European union

of these articles treats the international-law organization European union. For other meanings of European Union see European Union (term clarifying) and for the group of resistances of the same name European union (group of resistances).

The European union (abbreviation: European Union) is a state group of 25 EuropeanStates with 459.5 million inhabitants and the largest gross domestic product of the world.


Europaflagge
Detail to the European flag
hymn
Europahymne (desert to the joy)
Wahlspruch
European slogan (geeint in variety)
member states Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, united Kingdom of, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Finland, Austria, Sweden, Estonia, Lettland, Litauen, Malta, Poland, Slowakei, Slowenien, Tschechien, Hungary, Cyprus
working languages German, English, French
seat of the European advice Brussels (Generalsekretariat)
commission seat Brussels
Council of Ministers seat Brussels
seat in parlament Strasbourg (plenary meetings)
Brussels (committees)
Luxembourg (Generalsekretariat)
president of the European advice Wolfgang dish
commission president José Manuel Durão Barroso
president of the advice of the European union Ursula Plassnik (Austria)
Parliament president Josep Borrell
largest metropolises of the European Union London 11.950.000 Einw. Rhine Ruhr 11.785.196 Einw. , Paris 9.900.000 Einw. , Madrid 5.250.000 Einw. , Frankfurt - Rhine Main 5.200.000 Einw.
Surface 3.975.372 km ²
population 456.95 million
population density 115.6 Ew. per km ²
establishment 1. November 1993
national holiday 9. May (European day)
Kfz characteristic of 12 euro stars on blue reason + national recognition letter e.g. F for France
currencies euro (only in the euro zone)
time belts UTC 0 to +2, with external areas -4 to +4
internet TLD .eu

table of contents

the European union

a surface

of 3.975.372 km has 15 sources [work on] ² and a coastal length of 65.413, 9 km. It is enough in the northeast to Finland, in the northwest to Ireland, in the southeast to Cyprus and in the southwestto Portugal. In addition the overseas territories come:

all states (with exception of the overseas territories) are on the European continent. However became 2004 with Cyprus also a state taken up, which is ranked geographically among Asia. The entire European union (without external territories) lies on the eurasischen plate.

One can divide the European Union on several continental subunits, in those however also non-European Union stateslie:

the geographical center of the European union is smallMay-separates in the Westerwald.

Satellite photo of Europe

of the Mont blank is appropriate for that in the Savoyer alps and is with 4808 m the highest mountainEuropean Union. The largest lake is the Vänersee, a lake in the southwest of Sweden with a surface of 5650 km ². The longest river is the Danube at 2850 km, from which however only 1627 km flow through the European Union. It risesin the Black Forest and flows in the Danube delta into the black sea.

The climate reaches in the north from the cold climate to the subtropical climate in the south. In the north (Finland) the average temperatures lie with -13 °C in the winter and +15°C in the summer. On the other hand in the south (Malta) in the winter an average temperature of +12 is reached °C and in the summer of +25 °C.

history

major item: History of the European union

Gründung der EGKS
establishment of the EGKS

into the 1950erYears, after the end of the Second World War it was a political goal of organizing within of Europe the reconstruction and of preventing future wars within Europe. From this motivation resulted after the Schuman plan of 9. May 1950 the establishment of the European communityfor coal and steel (EGKS and/or. Coal and Steel Community) to 18. April 1951 by Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, which a common use of coal and steel had as a goal. By thoseEstablishment of the EGKS began a European integration, which went within a short time far beyond this. Thus the establishment of a European defense community was planned, which form the framework for the German rearmament by an integration into a European defenseand Europe in the long run also into a political community to merge should. This plan failed 1954 in the French national assembly.

By this election defeat the further European integration was stopped altogether and one concentrated on it, the integration on the economicalTo limit area. In the 1957 Roman contracts , by those the European Economic Community ( EEC) and European Atomic Energy Community ( EAG signed themselves this manifested and/or. Euratom were based). A most important goal of the present Treaties was establishing a customs union. 1965 became that Merger agreement signs, which united the institutions of the three there created communities (EGKS, EEC and EAG).


