Europe

of these articles describes the continent Europe, further meanings under Europe (term clarifying)

to Europe is the western fifth of the eurasischen land mass and usually than independent continent is regarded, although it is actually a Subkontinent of Asia. Altogether Europe has a surfacefrom approximately 10.5 million square kilometers and is thereby to Australia the secondarysmallest continent. Nevertheless possesses Europe with approximately 730 million inhabitants the third biggest population of all continents. The expansion extends from the North Sea and the Atlantic ocean in the north and the westup to the Urals and Mediterranean in the east and the south.

Table of contents

geography

satellite photo of Europe
Topografie of Europe
Europe at night

Europe has a surface of 10.532.000 km ² anda coastal length of approximately 117,000 km. The northernmost point of the continent is with for instance 71,2° northern latitude in Knivskjellodden, Norway, the southernmost point in Tarifa in the south of Spain. Thus the north south expansion amount to about 3,800 kilometers. OfEast after west extends the land mass of Europe of the Urals mountains in Russia up to the Atlantic coast of Portugal, which means about 6,000 kilometers of west east expansion.

Altogether Europe is strongly dismembered. It contains some larger peninsulas, like the Iberi peninsula, those Apenninhalbinsel, the Scandinavian peninsula and the Balkan Peninsula, as well as many further, smaller peninsulas such as Brittany and Jutland. In addition there is still another multiplicity of islands, the largest is the British islands, Iceland, Sardinien and Sicily.

In the north Europe borders on individual marginal seas of the Arctic ocean like the Barentssee and the European North Sea. Although itself the Nebenmeere north - and Baltic Sea strictly taken within the continent find, the North Sea is regarded also as seewärtige border. InSoutheast borders Europe on the Kaspi sea, in the south on the black sea and on the Mediterranean, and in the west on the Atlantic ocean.

The highest point of the continent lies according to the usual definition „of the borders of “Europein the alps between France and Italy (Montblanc - 4,808 meters). It is less common to rank the northern Caucasus in Russia among Europe. Then the Elbrus with 5.642 m would be the highest collection of the continent. The lowest pointEurope is located with 28 meters under the sea level at the north coast of the Kaspi sea.

See also: Center of Europe

subdivision

Innereurasi border

major item: Eurasien#Innereurasi border

between Europe and Asia gives itno actual geographical, geological or disktectonic border. Therefore an actual geophysical border between Europe and Asia is a question of the interpretation.

There is actually no generally recognized and undisputed definition of this border. Much the fixing of boundaries did not follow, no more international-lawor practical meaning has, changing historical and world-descriptive criteria and was again and again changes subjected therefore in the course of the time. Zurzeit becomes as „border “the Urals mountains, the Urals river, the Kaspi sea, the black sea, the Bosphorus, the Marmarameer and the Dardanellen outstandingly.

Mountains and volcanos

due to the disktectonic shifts developed in Europe a multiplicity of mountains. The most important are among other things the Caucasus, the Urals mountains, the alps, the Pyreneeses and the Karpaten. Here an overview of the highest mountains:

  1. Elbrus * (5,642 m), Russia, Caucasus
  2. Dykh rope * (5,203 m), Russia, Caucasus
  3. Rustaveli * (5,201 m), Georgien, Caucasus
  4. Koshtan rope * (5,150 m), Russia, Caucasus
  5. Pushkin * (5,100 m), Russia, Caucasus
  6. Shkhara * (5,068 m), Russia/Georgien, Caucasus
  7. Kazbek * (5,047 m), Russia/Georgien, Caucasus
  8. Mizhirgi * (5,025 m), Russia, Caucasus
  9. Katyn * (4,974 m), Russia, Caucasus

  1. Shota Rustaveli * (4,960 m), Russia, Caucasus
  2. Borovikovs topp * (4,888 m), Russia, Caucasus
  3. Mont blank(4,808 m, with ice cap), border France Italy, alps
  4. Dufourspitze (4,634 m, Monte pinkmassif), border Switzerland Italy, alps
  5. cathedral (4,545 m), Switzerland, alps
  6. white horn (4,505 m), Switzerland, alps
  7. Lyskamm (4,480 m), border Switzerland Italy, alps
  8. matte horn (4,478 m), border Switzerland Italy, alps
  9. Dent Blanche (4,357 m),Switzerland, alps
  10. Finsteraarhorn (4,274 m), Switzerland, alps
  11. Zinalrothorn (4,221 m), Switzerland, alps

