supremacy in the region hold on up to the dissolution of the pin 1803. There are legal quarrels again and again. Onethe processes lasts struck 200 years, until the realm Court of Appeal decides 1670, the city must for the Äbtissinen out being entitled obedience in Gebott and Verbott carry, may however nevertheless all old customary laws keep. Thus remains the situation between city and pin tocompetition-load for secularization inexplicably and. 1563 follow the city of the reformation (20 years, before it had the realm immediacy and thus the right in addition) and become Evangelist. As church the market church serves, from that 11. Century comes (urspr.Pc. Gertrudis). Nothing else remains watching the catholic pin (no troops had, with which had to be interspersed something) as in this situation.

At the end 16./Beginning 17. Century becomes meal as can be prove weapon waffenschmiede, a title, alsowill identify itself to that for many centuries it; as long as, until the enormous type characters meals - the weapon waffenschmiede of the realm, which three hundred years should prangen later opposite the main station, after which the Second World War by meals - which are replaced purchase city. Against 1570prosperiert the Büchsenmacherhandwerk.1620 produce the Essener Schmiede of 14,000 rifles and pistols; the city becomes strategically interesting.

the dreissigjährige war

meal around 1647

in the dreissigjährigen war face each other the Evangelist city and pin. At that time Äbtissin Maria Clara von Spaur and Vallier gets the catholic Spaniards to 1623 after meals, in order to proceed gegenreformatorisch against the Evangelist city. 1624 will issue a Rekatholisierungsgesetz, which controls Kirchgang of the citizens. The city, not pin, is for food andLogis of the occupation troops responsibly.1628 complains the Essener against it before the realm Court of Appeal.

1629 storms the dutchmen the city. Maria Clara flees to 4. November of this yearly in the catholic Cologne. In the summer 1631 she comes as a result of a BavarianGarrison under Gottfried Heinrich count to pasteboard home back, must take off however in September again. Maria Clara dies 1644 in Cologne.

Altogether the Essener of the war is struck heavily, it comes again and again to arrests, to kidnapping of humans andto pressing into the war service.

Also after the Westfäli peace the troops still another time remain long, the last troops leave meals to 9. September 1650.


meal, that was many years Krupp and Krupp, thatmany years were meal. The family Krupp is since that 16. Century resident been and dressed high offices. Friedrich Krupp created a casting steel factory and a this in the year 1811 gave the inhabitants of the city many years bread and money, although thoseBusiness at first so well did not run. The occupation of the workers was also the reason for the surname of the population of meals. But the era of the family Krupp ended in the year 1967 with the resignation of Arndt of planks and halfoh.

[...] The Industrielle Friedrich Grillo donates 1892 a theatre and an opera house to the rising city. Today still the building functioning under the name Grillo theatre as city theatres is established in the neoklassizistischen style in the city center and to 16. September 1892 with onePerformance inaugurated by Gotthold Ephraim Lessings Minna of barn helmet.


(meal, municipal law since 1244, old person meal , Borbeck and Steele ) belonged to incorporations the area of the today's city meal , to the realm abbey 1800 ago to the realm pin (cityBecome, municipal law since 1256 as well as Bredeney, Heisingen and chaining TIG) and to the duchy mountain. The individual places within the duchy mountain distributed themselves on the following administrations: Chaining TIG before the bridge (office meadow mouth), Fulerum and Haarzopf (rule Broich) as well as Dilldorfand Vossnacken (rule hard mountain). The village Oefte was contentious between the duchy mountain and the realm abbey . (Castle) old person village, refuge and Königssteele, that 1718 ago only Steele were called and already since the turn 15. Century to 16. Century city was,belonged to the district horde/hurdle in the Prussian county Mark. In French time the entire area came to the Grand Duchy of mountain and 1815 at Prussia. Afterwards the places belonged to the districts meals, Metz man and Duesseldorf in the governmental district Duesseldorf and/or to the district Bochum in the governmental district Arnsberg. These four districts changed in the following decades several times, until they were dissolved either completely or renamed and changed in their cut strongly. Meals there was a district first until 1823, when it was combined with the district DIN sheet to the district Duisburg, and again starting from 1857. It covered the cities meals, chaining TIG, Mülheim at the Ruhr, Steele and Werden as well as the Bürgermeistereien old person meal, Borbeck, chaining TIG country, Mülheim country, Steele country,Styrum and country. one expenditure-circles to 1873 the city meal and one forms from the district meal the new district Mülheim at the Ruhr.