History, structure and contracts of the European union
1952 1958 1967 1993 1999 2003 ?
European union (European Union)
European communities (EEC)
European community for coal andSteel (EGKS and/or. Coal and Steel Community)
European Atomic Energy Community (EAG and/or. Euratom)
European Economic Community (EEC) European community (EEC)
law and inside (JI) police one and justizielle co-operation in criminal actions (PJZS)
common ones outside and security politics (GASP)
contract of
of Paris
contract of
Rome
fusion
contract
Contract of
Maastricht
contract of
Amsterdam
contract of
Nice
European
condition

in the following years and decades changed itself the face of the communities and the number of members increased. 1987 were developed the uniform European document (EEA), whereby that European domestic market was created. The EEA contained beyond that regulations over European co-operation in the foreign policy (European political co-operation so mentioned - EPZ). It did not concern however 4. Community form, but only around a intergouvernementale co-operation.The contract of Maastricht from the year 1993 justified the European union (European Union). 3 columns form the basis of the union: those already 1951 and/or. 1957 created and three European communities changed in the European Union contract (1. Column), that, the EPZ replacing, common one Outside and security politics (GASP, 2.Säule), as well as co-operation within the ranges law and inside (ZBJI , 3, created again in the Maastrichter contract. Column), from which 1997 in the Amsterdamer contract became the police one and justizielle co-operation in criminal actions (PJZS). The GASP comesjust like the ZBJI only the character of a intergouvernementalen co-operation too. The European Union is represented frequently as the connecting element of the present Treaties. Over this will clarify often the picture of a roof over the 3 columns or of onethese 3 ranges enclosing coat selected. Besides in Maastricht the introduction of the euro in three steps was decided. In the year 2000 by the contract by Nice the extension to the East was then prepared, at the 1. May 2004 was carried out and thosethe European Union of 15 to 25 members extended.

Hall, in which the European Union condition was signed

in October 2004 became the European condition in Rome, compiled by the European convention, signed. The condition contract developed in such a way had still ratified by all 25 memberswill, in order to be able to step into force. In May and June 2005 however the Frenchmen and Dutchman rejected the condition contract in populars vote . Thereupon the united kingdom and other member states shifted the ratification on indefinite time. Should up to the endthe ratification process the agreement of all member states to be reached, cannot step the condition not into force. If a majority of four fifth accepts the contract, the further proceeding is incumbent on the condition the European advice according to page 472, thus thatState and head of the government.

Beside the European condition momentarily also the extension to the south and the east and the relations with the United States are most important debates for the question of the future of the European union.

languages

major items: Office languages thatEuropean union and minority languages in the European union

in the European Union today 21 languages are recognized as official office languages, with which all organs can be contacted. Beside these further minority languages exist. The European Union explains, the languages and language variety toorespect and to respect. English, as working languages, are used of the office languages French and German in order to facilitate the communication between the coworkers of the European institutions. In the European parliament speech contributions in each office language can be held, there them ofInterpreters to be translated.

goals

the originally most important reason for the establishment of the European community for coal and steel was it to secure after two world wars and many further intra-European wars, the peace. This should by an improvementthe prosperity and developing interdependence to be reached.

The reason for the increasing political agreement, above all a common foreign policy, is the will of the European states to become generally accepted in the world and Europe to

„the most competitive and most dynamic marketing areathe world, which is able to obtain a durable economic growth with more and better jobs and a larger social co-operation “

- Lisbon strategy

to make. In order to reach, are the economic situation and the work and living conditions improved and economicalUnequal weights to be eliminated. The euro competes with it against US Dollar and Yen around the role as world-wide key currency.

Further goals of the European Union are Europe with balanced economic growth to create competitive social free-market economy and the better quality of the environment. In addition the European Union fights Ausgrenzung and discrimination of minorities and promote justice and social protection.

Other goals are: high occupation level, steady not-inflationary growth, a high measure of competitive ability and convergence of the restaurant achievement, elevation of the standard of living and the quality of life, economic and social co-operation as well asthe promotion of the solidarity between the member states.

members and entry candidate

the extensions since 1951

establishment and past extensions

major items: European Union extension

after the EGKS 1951 of Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and thatThe Netherlands was created continued to walk the extension of the predecessors of the European Union ever vorran.1973 joined then in the first north extension Denmark, Ireland and the united kingdom . Norway, which had requested the membership likewise, could because of a rejectingDo not join vote of the population.

In the 80's Greece (1981), Portugal and Spain (both 1986) were taken up. With the reunification of Germany at the 3. Octobers 1990 joined the countries the GDR of the Federal Republic of Germany and concomitantly the EEC.After the contract of Maastricht joined at the beginning of of 1995 Sweden, Finland and Austria the European Union.

With the third extension stepped at the 1. May 2004 10 states of the European union. Among them 7 states from the former Eastern Bloc (Estonia, Latvia, Litauen, Poland, Tschechien, Slowakei and Hungary) as well as Slovenia, Malta and Cyprus (actually however only the Greek south part of the island).

member states of the European Union

major item: Member states of the European Union

Zurzeit are the followingStates of members of the European union: </br>Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, united Kingdom of, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Finland, Austria, Sweden, Estonia, Lettland, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slowakei, Slowenien, Tschechien, Hungary, Cyprus

entry candidate

major item: Entry candidates of the European Union

the entry candidates of the European Union

after Bulgaria and Romania the negotiations of accession positively locked, become them presumablyat the 1. Join January 2007 of the European Union. By its bad economic and legal situation particularly Romania received strict editions, which must be fulfilled before the entry. If these are not in time converted, the entry can be shifted around one year.