* disputed, because innereurasische border is differently specified

by the movement of the ground plates gives it in Europe particularly at the eurasischen shelf border numerous volcanos. The most well-known here inOverview:

  1. Ätna (variable around 3.370-3.400 m), Sicily, Italy
  2. Hvannadalshnjúkur (2,119 m, under the Vatnajökull), Iceland
  3. Grímsvötn (1,725 m, under the Vatnajökull), Iceland
  4. Herðubreið (1,682 m), Iceland
  5. Hekla (1,491 m), Iceland
  6. Vesuv (IO) (approx. 1,200 m), Italy
  7. Stromboli (approx. 926 m),Italy
  8. Santorini (Σαντορίνη) (575 m), Greece
Mont blank in the west alps
eruption of the Ätnas in the year of 2002

rivers

European river catchment areas and main water sheaths
  1. Volga (3,531 km)
  2. Danube (2,888 km)
  3. the Urals (2,428 km)
  4. Dnjepr (2,285 km)
  5. Don (1,870 km)
  6. Petschora (1,809 km)
  7. Kama (1,805 km)
  8. Oka (1,500 km)
  9. Belaja (1,430 km)
  10. Dnjestr (1,352 km)
11. Rhine (1,320 km)
12. Wjatka (1,314 km)
13. Desna (1,130 km)
14. Elbe (1,091 km)
15. Donez (1,053 km)
16. Weichsel (1,047 km)
17. Düna (1,020 km)
18. Loire (1,020 km)
19. Choper (1,010 km)
20. Tajo (1,007 km)

see also: List of European rivers, the longest rivers of the earth

lakes

climate

Oberflächentemperatur des Golfstroms im westlichen Nordatlantik
surface temperature of the gulf stream in the western North Atlantic

the continent lies mainly in the moderate widths. The climate is relative in Europe in the comparison with areas same geographical latitude in other continents because of the influencewarm gulf stream moderate. The average yearly temperature of Neapel amounts to for example 16 °C, while on almost same width reaches lying New York 12 °C.

Fluctuations of the temperature within a yearly are relatively small in the largest parts of the continent. Cool Winters face mild summers . Only in areas, which are appropriate adjusting influence far far away from the sea, thus also from its for climatically, the temperature differences are stronger in different seasons. In largest parts of Eastern Europe the climate is by the absence of the seain direct proximity predominantly continentally coined/shaped. Cold winters and hot summers are prevailing in these regions.

By the earth rotation and the associated diverting Kraft come hoist mainly from western direction. There in the coastal regions of Western Europe therefore hoist primarily of Atlantic ocean blow, comes it nearly all year round to rains. In east and Central Europe the amount of precipitation is comparatively small against it since again the influence of the sea on these regions precipitates too small. High mountains can affect the amount of precipitation likewise strongly. Like that is the middle yearly precipitation north the alps clearly smaller than southern. The alps work in this case as barrier, through which only few rain fronts penetrate.

In areas near the Mediterranean predominantly mediterranes climate, i.e. dry and hot summers prevail,while it is in the winter mild and damp. In the summer there is hoist from northern direction, in the winter predominantly bring along western hoist from direction of the Atlantic ocean against it for frequent precipitation. In the north of Europe arctic climate prevails, in the southeastat the Volga against it continental climate with hot summers and small precipitation.

Flora and fauna

wolf (Canis lupus)

the vegetable vegetation in Europe are affected importantly by the climate. So only bushes and Moose are to be found near the coast in Northern Europe,in interior of Scandinavia and northern Russia gives it predominantly coniferous forests (predominant spruces and Kiefern). Between the Atlantic ocean and the Urals mountains mixed woodlands ( beeches, oaks and spruces , Kiefern ) grow and in the Mediterranean area are throughthe mediterrane climate among other things common grape vines, lemons - to find and Olivenbäume.