up to the end 19. Century covered the city of meals only the old realm cityand/or realm pin the meal. Starting from 1901 followed into the constantly growing city a set of changes of area: 1901 became the Bürgermeisterei old person village in in common December, which only 1874 had been loosened from the Bürgermeisterei Borbeck. 1905 followed the Bürgermeisterei Rüttenscheid, to 1884 part of the Bürgermeisterei stopping mountain, thereafter the Bürgermeisterei Rellinghausens and only starting from 1900 were independent. Since 1874 the Huttrop belonging to the Bürgermeisterei stopping mountain was swallowed 1908. 1910 partly went the Bürgermeisterei Rellinghausen into meals on (however without Heisingen, that firstindependent Bürgermeisterei was likewise solved), Fulerum from the Bürgermeisterei hoisting and attached at meals. The Bürgermeistereien Borbeck, old person meal and Bredeney was dissolved 1915 and their area partially after meals in in common December, from the former Borbeck went however smallerPart Frintrops at upper living; *Karnap, before a part of old person meal, became independent. (Bredeney was renamed until 1902 part of chaining TIG country, then own Bürgermeisterei two-hone shanks , 1903 in Bredeney; Unterbredeney came however 1915 to; to Bredeney hear since 1910 1846 to the Bürgermeisterei Mülheim country and starting from 1878 to the Bürgermeisterei hoisting in the district Mülheim at the Ruhr place belonging to Haarzopf.)

at the 1. August 1929 was dissolved the district meal and its municipalities into the city meal was integrated predominantly. Only the city Chaining TIG remained independent and for the district Duesseldorf Metz man was attached. The city Steele were dissolved (with the 1876 integrated, at that time parts of Bergerhausen and that, belonging to to the Bürgermeisterei Steele country , 1926 integrated office Königssteele, the 1885 from to the office cotton wool-separate duePlaces Eiberg, Freisenbruch and Königssteele as well as from the place refuge belonging to to the office Hattingen formed and to the district Hattingen, in former times district Bochum, was belonged), the city (with that 1915 integrated Unterbredeney), the Bürgermeisterei Heisingen (starting from 1910independent Bürgermeisterei), the Bürgermeisterei Karnap, the Bürgermeisterei Kray (until 1906 to the Bürgermeisterei stopping mountain, then own Bürgermeisterei Kray Leithe and 1921 renaming in Kray), the Bürgermeisterei copper trick (until 1896 to the Bürgermeisterei country, then own Bürgermeisterei; 1899 integration of the peasantry Dilldorf (Bürgermeisterei hard mountain)and parts farmer shanks of the Rodberg and Vossnacken), the Bürgermeisterei over Ruhr (1857 formed renamed 1894 as Bürgermeisterei Steele country and), the Bürgermeisterei country (1857 formed), as well as the office stopping mountain (1874 from parts of the Bürgermeisterei old person meals formed; Rot-live became however 1923 after gel churches integrated).

A second phase of the Stadtvergösserung followed only far after the Second World War, 1970 came the old person village under the today's name castle old person village ( district Bochum, starting from 1885 district Hattingen , starting from 1929 Ennepe Ruhr circle, lain south) to meals, 1975 became the city chaining TIG (circle Duesseldorf Metz man, with that to a large extent 1875 integrated Gemarkung Kettwiger circumstance, that 1857 formed and 1929 integrated office chaining TIG country, that 1930 integrated chaining TIG before the bridge and that 1936 integrated Oefte, since 1897 to the Bürgermeisterei holy house and to the Bürgermeisterei Velbert belonged before) dissolved and after meals in in common December.

Too *Karnap, old person meal was independent, but to the pin meal until 1929 and belonged at that time not yet to the quarter. See for this the chronicle of the Karnaper history (1552) vdh


