Ethnozentrismus means the evaluation of other peoples and cultures their wertmassstäbe connected by the point of view of the own culture and with out. Ethnozentrisch is the “normal” point of view of the everyday life human being. Due to our mergingness into the own environment each view of culture becomesethnozentrisch its. Ethnozentrisch is each traditional point of view such as z. B. the view of the Greeks of other peoples, who were unverstanden and called regardless of their “achievements” simply barbarians. Famous examples of Ethnozentrismus are the exhibitions of Angelo Soliman, Sarah Baartman and of Minik Wallace and its member, in addition the notorious people looking, with which the Ethnozentrismus changed directly into racingism. Is very strongly ethnozentrisch the nationalisms 19. and 20. Century.
Other cultures become or their products upthe basis of own values and standards evaluated, it comes frequently to an increased height of the own culture. Thus one speaks also of the Kulturzentrismus. This tendency is promoted by the imperceptible and unreflected own culture acquisition, the Enkulturation.
beginnings the described effects, on the other hand turned alreadyearly the sociological beginning of the culture relativism. In the year 1906 the American sociologist William Graham Sumner (1840-1910) presented his Ethnozentrismus concept and coined/shaped the term (in his book… 'Folkways: A study OF the sociological importance OF of usages, manners, customs, mores,and morals'). It defined Ethnozentrismus as a thinking and a behavior, “[...] into which one' s own group is the centers OF everything, and all others acres scaled and rated into reference tons it.” (Sumner, 1906, p. ) 1965
Donald T published 13. Campbell(1917-1996) a recapitulatory representation of its work for (already of Sumner introduced) the concept of the Ethnozentrismus: “Variation and selective retention in socio cultural evolution”.
in recent time become by the science of the Interkulturalität, those on the basis ofTheories Alfreds contactor 'and Thomas Luckmanns, Erving Goffmans, January of ASS ASS and. A. Compiles ways to facilitate communication between the members of different cultures. Intercultural restaurant communication applies this knowledge to affairs of enterprise with success.
Important basis the point of viewthe Ethnozentrismus to overcome, the knowledge of the characteristic of the own culture and their relating is as not universally valid: To clarify the isolation of central eigenkultureler values in relation to the cultural values of other
cultures around this: At the Bsp Germany - France would bethis at central terms, which are hardly translatable:
- Homeland - la nation
- education - l'éducation
- reason - la raison
in these terms conceptions press themselves out from
- Regionalismus/individualism - centralism political Zusammengehörigkeit
- self formation of the subject - educational responsibility
- onerather sceptical attitude in relation to “reason” - a rather optimistic attitude in relation to “reason”
Ethnozentrisch we fall back unconsciously to terms of our own culture and interpret with their assistance the features of the stranger.
The perhaps most important results of the research over Ethnozentrismus are Concepts for intercultural learning. On the conversion of such concepts hope on long-term avoidance of conflicts between members of different cultures rests - straight on schools. Critical recognizing and accepting of the own inevitable Ethnozentrismus (Nieke: “more enlightenedEthnozentrismus ") and learning intercultural authority is to help in a multi-cultural society the Miteinanderleben to make bearable.
- January ASS ASS, the cultural memory. Munich 1999.
- Jürgen Bolten, Claus Erhardt (Hrsg.), intercultural communication. Star rock 2003.
- No Nghi hectar:Ethnizität and migration Reloaded. Cultural identity, difference and Hybridität in the post office-colonial discourse. Over work. and erw. New edition, [Westfäli Dampfboot/WVB] 1999/2004. (ISBN 3-86573-009-4)
- Etienne Francois, Hagen school TZE (Hrsg.) German memory places. Munich 2001
- Alfreds contactor, Thomas Luckmann, structures of the environment. Frankfurt1979
- George Hansen, Ethnie, Ethnozentrismus, Ethnizität. In: “Ethnical minorities in the Federal Republic of Germany”. Munich 1995.