Wild Raubtiere such as bears and wolves, as well as moose live usually only in the north of Europe in larger number. Small animals such as z. B. Field mice, cats, Squirrels, foxes and ducks are in west to find central and Eastern Europe and the most important kinds of bird are blackbirds, Meisen and stars. In mountain regions like the alps however also still some few kinds of eagle live. In south Europe givesit due to the warm climate lizards, queues and turtles. At the coast sea-dogs and other kinds of seal live. In the sea before the European coasts are 32 different kinds of whales. In the northern seas are the most well-known Sword whale and pig whale, in the North Atlantic of the Pottwal and in the Mediterranean different Delfinarten. The most well-known seawater fish of herrings and the Thunfisch.

Population

Europe has with approximately 730 million inhabitants to Asia and Africa the third biggest total population of all continents andheard to the poet settled parts of the earth. The average population density amounts to about 70 Einwohner/km ². Particularly in west, central and south Europe the population density is relatively high, while it removes further northward and the east strongly.

Languages

more thanIndogermanische languages speak 90 per cent of the inhabitants of Europe. Common slawische, Germanic and Roman languages are furthest. Also Greek, Albanian, the Baltic and celtic languages, as well as the Romani rank among the indogermanischen languages.

The uralischen languagesrepresent the second largest language family of Europe. They continue to divide into the samojedischen languages, which are spoken of some few thousand humans in the extreme northeast of Europe, and into the finno ugrischen languages. For this above all Finnish , Hungarian count, Estnisch as office languages, furthermore the samischen languages and some minority languages , particularly in Russia, spoken in honing-lapping country.

In the European part of Turkey a altaische language is office and Titularsprache with Turkish. Other Turksprachen comes than minority languages into east andSouth-east Europe forwards, so for instance Gagausi and Tatari. With Kalmückisch at the east edge of the continent also a language of the Mongolian branch of the Altaisprachen in Europe is spoken.

With Maltese Malta is besides a language of the semitischen on the island Branch of the afroasiatischen languages represent. Will no larger language family added the baskische language spoken in Spain and France, their origin could by the modern linguistics be reconstructed and is not still unknown. Beyond that become today in Europenumerous further languages from other language families spoken, which arrived by immigrants in recent time here.

Most common in Europe latin alphabet is followed, of the cyrillic alphabet (in Russia, white Russia, the Ukraine, Bulgaria, Serbia, Macedonia and partsMontenegros) and the Greek alphabet.

See also: List of languages in Europe, minority languages in Europe, euro linguistics

religions

religions in Europe

about 75% the European are Christians (above all catholic, Protestant, orthodox). 8 %are Muslims, whereby most Muslims in the European parts of Russia (25 million) live, in addition, in Turkey (5.9 million), France (5.5 million), Germany (3.2 million), Great Britain (1.5 million) and Italy (1 million). Besides it gives Jews (lessas 2 millions), as well as a larger number of other parts of the world of come religions or newly developed religions. About 17% the European are denominationless, particularly in the cities and in Estonia, Tschechien and the Netherlands, butalso in East Germany.

The exclusive denomination affiliation states however few over the actual degrees of the Religiosität in a country. After the European VALUEs Study called themselves approx. a third of the Europeans as unreligiös, 5% as convinced Atheisten.

The Christianity reached Europe for the first time in the 1. Century after Chr. The Islam spread in 8. Century on the Iberi peninsula out, became however in the course „of the Reconquista “of 13. up to 15. Century again displaces. Europeans spreadthe Christianity by immigration and mission in America, Australia and in smaller measure also on other continents (parts of Southeast Asia, Africa and Ozeaniens). Today Europe is to a large extent secularized.

Education and culture

Sorbonne university in Paris

in allStates of Europe there are a compulsory schooling or at least one education obligation, often of 6. or 7. up to 15. or 16. Lebensjahr lasts. The basic school time amounts to in most countries four to five years and into few sieved oreight years. Afterwards follows usually a resuming school, which also different school types and - kinds to cover knows. The illiterate rate is very low in nearly all countries by different promotions of the education system. In many countries gives it in addition renowned universities and Universities, partly also with certain technical emphasis.

Sculpture, painting, literature, architecture and music have a long tradition in Europe. Many cities, as for example Paris, Rome, Berlin and Moscow are regarded today as cultural centers.In addition many cities possess important theatres, museums, orchestras and further important mechanisms.