After initial difficulties (the European Union criticized co-operation with the international criminal court for former Yugoslavia) 4 became with Croatia to. October 2005 negotiations of accession taken up. Originally a common entry was aimed at with Bulgaria and Romania in the year 2007, probablyhowever an entry is in the year 2009.

Since that 4. October 2005 leads Turkey result-open negotiations of accession with the European Union, this could according to expert opinion up to 15 years persist. The entry is very disputed in the European Union. Announced populars vote overhigh hurdles represent the entry in France and in Austria. Critics complain of the bad economic situation, the culture differences as well as the small attention of the human rights. Proponents again plead for European history, in that Turkey since 500Years plays an important role. Also gladly to the safetypolitical meaning of Turkey one refers. An entry of Turkey to the European Union could take place at the earliest in the year 2015.

In December 2005 Macedonia the status of an entry candidate was awarded. The date forthe beginning of the negotiations is however still open.

European cow in Bucharest

further one medium-term potential entry candidates are the remaining states of the west Balkans, Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro, as it on the European Union summit 2003 in Thessaloniki were assured.

The Ukraine aims at the entry, the European Union would like beyond intensified relations not to go however at present. It is improbable therefore that it gets the status of an entry candidate in next time.

There are theoretical considerations, the European Union also for in such a wayMaghreb mentioned - to open states and Israel.

entry conditions

around the European union to join to be able, a country the Kopenhagener criteria must fulfill. Already before the admission of entry discussions political criteria must be fulfilled, those among other things one democratic and right-national order and the attention of the human rights contain. Before the actual entry a functioning free-market economy must exist, which can withstand the competition pressure within the European Union domestic market. In addition the entry country must itself the obligations and goals arising from an European Union membershipmake own.

the three columns of the European union

major item: Three columns of the European union

the European union is a controlling body, which is based on three columns. This was introduced 1993 by the contract by Maastricht.

Work on []

The European communities

the European communities are supranational organizations and consist of the European community and the European Atomic Energy Community, until 2002 belonged also the European community for coal and steel to the European communities. Decisions within the framework thatfirst column fall within the European Union organs, according to the rules specified in the contracts. The European communities are carriers of own rights and obligations in relation to their members and third states. Citizens of the member states have likewise numerous rights with the union citizenryand obligations.

The first column is supranational:

  1. Majority decision (possibility of outvoting of member states)
  2. reaching through effect of the EEC right (direct validity, application)
  3. priority of the EEC right before national right
  4. independent organs (z. B. EG-Kommission)
  5. compelling jurisdiction (EuGH)< ref> Europ. and off discharger. Commercial law I; 3.Edition - Springer, Vienna/NewYork< /ref>

common one outside and security politics

with the common outside and security politics is the foreign policy of the member states to be coordinated and common strategies to be decided. Personnel it is represented by the high representative for the GASP. ThoseDecisions fall intergovernmental by government co-operation, i.e. the European Union acts only, if all states agree on it.

Goals of the foreign policy are the keeping of the common interests and values, promotion of the international cooperation, the penetration of the human rights, democracy and right nationalness as well as peace preservation. The security politics (ESVP) relies on the Western European union and aims at disarmament and a European safety order.

police ones and justizielle co-operation

police and justizielle co-operation in criminal actions the third column is defined andonly a framework for a co-operation between the states. The resolutions seized thereby do not have direct effect, but must only through legal instrument be converted. The resolutions are met by government co-operation.

the political organs

major items: Political system thatFollows European

union the European union in its structure the democratic principle of the division of power in legislation, executive and Judikative and regarding the legislation the principles of the Subsidiarität and proportionateness. To note it is here however that in the further one organs mentioned institutions of the European communities are. The European union as a controlling body of the European communities, the GASP and the PJZS do not have own organs.


Executive legislation legislation Judikative
European commission advice of the European union European parliament European Court of Justice
Europäische Kommission Rat der Europäischen Union Europäisches Parlament Europäischer Gerichtshof
  • strikes lawsforwards
  • the budget out supervises
  • the conversion of the European laws, the household and the European Union programs leads
  • decides on law collecting mains of the commission
  • places the household on
  • closes international contracts
  • agrees laws and the household, when refusal mediation procedure with Council of Ministers
  • securesthe uniformity of the interpretation of European right
  • responsibly for complaints against the European commission and the member countries

executive

European commission

major item: European commission

the European commission is in the political system of the European unionthe executive and as such responsibly for suggesting laws and the monitoring of their observance. The commission is an organ of the European communities supranational independent of the member states and. The commissioners do not serve alone the union as a whole,their respective origin states. The European commission consists up-to-date of 25 commissioners, of whom one leads the commission as a commission president. It is selected on 5 years.