Essener Münster; in the background the city hall


meal belonged from the outset to the ore diocese Cologne and was subordinated to the Archidiakonat cathedral prop. width unit, which of the Essener Äbtissin was stressed. More invested by the archbishopOffizial administered the area of the pin and the city. The parish church was originally the abbey church. Pc. became later. Gertrud for the northern range (with old person meals and Karnap) and pc. Johann for the southern range (with old person village, glad living, Holsterhausen, Frillendorf, Rüttenscheidand Huttrop) of the city parish church. Starting from 1524 in the city occasionally Evangelist one preached. In the year 1543 an Evangelist Prediger stepped on and starting from 1560 became in the pc. Gertrudiskirche also German sung. On resolution of the advice of the city became 1563 the reformation finally imported. The city tried to strengthen their status as free realm city. Starting from 1563 were the pc. Gertrudiskirche durably the Protestanten left for use. Afterwards the cathedral Muenster took the rank of the Essener parish church for those Catholic . From now on thus both denominations were next to each other represented in meals. Pin remained catholic, the city was Evangelist. There was a lutherische municipality starting from 1571 among the Protestanten first only, then also a reformed became starting from 1655 of the adviceMunicipality recognition. Starting from 1605 the Gegenreformation could gain a partial foothold, which had as a consequence that the pc. Gertrudiskirche became partly again catholic. The final task of the realm liberty had to recognize the city 1670, but was this without consequences for thosepast konfessionellen differences. Until 1802 was settled the church affairs by the advice and/or by the pin. The reformed municipality was autonomous. The relationship of both denominations was about balanced.

1802 became the lutherische municipality meal the Prussian Konsistorium of the county Mark, 1809 the klevisch lutherischen Konsistorium of the Grand Duchy of mountain and starting from 1815 the Düsseldorfer Kreissynode assigned. It belonged thereby to the Evangelist church in Prussia and/or its to later rheinischer Provinzialkirche. Meal became seat of a Superintendentur, from which the parish district meal came out later.This was divided into the three parish districts meal center, meal north and meal south within the today's Evangelist church in the Rhine country. To the three parish districts today altogether 31 church municipalities belong. These form „the Evangelist town church federation together with the three parish districts since 1972Meal “.

the catholic Pfarreien belonged also after 1802 to the ore diocese to Cologne. 1958 became meal seat of its own diocese. The Pfarrgemeinden of the today's quarter meal chaining TIG still belongs to the Dekanat Ratingen and thus to the ore diocese Cologne.

At present 58 Pfarrgemeinden belong to the Stadtdekanat meal, which divides itself into the Dekanate meal center, meal old person village, meal Borbeck, meal Heisingen Kupferdreh, meal Rellinghausen, meal Steele, meal stopping mountain and. They together form the catholic town church federation/local authorities association (K. D. o. R.) (since 1925) asCarrier of church tasks on city level (family formation, Jugendseelsorge/Jugendberufshilfe, advisory services, public work) and as Dienstleister and a Zweckverband of the municipalities. The catholic town church is central attainable in the catholic city hall (Bernestr. 5 - 45127 meals) [1]. The Stadtdekanat meal covers about a quarter thatCatholic and the municipalities of the diocese.

Meanwhile however the Essener diocese structure is very fundamentally changed due to diözesaner decisions. In the city meal is to give it starting from 2009 to only ten so-called Grosspfarreien (church bodies), which cover several Pfarrbezirke (municipalities) in each case.On a long-term basis are to be given up also up to 26 catholic churches in meals (see.Diocese meal). Further are the contentwise city-church mechanisms (e.g. Family formation, Jugendseelsorge) and offers pastoralen (e.g. Advisory services) to be reduced and diözesan into new central carrier structures be united. Alsothe number of catholic Kindertagesstätten is adapted to the financial and demographic developments; their contentwise control and administration are likewise centralized diözesan.

Into that today meals cities and municipalities belonging to became in 16. Century partly and even almost exclusively thoseReformation imported. For example in starting from 1583 in the Clemenskirche Evangelist one preached. In 17. Century developed also a reformed municipality. Steele became Evangelist starting from 1554. Around 1600 nearly completely Steele was Protestant, whereby after it the church however ofthe Lutheranern, which reformed ones and which catholics partially under large Reibereien one used together. In chaining TIG the whole population crossed 1609 to the reformed confession.

Beside the Evangelist and catholic municipalities in meals there are also still different free churches, among them several Evangelist-freechurch municipalities (Baptisten), Evangelist methodistische municipalities (Methodists), apostolische municipalities (Apostoli community) and free one Evangelist municipalities (sweep).