Cities and metropolises

of Europe capitals

Lisbon was one of the first kosmopolitischen metropolises of the world, there it in times of the imperialism, center of a large colonial empire was. Still 1950if four cities of the today's European union under the twenty the largest world were, since the European cities grew hardly still, partly lose at numbers of inhabitants. These four largest today's European Union cities were London at the second place behind New York, Paris at the fourth place behind Tokyo as well as Milan and Neapel, which reserved still seat 13 and 19.

But in the second half 20. Century got the cities of the remaining world, particularly those of the developing countries, z. B. Mexico city, Manila or São Paulo, with the numbers of inhabitants up and states now the table of the world.

Problematic with the comparison of the metropolises the demarcation common in Germany is not on the basis the municipality borders, there different States of this in its statisticsdo (z. B. The USA, France, Australia, Great Britain). Therefore polyzentrische city regions are missing such as Rhine Ruhr and Rhine Main in Germany or the oberschlesische industrial area in Poland in the lower listing of the metropolises.

Metropolises in Europe
rank city State of number of inhabitants in millions Number of inhabitants also Population centre in millions
1 Moscow Russland Russia 10.4 13.8
2 Istanbul * Türkei Turkey 9.8 11.4
3 London Vereinigtes Königreich united Kingdom of 7.4 12.0
4 pc. Petersburg Russland Russia 4.0 ,5.3
5 Berlin Deutschland Germany 3.4 ,4.2
6 Madrid Spanien Spain 3.1 ,5.3
7 Rome Italien Italy 2,8 3,4
8 Kiew Ukraine Ukraine 2.5 ,3.3
9 of Paris Frankreich France 2.1 ,9.9
10 Bucharest Rumänien Romania 1.9 ,2.1
11 Hamburg Deutschland Germany 1.7 ,2.6
12 Budapest Ungarn Hungary 1.7 ,2.4
13 Warsaw Polen Poland 1.7 ,2.4
14 Vienna Österreich Austria 1.6 ,1.9
15 Barcelona Spanien Spain 1,6 to 3,8
* the old town centre is to the European part sees belonged also on the border between Europe and

Asia: List of the capitals of the world

history

major item: History of Europe

reconstruction of buildings of stakes in the Jungsteinzeit

before approximately 800,000 years is those Antecessor , about one half million began settlement by the Homo years, after Eastern Asia von Afrika had been out settled. While the development of the Homo ran off sapiens in Africa, Europe was the domain of Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis.Despite the adverse conditions by the ice age - perhaps also ihretwegen or - these humans are to have begun before approximately 100,000 years to refine the culture of the paleolithic age. With the Jungsteinzeit and the Bronzezeit began in Europe a long historylarge cultural and economic achievements, first in the Mediterranean area, then also in the north and the east.

Konstantin the large one with the city model Konstantinopels

particularly the Greek culture, the Roman realm and the Christianity left their traces until today. In the later antique one combined the Roman realm for the first time entire southern Europe as well as the other coastal countries of the Mediterranean in a large realm. In the Roman realm the new religion of the Christianity could spread fast. Despite all pursuits the Christianity among emperors became Konstantin I. State religion and works until today away.

The Middle Ages were coined/shaped by the competition between the new Roman emperor in the west and the old Roman emperor in Byzanz, on their two spheres of influence splitting into a western andeastern Europe decreases/goes back.Mission acres spread the Christianity over north and Eastern Europe, so that completely Europe became Christian. In western Europe there was to arguments between emperors and Pope around the supremacy. The reformation in 16. Century split the church into one catholic and Evangelist part. Religionskriege were the result. 1618 to 1648 devastated the dreissigjährige war far parts of Central Europe.

Since that 15. European nations built century (particularly Spain, Portugal, Russia, the Netherlands, France and the united kingdom) colonial Imperien with large properties in Africa, America and Asia. Europe is the continent, that the other continents at most affected (for example by Christian Missionierung, colonies, slave trade, exchange of goods and culture).

ThatStorm on the Bastille to 14. July 1789

in 18. Century set the movement of the clearing-up new accents and demanded tolerance, which attention , for equality and liberty. 1789 came by the French revolution for the first timethe middle class to power. In early 19. Century had to depend half Europe on the will of the French emperor Napoleon, until it experienced 1812 in Russia a Fiasko. The industrialization began in parts of Europe in 18. Century and changedrapidly the everyday life of broad social classes. As consequence of the depletion of the workers originated in in 19. Century the communist movement. Besides that was 19. Century strongly determines from the thought of the democracy, from the reactionism and from the imperialism. Both that The First World War (1914 to 1918) and the Second World War (1939 to 1945) broke out in Europe and arranged enormous destruction.