The European commission corresponds to the Federal Government in Germany earliest.

legislation

advice of the European union

major item: Advice of the European union

the advice of the European union

the advice of the European union (also Council of Ministers called) is from two terminal organs of the European communities. It is thus part of the legislation,in its composition to a parliamentary system of two Houses corresponds. It represented within the legislation the Mitgiedstaaten and consists depending upon politics field of the respective specialized Ministers of the national governments. The Council of Ministers decides laws together with the European parliament. Depending upon politics fieldeither a unanimous decision or a qualified majority is necessary in the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers is thus within the two-chamber legislation of the European communities the upper house. Since the Council of Ministers international contracts abschlöiesst, it is also part of the executive.

The advice thatCorresponds to European union in Germany at the earliest Upper House of Parliament.

European parliament

major item: European parliament

plenary assembly hall of the European parliament in Strasbourg

the European parliament is the second part of the legislation of the European communities. It becomes all fiveSelected and thereby the population represents years directly of the citizens of the member states within the legislation. The European parliament has to time of 732 members. The number of the delegates per country depends in principle on the total population. Smaller countries are however superproportionalrepresented, in order to make possible also for these countries an appropriate representation of their national party landscape. The European parliament has two service seats (speak plenary assembly halls), one in Brussels and second in Strasbourg. In the two-chamber legislation of the European communities the European parliament thereby correspondsthe House of Commons.

The European parliament corresponds in Germany at the earliest Bundestag.

Judikative

European Court of Justice

major item: European Court of Justice

of the EuGH

the European Court of Justice (also: EuGH) is the highest court and thus thoseJudikative, thus the controlling organ, the European communities. Beside the actual European Court of Justice still the upstream European court of first instance exists to it. Both instances consist of one judge each per member state. These become from the governments of their countries for thoseDuration of six years selected. Every three years takes place (partially) a new occupation of both instances.

The European Court of Justice corresponds in Germany at the earliest Federal Constitutional Court.

other principal organs

European audit office

major item: European audit office

thatEuropean audit office has at present 25 members, one from each European Union country, and by the Council of Ministers for six years is selected. It controls the household of the union, thus its incomes and expenditures. The European audit office does not have direct right powers, but leads itsStatements directly to the other institutions of the union further.

The European audit office corresponds in Germany at the earliest Federal Audit Office.

European advice

major item: European advice

the European advice in Brussels is the highest committee of the European Union, so farhowever no organ. It consists at present of the state, and heads of the government of the member countries, their ministers of foreign affairs as well as the president of the European commission, whereby the ministers of foreign affairs and the commission president have only advisory function. The European advice has within of theit guidelines and a goal of the European Union politics specifies the guideline authority, i.e., to political system of the European Union. However the advice is not directly involved in legislative procedures of the European Union. The presidency rotates momentarily half-yearly between the European Union member countries.

The European advice correspondsin Germany no constitutional body organ.

European central bank

major item: European central bank

the monetary policy in the euro-countries becomes since that 1. January 1999 of the European central bank (seat in Frankfurt/Main) determines. The bank is from the nationalPolitics independently. Their most important task is the keeping of the price stability. In the context of the European system of the central banks (ESZB/Zentralbankrat) it specifies the key interests.

The European central bank corresponds in Germany at the earliest Federal Audit Office.

law-making

to legalobligatory conversion of their Politiken three instruments are to the European Union at the disposal:

of politics fields

customs union and domestic market

since 1968 applies within the European union a customs union, D. h. the trade between different Member states may be obstructed neither by tariffs nor by in and restriction ofs export. The handicaps by in and restriction ofs export however partly still persisted and could be interspersed only by judgements like the Cassis de Dijon decision. To the trade with other states appliesa common customs tariff certain of the European Union, by which a majority of the economic policy of the European Union realizes itself. For this reason the European community ( EEC, in former times EEC) is also member in the world trade organization (World Trade Organization) (the European Union does not know member the World Trade Organizationits, since it does not possess a juridical personality), and although all European Union states are also independent World Trade Organization members, it is the EEC, which speaks for it.