Furthermore also the Neuapostoli church is represented in meals.


of the Jewish Kultusgemeindebelong 794 members. It has a cemetery, a kindergarten, a Mikwe, a library, Sportverein (Makkabi) and a youth centre. The Gemeinderabbiner is orthodox adjustment.

inhabitant development

population trend

1896 exceeded the number of inhabitants of the city meal thoseBorder of 100.000, whereby it became the large city. 1905 had the city of 230,000 inhabitants, until 1925 doubled themselves this number on 470.000. In the year 1962 the total population of meals with 731.220 had achieved its historical highest level.

To 30. June 2005„the official number of inhabitants amounted to “for meals after updating of the national office for data processing and statistics North Rhine-Westphalia 586,382 (only main domiciles and after alignment with the other national offices). That is since 1962 a decrease of the number of inhabitants around approximately 20 per cent (144.838Persons).

Experts assume the total population will decrease/go back up to the year 2021 around further 64,000 inhabitants. The number of the 18-50jährigen decreases, the number over 65jährigen becomes larger; beside other cities in the Ruhr district the obsolescence is inMeal contrary to the remaining Federal Republic of Germany substantially more advanced.

The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants after the respective area conditions. Until 1833 it concerns usually around estimations, afterwards census results (¹) or official updating of the statistic national office. The data referitself starting from 1871 on „the localpresent population “, starting from 1925 on the resident population and since 1987 on „the population at the place of the main dwelling “. 1871 ago the number of inhabitants was determined in non-uniform collection procedures.

Year inhabitant
1503 3,000
1803 3,480
1818 3,600
1822 4.842
1. December 1834 ¹ 5,660
1. December 1840 ¹ 6,325
3. December 1849 ¹ 8,813
3. December 1855 ¹ 12,963
3. December 1858 ¹ 17,215
3. December 1861 ¹ 20,800
3. December 1864 ¹ 31,300
3. December 1867 ¹ 40.700
1. December 1871 ¹ 51,513
1. December 1875 ¹ 54,790
year inhabitant
1. December 1880 ¹ 56,944
1. December 1885 ¹ 65,064
1. December 1890 ¹ 78,706
2. December 1895 ¹ 96,128
1. December 1900 ¹ 118,862
1. December 1905 ¹ 231,360
1. December 1910 ¹ 294,653
1. December 1916 ¹ 447,974
5. December 1917 ¹ 454,792
8. October 1919 ¹ 439,257
16. June 1925 ¹ 470,524
16. June 1933 ¹ 654,461
17. May 1939 ¹ 666,743
31. December 1945 488,035
year inhabitant
29. October 1946 ¹ 524,728
13. September 1950 ¹ 605,411
25. September 1956 ¹ 698,925
6. June 1961 ¹ 726,550
31. December 1965 727,460
27. May 1970 ¹ 698,434
31. December 1975 677,568
31. December 1980 647.643
31. December 1985 619,991
25. May 1987 ¹ 623,427
31. December 1990 626,973
31. December 1995 614,861
31. December 2000 595,243
30. June 2005 586,382

¹ census result

of historical associations

a multiplicity of Essener citizens are occupied head -or honorary with the history of the city meal and the Essener of quarters. Most of them united to the “working group Essener historical initiatives “.

The historical association for city and pin meal registered association, created in the year onethe oldest historical associations of Germany.


Das höchste Rathaus Deutschlands steht in Essen
the highest city hall of Germany are located to a subordinated official

in meal the administration of the city meal were incumbent on at first the pin and/or its. Since 1335 two mayors become from the center of the advice at thatPoint of the city mentions, whereby one of the two is the Rentmeister at the same time. Starting from that 14. Century won the advice increasingly in meaning. In that time meal could attain even the realm liberty, which it had to later however again give up. The adviceone selected annually. Starting from 1602 due to a new cure order the advice was selected indirectly by 11 cure gentlemen of the Gilden and offices. To the 14 councillors two mayors and a Rentmeister belonged. 1804 replaced the Prussian state the advice by one Municipal authorities. 1807 were introduced the grossherzoglich bergische then Prussian Munizipalverfassung. After introduction of the city order 1856 there was a mayor and an advice. The mayor received later the title mayor.