Beyond the customs union goes the domestic market existing since 1993, which creates additionally a uniform tax areaand a free person, goods, a service and a capital traffic guarantees. The most important effect of the domestic market is that there are to a large extent no national markets more, but only a European market in Europe. The advantages for the consumer consist of the fact that itso a larger selection of products gives and that the larger competition pressure forces the companies to offer their products or services for lower prices and/or better quality.

Since the contract of Amsterdam the Schengener agreement applies with the European statesagreed that without controls of the passenger traffic at their common borders one does. This agreement was made in favor of improved control of the European Union external borders. The island states united kingdom and Ireland implemented a special arrangement and accomplish further controls at its borders.Likewise apply up to the omission of the border controls (approx. 2007) for the 10 new European Union states special arrangements.

competitive policy

around restaurant economics and - monopolies in the European Union to prevent and a fair competition on the domestic market guarantee, became with the EU-competition commissionerthe Kartellbehörden of the individual states supplements. Apart from control of the economy it is responsible also for the permission of subsidies in the member states. Thus it is to be prevented that individual states support certain companies competition-adversely. Subsidies are only for economic weakRegions permissible (e.g.East Germany).

In the long run this competitive policy led to the fact that many monopolies, for example in the telecommunications, had to be liberalisiert during the gas, water and current supply and within the railway range, and thus the competition in the domestic market were guaranteed. Thisin parts of the public one saw critical, since this leads also to the dismantling of jobs with public and private enterprises.

European monetary union

economics and monetary union

major item: European economic and monetary union

the monetary union began at the 1. July 1990with the production of free capital traffic between the European Union states. Member were all members at that time of the European union. The countries committed themselves thereby to a complete liberalisation of capital traffic and a closer co-operation in the economic, financial and monetary policy. To 1. January 1999 was introduced the community currency euro to the participating states. Since that 1. January 2002 replaces the regional currencies in the twelve participating European Union states to the euro. Sweden, the united kingdom and Denmark, as well as to 1. May 2004 European Union states which were added again, participate first not in the European monetary union. The Einheitswährung is seen of the participating states as important step of the further European integration and unit.

gross domestic product perHead in the European Union (map)
gross domestic product per head in the European Union (diagram)

economic policy

the European Union gains a quarter of the world-wide gross national product. Politicoly-economic the European Union sets particularly in the agriculture and in the promotion of structure-weak regions Priorities: 42.5% of the household go into subsidies of the European agriculture, 36% into structure funds for the setting up economiceconomics, often rural regions (conditions: 2003). While the structural policy has to register successes for example in Portugal and Spain, the agriculture politics become asbackwards-turned, expensively and dangerously of development policy criticizes. Internationally the European Union is attacked therefore in particular by developing countries and non-governmental organizations for its policy of subsidizing. The European Union has preferential Marktzugang for some products with the Lomé agreement and in the year 2000 the following Cotonou agreementthe AKP states grants. Due to the unanimity principle of Council of Ministers decisions and the strong agrarian lobby reform attempts led in the past only to small improvements within this range.

The portion of the agriculture of the European Union household is superproportional, this economic sector is subject completely to European Union control. ThatAdministrative expense portion is thereby everything else as insignificant. The global competitors are besides less tropical developing countries than above all the USA and Canada. From all European Union states Germany uses the smallest part of European Union means for the agriculture - supposed with the highestAdministrative expense portion.

The European funds for regional development (EFRE) are the most important structure funds, them provide for the economic catching up process of the poorer regions. The first goal and concomitantly the most important goal of the EFRE are to promote regions their GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT lessas 75% of the European Union average amounts to (e.g.East Germany). But 80% of the means are used and put into infrastructure projects, middle class promotions and projects in the health service and the research. These regions are called then Ziel-1-Regionen. In addition, from the EFRE those profitZiel-2-Regionen so mentioned, it 13% of the means receive and supported regions by economic conversion are affected (z. B. due to depletion rural areas or industrial decrease). With the remaining 7% of the budget the community initiatives finally becomelike e.g.URBAN and INTER+MOVE financed. URBAN serves for the promotion of cities also over 20.000 inhabitants, the problems with high unemployment, criminality or environmental pollution has and INTER+MOVES promotes inter+regional and transnational co-operation.

For the regional development into that the European Union wants 25 states in the years 2007 to 2013 approximately 360 billion Euro at subsidies spend. East Germany, its promotion sum to at the end of of 2006 over 21 billion Euro is amounted, no more to the Ziel-1-Regionen eligible for promotion probably will belong.Reason for it is the extension to the East 2004 and the associated weaker GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT - average value of the European Union.

financial assistances and advancement programs

major items: Advancement programs of the European Union

the largest part of the promotions of the European Union flows into the agricultural policy and into structure-political financial instruments(e.g. into the European fund for regional development, in the European social funds, in the European adjustment and guarantee funds for the agriculture, as well as into the controlling of the fishery). Often these financial assistances are paid off not directly of Brussels, but indirectly over nationaland regional authorities of the member countries. Usually it concerns thereby large infrastructure projects.