During the time of the national socialists the mayor of that became NSDAP assigned. After the Second World War the military government of the British zone of occupation used a new mayor and 1946 introduced it the municipal constitution after British model. Afterwards there was a “advice of the city” selected by the people, its members one as“City delegate” designates. The advice selected at first from its center the mayor as chairman and a representative of the city, which was honorary active. The moreover one the advice selected a full-time director of upper city than directors/conductors of the city administration likewise starting from 1946. 1999 became the double headin the city administration given up. Since that time there is only the full-time mayor. This is a chairman of the advice, director/conductor of the city administration and representative of the city. He was selected 1999 for the first time directly by the people.


mayor since 1868

directors of upper city 1946 - 1999

local council

after the last local election of 26. Septembers 2004 distribute themselves those altogether 82 seats in the local council of the city meal as follows:

CDU SPD the GREEN Essener
citizen alliance
alternative meal
REP Party of Democratic Socialism DKP meal stands ON entire
2006 32 28 9 2 5 2 2 1 1 82


Stadtwappen of the circle-free city meal
hotel commercial yard with coat of arms

the coat of arms of the city meal represents a heraldische characteristic:It consists of two Schilden and is thus an alliance coat of arms in such a way specified. These would have to be seized normally in a split sign together, not so however with the Essener coat of arms.

The Essener coat of arms shows two particulars sign under the prince crown thus.In the left sign the German double eagle is, however without Zepter and realm apple on golden reason. In the right sign on blue reason a golden arranging sword. The crown is quite unheraldisch like the entire structure, it refers upthe Principality of meal (actually meal would have to use as city a wall). The double eagle symbolizes the realm immediacy of the city, the sword stands for the city-holy Cosmas and Damian, which are to have been executed with this sword.

The coat of arms in thatpresent form 1887 were arranged by the citizen of Berlin painter Emil Doepler, and of the city approximately unite resistance by Heraldikern interspersed. A version with more correct structure welcomes the visitors, who leave the station toward city, on the roof of the oppositeHotel commercial yard. The coat of arms uses split sign and the wall in place of the crown.

The present city colors blue and yellow were inferred from the coat of arms.

a partnership between cities maintains partnerships between cities meals with the following cities:

Sunderland (United kingdom), since 1949
Tampere (Finland), since 1960
Grenoble (France), since 1974
Nischni Nowgorod (Russian federation), since 1991
Tel Aviv Jaffa (Israel), since 1991

economics and infrastructure

work on []

Resident enterprise

meal is the seat of some large German companies: Beside of Germany fifth-largest industrial enterprise RWE AG (see picture under townscape) and its, also its former subsidiary company HIGH LOW (until 2004) has subsidiary company RWE power and RWE Rhine Ruhr, as well as Aldi- North, STEAG, the KarstadtQuelle AG, RISE UP (formerly Ruhr coal AG) and Eon Ruhrgas here its company centers. One of the largest press companies of Germany, the WAZ - group, has its seat carrier in meals. Coca-Cola Germany resided until 2003 in meals, as thatCompany headquarters was shifted to Berlin. The shoe dealer dyke man resides in meal Borbeck. The Degussa AG resident with the Goldschmidt GmbH in the center of meal an important enterprise of the chemical industry.

Meal was long time Krupp - city; once the work area was thatCompany Krupp more largely than the remaining city. These times are since the Second World War past, and since the fusion with Thyssen the company Krupp is only resident with some few subsidiaries in meals. In the course of the politico-economic shaping efforts, thoseat present many cities on the flag were written, set for meals the focus instead of on heavy industry on the range energy; those here resident RWE, RISE UP and to Eon Ruhrgas with its various daughters also suggest this. Since at the beginning of plans 2006to shift the Thyssen Krupp AG their head office again after meals and the former “Krupp ring”, which pulled itself around the city center to construct again.

The fair meal is likewise an important factor of the economic life, apart from some smaller fairs has itself hereabove all a fair aligned to the Versorgungswirtschaft (E-WORLD - ENERGY & WATER) as well as the youth fair YOU establish, which attracts usually about 300,000 usually juvenile visitors as of Europe the largest youth fair. Likewise the world fair of the horse haven pulls,the Equitana, since years numerous visitors on. Worth mentioning is likewise the Essener Motorshow.

the West German broadcast (WDR ) maintains media in meals a Studio. Here the regional programs for the middle Ruhr district are produced and radiated. Bothregional newspapers, which become West German general newspaper (WAZ ) and new Ruhr newspaper (NRZ ) by the WAZ - company shifts. With the Werdener message and the Borbecker message have meals two characteristics in the Zeitungswesen. The two sheets are appearing weekly local purchase/subscription newspapers, thoseMessage from meal Borbeck and/or. To spread. The Borbecker message was once the largest local newspaper of Germany. Also the Borbecker message and Werdener message belongs for some years to the WAZ.

educational facilities

a renomierte higher educational facility is the Folkwang university in . It was created 1927 as interdisciplinary aligned academy of art. 1929 were continued to lead the technical school for organization under the name Folkwang. It was integrated 1972 under strong protests into the specialist area 4 of the developing university University of meal. The FolkwangSchool for music had already received its status to 1963 as university of the country.

1972 were created the university University of meal, into which the educational university, several schools of engineering, which were integrated higher technical school for social work and economics as well as the clinical center meal. 2003fused this with the University of Duisburg to the today's University of Duisburg meal. The FOM (professional school for economics & management) took up 1994/95 their study enterprise. She was brought as professional school for working persons of institutions of the business economy into being.

public health services

apart from the university clinic have the city 11 further hospitals with altogether scarcely 6,000 beds. In addition the Luther hospital in Steele , the Philippusstift and the Bethesda hospital in Borbeck , the Alfried Krupp hospital, the Kath. counts the Elizabeth hospitalHospitals meal north, the pc. - Vincenz hospital and the Marienhospital in old person meal, the pc. - Josef hospital and the Ev. Hospital in and the Ruhr land hospital in Heidhausen. The university clinic and the Elizabeth hospital possess a paediatric clinic. The moreover meal has approximately 1,000 established physicians,whereby still about 350 dentists are added.

further organizations

meals is seat of the diocese meal, the University of Duisburg meal, the Chamber of Commerce and industrie meal, Mülheim at the Ruhr and upper living, the regional association Ruhr, the Emschergenossenschaft, the Ruhr Association as well as the national institute for immission control North Rhine-Westphalia, further the Rheinisch Westfäli institute for economic research and the founder federation for the German science as well as the German communist party (DKP).


Ruhr high-speed way
Essener main station at the liberty

inMeal gives it to 3,227 roads with an overall length of 1.595 km.

Meal has remote station and regional station with the main station a ICE -. In addition the regional stations old person meal, Borbeck , Kray south, Steele and Steele east as well as 20 rapid-transit railway stations come:Bergeborbeck, Borbeck south, Dellwig, Dellwig east, Eiberg, glad living, Gerschede, getting living, refuge, hill, Katernberg south, chaining TIG, chaining TIG artificial lake, Kray north, copper trick, city forest, south, over Ruhr, and west.

In the rail goods traffic meal is however after quiet putting of the marshalling yard lain east of the main station no more railway knot . By Hartmut Mehdorn recently a transfer of the main station into the range of the today's west station in the discussion brought, since this possesses more spatial expansion possibilities than the today's, much confine main station.

The public local passenger traffic (ÖPNV) servesthe EVAG (Essener of traffic AG) with at present (2003) 48 bus lines (overall length 459 km), 7 strassenbahnlinien (overall length 83 km) and 3 metropolitan railway lines (overall length 29 km). All lines are to be used for uniform prices within the traffic group Rhine Ruhr.

Work on []


RWE tower
old person synagog
Markt Margarethenhöhe
market Margarethenhöhe
of bill customs union
Aalto theatre (opera house)
hall construction meal

the city has numerous administration buildings from the entire last century, begun with the building of the Emschergenossenschaft (William circle) up to the RWE tower (Ingenhoven, Overdiek andPartner). Many buildings from the first third of the twentieth century determine the picture of the city center (station free area with house of the technology (ehem. Stock exchange), commercial yard, Eickhaus, old savings bank and Hauptpost as well as in the city area Germany house, stone house, whose village house, light castle, Baedekerhaus, Bluem house, department store Karstadt (ehem.Oldhope)). These buildings are from well-known, to a large extent architects originating from South Germany (in the surrounding field of the Essener college of arts and crafts and/or. the Essener group of space arts) sketched.

Piece of gloss of the city center is the castle place with Johanneskirche, atrium, Münster, Domschatzkammer, Bischofspalais, video home system and the view of thoseOld synagog and the old-catholic church.

Many old living and firms were renewed after the war by 50's and 60's-years architecture on the sketch of the medieval city in higher building method.

Meal has particularly in the south of the city concerning town constructionacted. Numerous planned quarters developed (Moltkeviertel, Margarethenhöhe, old person yard I and II, large divides glad living u.v.m.). Furthermore the city with a second city center ring was equipped with representative architecture (e.g. Erlöserkirche, luck up house, Steag center, parish church pc. Engelbert, building of the Emschergenossenschaft, KVR buildings,Ruhr house and the Auferstehungskirche to the Friedrich, Hohenzollern, crowning prince, cure prince road).