The European Union commission funds pays directly to national or private organizations, as for instance universities, enterprises, syndicates and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). They run into projectsfrom the ranges research and development, education and training, environmental protection, consumer protection, information society as well as in the European Union foreign policy. European Union-internal projects are promoted predominantly. With external promotions also projects are promoted in countries, which want to join the European Union.Also humanitarian help for the third world is rendered. External promotion for the support of the neighbourhood relations will assign and around stability will secure.

The European union promotes new technologies. Thus numerous coordination committees were created, in order to develop uniform standards,so that the economic domestic market by different technical standards is not expenditure-braked. The ETSI (European Institut for telecommunications standards) created meanwhile standards in the telecommunications, used world-wide, (e.g. Euro ISDN, GSM and DECT). The European Union pursues its own space politics, their conversionin close co-operation with the ESA takes place. For the space travel politics of the European Union and the co-ordination with the ESA and further partners is responsible the for this purpose educated European space advice.

agreements and programs with other countries/regions

thoseEuropean Union closed a close network of contracts with its neighbours. The relations between states is regarded also outward as reconciliation of interests.

common one outside and security politics

major item: Common outside and security politics of the European union

a goal is the own defense and the enlargement of the military strength: „The union is for it responsibly, a common outside and security politics inclusivelyto compile and carry out the gradual definition of a common defense policy “ (draft constitution part of III, kind. I-12/4). The European Union states commit themselves to improve furthermore by condition „their military abilities “. A European defense agency is to be furnished with the task „for determinationto contribute from measures to the stabilization of the industriellen and technological basis of the defense sector “.


The union does not possess own military separates falls back to the troops of the member states. So-called peace employments are to take place under patronage of the European Union. These peace employments are disputed, like that Kosovo war, which was led 1999 still under NATO instruction and with the help of the German Federal Armed Forces.

cultural policy

in the contract of Maastricht received the European Union authority in the cultural area. In the promotion period between 1994 and 1999 the union ledthe programs RAPHAEL, ARIANE and KALEIDOSKOP. Since the year 2000 the master program CULTURE runs 2000. The action culture capital of Europe is to be seen separate.

financing

Member state household
of contributions 2005
(million Euro)
Deutschland Germany 21,313
Frankreich France 16,888
Italien Italy 13.996
Vereinigtes Königreich United Kingdom of 12,339
Spanien Spain of the 8,901
Niederlande Netherlands 5,412
Belgien Belgium 4,091
Schweden Sweden 2,817
Polen Poland 2,367
Österreich Austria 2,209
Dänemark Denmark 2,066
Griechenland Greece 1,848
Finnland Finland 1,512
Portugal Portugal 1,385
Irland Ireland 1,366
Tschechien Tschechien 999
Ungarn Hungary 896
Slowakei Slowakei 382
Slowenien Slovenia 285
Luxemburg Luxembourg 238
Litauen Lithuania 211
Zypern Cyprus 157
Lettland Latvia 126
Estland Estonia 99
Malta Malta
The European union

over own resources so mentioned, which one could define as tax receipts, orders 51 entire 101,954 for the financing of the expenditures. There is above all contributions of the member states, to smaller part from own incomes howthe import - tariffs at the external borders.

The main contributions of the member states are measured on the basis of two criteria. On the one hand a portion of the public revenues from value added taxes/value added taxes to the European Union is exhausted. On the other hand the necessary incomes become proportionally to the gross domestic productthe states exhausted. The latters represent the largest portion. In both cases different calculation procedures in the states are considered. An exception represents here until further notice the united kingdom , which gets two thirds of its net contributions since 1984 returned (British discount). This exception it in the united kingdom of fewer farmers than in other European Union countries gives negotiated by the British Prime Minister minister at that time Margaret Thatcher there and thus also fewer conveyances receives. The European Union may not take up credits.

Historical development

in the year 1988 was specified the system of the joint financing in the today's form. In particular a new income on the basis of the gross national income (BNE) was introduced, itself by certain sentence on the sum of the BNE of all member statesmeasures. In addition the growth of own resources which can be exhausted was contained. With resolution of 24. June 1988 was introduced a total upper limit, which reached 1992, 1.20% of the total amount of the BNE of the community.