Which is noticeable further, is the building height of two floors, going through in many places, and the plant of far green inner courts. This goes to assigning to on working Robert Schmidt (1869-1932),the city meal, back. With it a structural counterpart was interspersed to citizens of Berlin tenement house architecture in the Ruhr district.

The city is coined/shaped by very many tree existence and forests as well as in the south by a hilly landscape (Ruhrberge/Baldeneysee).

Outstanding buildings are delighted the opera house,after plans of the Finnish architect Alvar Aalto, as well as the new head office the RWE company, a cylindrical multistoried building with climatically effective clam-shell glass facade of the architects Ingenhoven, Overdiek and partner (Duesseldorf), which set a far away visible landmark for the city here.

InThe north of the city is the area of the former coking plant and bill customs union, the latter belonging to the world cultural heritage is considered as milestone of the industrial architecture. For the customs union area there is concrete planning to develop the world cultural heritage to a regional cultural center because ofthe necessary interferences into the historical built volumes to be controversially discussed. Already there talk DOT Design museum (also Design museum/center North-Rhine/Westphalia) are settled, the museum worth seeing customs union, as well as different smaller exhibitions and projects in the structure; the Ruhr land museum mealits new homeland is to find here in some time as Ruhr museum.

In the center of the city are further grouped around the castle place, Münster (which in parts in the 11. Century decreases/goes back and as landmarks of the city applies), that1928 finished massive Baedeker house and the 1928 established, and 2003 reconditioned light castle. In addition the salient gläserne entrance of the new building is to be seen to that there video home system. In the cathedral treasure of Münster is the golden Madonna, the oldest received full-plastic Madonna figure of the Christian evening country. Opposite the station the house in such a way specified of the technology stands, delighted into the early 1920er years after draft of the architect Edmund grains as office and firm.

The old person synagog is likewise worth seeing (with theirOpening 1913 “new synagog” was still called): In the Reichspogromnacht burned out, it was used thereafter no more by the Jewish municipality (, the smaller synagog new after the Second World War built itself). After changing uses among other things as Design museum it servestoday as meeting place between the religions and cultures.

To the south the Folkwang museum, which present an important collection of romantic and modern art , as well as the Grugapark are appropriate for the city, designated after the large Ruhrländi horticulture exhibition (GRUGA), those here 1929took place. With 70 hectars it is one of the larger park plants in the city of Europe and popular local recreation area of the meal gutters and Essener.

Still south Baldeneysees artificially put on the mansion hill, the monumental domicile continues to lie above the 1931-1933 in the context of a work-providing measure, Alfred Krupp builds Krupp for the family from the Industriellen, in which a constant exhibition of the Krupp donation and various drawing of a bill are to be found.

In direct neighbourhood to the Grugapark the quarters Margarethenhöhe is, designated to the 1929 of George Metz village inOrder of Margarethe Krupp (at the same time Namensgeberin) settlement Margarethenhöhe established, to an architecturally meaning example of the garden city movement.

The two southern quarters chaining TIG and which were located at the Ruhr exhibit a strong contrast to the remaining townscape. They possess both oneHistoric town centre, which remained nearly perfectly exempted from the Second World War and the following outline reorganizations. In the quarter chaining TIG is also the barrage weir of the Ruhr artificial lake of the same name, where the ships from Mülheim and meals put on.

A further salient building in meals is that157.5 meters high, for the public not accessible, telecommunication tower.

See also: List of the objects of interest in meals

art and culture life

meal ordered in the theatres and Philharmonic Concert Hall meal (TuP) - under a uniform roof organized - overone of the four philharmonischen orchestras of North Rhine-Westphalia (with the hall construction as performance place), an opera (Aalto theatre), and a city theatre (Grillo theatre) with some attached smaller stages. Further exists in meals a boulevard theatre, the Colosseum theatre for musical, Varieté, and with the 1928 established and to 2003 aufwändig also oldest still restored light castle the largest cinema hall like cinemas of Germany in enterprise, which revives increasingly again as premiere cinema. The museum Folkwang possesses an important art collection with thatEmphasis romance, Impressionismus and expressionism. Further museums are: nature and culture-historical Ruhr land museum, the German poster museum, the art gallery meal and the mansion hill with the historical collection of the family Krupp and regular art exhibitions. The Folkwang university in the quarter is one of the first addresses for the training in the ranges music, dance and play in Germany.