To 31. October 1994 was issued a new resolution overthe system of own resources, so that the upper limit to 1999 rose gradually to 1,27% of the BNE, at the same time was lowered the uniform value added tax own resources set gradually of 1,4% to 1%. Upon expiration of the financial framework 1993 - 1999 have that European advice to 24. and 25. March 1999 itself united on a new financial forecast 2000 - 2006. A own resources resolution was seized, since the ratification by all national parliaments at the 1. January 2002 into force stepped.

Reconciliation for the united kingdom exactly the same one maintained like the own resources upper limit determined at 1,27% of the BNE. But a set of changes was introduced concerning the financing of the household and the financing of British reconciliation. In the range of the household financing was planned, starting from that 1. To raise January 2001 the percentage of traditional own resources, which the member states may retain for the covering of the collection charges, of 10% on 25% and the maximum call set for value added tax own resources on 0,75% in the years to lower 2002 and 2003 and to 0,50% starting from 2004. The financing of British reconciliation by the other member states was in as much changed as the portion of Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden of the financing on 25% theirnormal portion one reduces.

future financial framework

in the course of the definition of the financial framework 2007 - 2013 were demanded by the European commission a new correction mechanism, which was to replace the British discount for the united kingdom, existing since 1984. Thisannually 4.6 billion euro brought saving to the kingdom. Great Britain justifies the discount with the under-lowest promotion of the agriculture. In the European Union average 40% of the European Union means are spent on the agriculture, in Great Britain only 20%. In Denmark and Germany - thatlargest net payer of the European Union - however only approximately 12% of the European Union means are spent on the agriculture, without a discount was granted to these states.

A first suggestion on the reorganization failed itself with the European Union summit in June 2005, there those Member countries not to unite could. A second European Union summit in December 2005 brought the break-through. The household was specified on 862.4 billion euro. This corresponds 1.045 per cent of the gross national income (BNE) to the European Union. The British explained themselves ready, during the seven years upto do without a portion of 10.5 billion euro of the discount. In response the Frenchmen consented, in the years 2008/2009 a thorough examination of the input and output (including the agricultural policy) of the European Union commission make to leave. Germany does withouton 100 millions Euro of its structure funds - increase of 400 millions EUR in favor of Poland. The structure fund for East Germany and Bavaria is thus at 13,3 billion EUR + 300 millions EUR = 13.6 billion EUR. The adjustment of the net payments does not seemsucceeded. For many states the net return flow made of Brussels, for Germany increases possibly becomes it from about 7 billion EUR per year on 10 billion EUR per year rise. This compromise became of the European parliament to 18. January 2006 alsooverwhelming majority rejected.

points of criticism

bureaucracy and democracy deficit

with the word creation Eurokratie it is criticized that the decisions of the European Union are made by a faceless and with difficulty transparent bureaucracy.

Some politics scientists criticize a democracy deficit within thatEuropean Union. A insufficient democratic legitimacy of obligatory decisions is to be determined. Thus the advice of the European union is checked as the most important decision organ exclusively of the national governments, without national parliaments or the European parliament would have a controllability. This leads to the fact thatthe division of power between legislation and executive, a basic principle of each functioning democracy, in the advice is waived. The governments (thus the executive) exercise a legislation function without parliamentary control in the advice. The criticism becomes on a possible additional authentication throughgood and efficient decisions (output authentication) held out.

„the European Union would apply with us for entry, would have to say we: democratically insufficiently “

- Günter hay gene

financing

the financing of the European Union rests still quite unevenly on the shouldersthe members (see. Financing).

Also the distribution of the funds is regarded as disputed.

administratives expense

the numerous organs of the European Union and the guidelines and contracts issued by them require a multiplicity from officials to its execution and control.In particular by the 21 official office languages additional costs arise, since all spoken and written texts must be translated into every other language. Nevertheless the European union less person employed than some large city has.

loss at regional peculiarities

duringby the establishment of the European domestic market on the one hand more competition to be reached would know, often went the standardizations and market openings necessary for it debited to regional peculiarities. Thus for example the European Court of Justice decided that the purity requirement for German, traditionally important for GermanyBeer to imported beer to be applied may not. On the other hand the European Union retains completely explicitly regional characteristics by the protection of geographical indications of origin. Thus produced Bratwürste may be calledoriginal Nürnberger rust roasting sausage “only in Nuremberg.

corruption

major item: Corruptionin the European Union

there ever to the European Union to be surrendered , increasingly the problem of the corruption as well as a discussion place themselves more authority of the individual member states over possibilities of the fight. Around corruption and shadow economy to prevent as well as the normal use of theirMeans to guarantee, supervises the European Union authority European office for fraud fight (Office Européen de Lutte anti- Fraude - OLAF) the assignment of orders for European Union.