At the 11. April 2006 became the city by a siebenköpfige European Union jury representatively of the entire Ruhr district the European culture capital 2010 selected. This decision must be confirmed still by the Council of Ministers to culture Ministers of the 25 European Union states.


there are citizen associations in many Essener homeland, citizen and tourist associations. Eighteen of such associations have themselves united in „the greater thatCitizen and tourist associations meal registered association.“.


the most important soccer association of meal is red white meal, which brought Helmut out Rahn. The association plays to time in the regional league north, the third-highest German play class, and carries its Heimspielein the George Melches stadium at the port route out. In the current season 2005/2006 the spectator cut lies with approx. 11.500.

The second largest Essener Sportverein TuSEM meal is repeated German master, Cup winner and European Cup winner in the hand ball. After the profit of the European Cup that lostAssociation the license for the federal league and start since 2005 in the Regionaliga.

Meal has an ice hockey tradition for the 1960er years and is since 1994 by the association ESC mosquito meal registered the German federal league and/or. Professional league represent.At present the association plays in the 2. Ice hockey federal league.

Likewise of greater importance black-and-white is meals, whose football department 1959 became German Cup winner and plays today in the upper league north Rhine. Also Jens Lehmann, in meal born, today's GermansNational goalkeeper, played for this association.

Largest run event is „the Karstadt RuhrMarathon “, which had 2004 and 2005 its goal in meals. Besides oldest continuously accomplished Marathon “round takes place around the Baldeneysee” since 1963 of Germany.

In the city three existGulf club in the city, the office meal Heidhausen (27 holes), the Golfriege Etuf (9 holes) and the office house Oefte (18 holes). All three clubs organize regularly tournaments.


honour citizen

the city mealno honour citizen right in the conventional sense lends. It has however as special honor the honour ring, which lends you at personalities, that around the city in outstanding measure made themselves earned. Besides become since 1966 honour plaques as acknowledgment of special earnings/servicesaround the city lent. Carriers of the honour ring of the city meal are so far Gustav Heinemann, mayor and late Federal President, Alfried Krupp of planks and halfoh, Industrieller, William Nieswandt, mayor, Hans Toussaint, mayor, Berthold Beitz, entrepreneur, FranzCardinal Hengsbach, Roman-catholic bishop von Essen, as well as refuge Katzor, mayor, Peter Reuschenbach, Oberbürgermeister.

sons and daughters of the city

to literature

  • Rheini city book; Volume III3. Volume from “German city book. Manual of urban history - on behalf of the working group of the historical commissions and with support of the German city daily, the German standard ware and the German municipality daily, hrsg. by Erich Keyser, Stuttgart, 1956
  • Ulrich boron village (Hrsg.): Meal -History of a city. Pomp publishing house, Bottrop/meal 2002, ISBN 3-89355-236-7.
  • Sigrid cutter: Matters of opinion. Pictures of meals. Pomp publishing house, Bottrop/meal 2002, ISBN 3-89355-237-5.
  • Helga Mohaupt: Small history of meal - from the beginnings toPresent. Plain language publishing house, meal 2002, ISBN 3-89861-118-3.
  • Ute crest-R-S-brown: Power in woman hand - 1000 years rule of noble women in meals. Plain language publishing house, meal 2002, ISBN 3-89861-106X.
  • German city Atlas; Volume: IV; 6 volume. Acta Collegii HistoriaeUrbanae Societatis Historicorum Internationalis - series of C. On behalf the Kuratoriums for comparative city history e. V. and with support of the German research council, hrsg. by Heinz Stoob †, Wilfried Ehbrecht, Jürgen Lafrenz and Peter Johannek. City briefcase meal, author: Heinz k. Junk.ISBN 3-89115-036-9; Dortmund Altenbeken, 1989.
  • Helga Mohaupt, Willy van Heekern: Meal, a lost townscape, 1994, ISBN 3861341824
  • Essener restaurant round - turn out known, won - 600 Quizfragen to the city, biblioviel publishing house Bochum 2002, ISBN 3-928781-98-7.

Web on the left of

Wikinews: Meal - current messages
Wiktionary: Meal -Word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Meal - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikiquote: Meal - quotations

  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)