inquiry to the European union

a large majority of the Germans sees the European union as economical and socialThreat on. An inquiry, which was provided on behalf the European Union commission, according to a majority of the asked ones counts on a violent economic crisis, should together-move the European Union states still closer. ”, 84% of the asked ones reported „the citizens of Berlin newspaper would haveindicated to have fear of the misalignment of jobs into other European Union countries. In addition each second of the asked ones sees the danger that it could come in the course of the further European agreement to an economic crisis.

loss of nationalnational authority

Throughthe gradual delivery of authority to the union by the member states, then is criticized, would substantially lose the latters at political clearance and also national sovereignty. This misalignment of authority also always means a degradation that due to the institutional democracy deficit of the unionMitsprachmöglichkeit by the citizens of the member states. The creation of the office of the European citizen-assigned is to work against this loss at say possibilities. The office it is however held against that it is not sufficient, over at the meaning loss of the national legislation and/or. the weight of the opinionto change the European Union citizen something, because it - one argues in such a way - is likewise an institution of the European communities.

When Austria educated into the late 1990ern a center right government from the ÖVP and FPÖ, became on the part of European union and its member statesthreatened with sanctions< ref>Everything against Haider - European Union wants to isolate Austria because of Haider, in: The daily mirror, 1. February 2000. </ref>. It is criticized here that the union was directed against the result of a choice of a member state run democratically, without for itto possess a political or contractual authentication.< ref> Gerd Langguth:European Union boycott against Austria?, Unabridged version of the article from Bonn general indicators of 8. February 2000. </ref>

literature

  • Dagger, Steffen/Schröder, Till: Show flag - federal state representations in Brussels, in:Specialized technical politics & communication 2/2005
  • Dauses, Manfred A. (Hrsg.): Manual of the European Union commercial law (collection of sheets), 13. Auxiliary supply, C. H. Beck 2004, ISBN 3-406-44100-9
  • Dinan, the moon: Ever of closer union. On introduction ton the European union, 2. Aufl., L. Rienner Publishers 1999, ISBN 1555877397
  • Hix, Simon: The Political system OF the European union, Second edition, Palgrave MacMillan 2005, ISBN 033396182X
  • yacht fox, Markus/Kohl he cook, Beate: European integration, UTB 2003, ISBN of 3825218538
  • hunters, Thomas/beep cutter, Melanie (Hrsg.): Europe 2020. Scenariospolitical development, Leske + Budrich publishing house 2002, ISBN 3810013560
  • Keiler, Stephan/Grumböck, Christoph (Hrsg.): EuGH Judikatur up-to-date, lime tree publishing house 2006, ISBN 3707306062 (standard work); Table of contents [[1]]
  • Kohl he cook, Beate/Woyke, yielding pool of broadcasting corporations (Hrsg.): The European union, Bd. 5, encyclopedia thatPolitics, C.H. Beck 1996, ISBN 340636909X
  • Landfried, Christine: Political Europe: Difference as Potenzial of the European union, 2. Aufl., Nomos, 2005, ISBN 3832910409
  • McCormick, John: Understanding the European union. A concise introduction, Palgrave MacMillan 2002, ISBN 033394867X
  • Mickel, Wolfgang W. (Hrsg.):European union: Hand encyclopedia of the European union, 2. over work. and erw. Aufl., Omnia 1998, ISBN 3893440453
  • Moravcsik, Andrew M.: The Choice for Europe: Social PUR-float and State power from Messina ton of Maastricht, Cornell University press1998, ISBN 0801485096
  • Nugent, Neill: Government and Politics OF the European union, 5. Aufl., Duke University press 2003, ISBN 082232993X
  • Oppermann, Thomas: European right. A study book, 3. Aufl., Beck legal publishing house 7/2005, ISBN 3406535410 (for highest requirements)
  • Pfetsch, francR. /Beichelt, Timm:The European union. An introduction. History, institutions, processes, UTB 2001, ISBN 3825219879
  • Schröder, Ilka (Hrsg.): World power Europe - capital Berlin. An European Union manual, concretely publishing house, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3930786443
  • Thiel, Elke: The European union. Ofthe integration of the markets to common Politiken, Leske + Budrich publishing house 1998, ISBN 3810019364
  • Thiele, Alexander: Sketch European right, 4. Aufl., old person mountains 2005, ISBN 3980693228
  • Wallace, Helen; Wallace, William (Hrsg.): Policy Making into the European union, Fourth edition, OxfordUniversity press 2000, ISBN 019878242X
  • pasture field, Werner (Hrsg.): The European union. Political system and politics ranges (series of publications bpb, Bd. 442), Bonn 2004. (important standard work)

see also

Wikinews: European union - current messages
Wikiquote: European union - Quotations
Commons: European union - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: European union - word origin, synonyms and translations

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