After the Second World War and in the cold war Europe was divided into two large political-economic blocks: socialist nationsin Eastern Europe and capitalistic nations in Western Europe. One spoke also of the iron curtain, which separated the states of Europe. Only Perestroika and Glasnost led in the Soviet Union in the middle of the 80's to a political course change. 1989 broke the Eastern Bloc up, the citizens of Berlin wall , the Soviet Union fell and the Warsaw Pact dissolved.

Since the last decades 20. Century grow together the cultures of Europe strengthened, which itself on the one hand by institutions like the European Union, in addition, throughthe population and restaurant emphasis shows.

See also: Weighs Europe, old Europe, blue banana

politics

political arrangement

political map of Europe

apart from its overseas territories the following states to Europe is generally completely counted:

as well as the areas:
belonging to Denmark:

belonging to Finland:

belonging to Greece:

to Great Britain and Northern Ireland and/or. belonging to the English crown:

belonging to Norway:

belonging to Portugal:

complication is the situation in case of the following states:

  • Russia lies only with a quarter of its land mass in Europe, thisis however the historical heartland with 75% of its population. Politically it is therefore counted the majority of its territory as European state regarded, geographically however to Asia, whereby the exact demarcation of the European of the asiatic part is disputed.
  • Turkeythe remainder lies in Asia after the traditional geographical demarcation at Bosphorus and Dardanellen only with 3% of its surface in Europe. To the European part however the largest city and historical capital belong. The political and cultural borders followed inthis region hardly ever the traditional geographical demarcation of the continents. Turkey differs particularly by its Muslim religion from the majority of remaining Europe. Politically Turkey belongs as a member of the Council of Europe to Europe. It has besides a customs unionwith the European Union and with international sport and cultural events Europe is usually assigned. In political area the question of the affiliation of Turkey to Europe is at present particularly in the context of the negotiations disputed over their entry to the European Union violently.
  • Cyprusclose of the coast of Asia lies in the eastern Mediterranean, among which it is therefore usually ranked geographically. Historically and culturally it is however closely with Europe connected for member of European organizations and politically, since May 2004 also member of the European union.
  • The transkaukasischen States of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgien are geographically usually counted to Asia, whereby however the exact demarcation of the continents is disputed in this region. Historically and culturally however the two by the majority Christian states are Armenia and Georgien alsoEurope connected. All three states are members of the Council of Europe and with international sport and cultural events Europe are usually assigned.
  • Kazakhstan lies after the furthest common geographical demarcation at the Urals river with a small part of its land surface in Europe, the remainderin Asia. Apart from the membership in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro, which divides it however with four further centralasiatic states, it is ranked politically and culturally usually among Asia.
  • Israel lies geographically undisputed in Asia. With international sport and cultural events becomesit however often Europe assigned.
  • Greenland belonged politically to Denmark, of the tectonics however to the America lain more near and is not also part of the European union.
  • To Spain the Kanari islands lain before Africa belong and at the coast Morocco convenient Plaza de soberanía. They are geographical part of Africa.

See also: List of European neighbour states

political organizations

in the center 20. Century as the first common European institution the Council of Europe was created, that after end of the east west conflict 47 statescovered. Likewise of great importance is the organization for security and co-operation in Europe (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro), at that time which 1975 as conference for security and co-operation in Europe (KSZE) block-spreading was created, and which beside European countries also the USA and belong to Canada.

Flag of the European union

who in the political sense of „Europe “speaks, means however usually the European union (European Union) or its forerunners: 1951 closed Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, Italy and France to Coal and Steel Community and/or. EGKS (European community for coal and steel) together. The attempt to create a European defense community (EVG) as well as a European political community (EPG) failed 1954 because of the French national assembly. Thereupon 1957 with the Roman contracts became the European Atomic Energy Community(Euratom) as well as the European Economic Community (EEC) based. The comprehensive term European communities (for EGKS, Euratom and EEC) was displaced in the everyday linguistic usage more and more by the singularly European community. With the Maastrichter contract 1993 was finally created the European unionthose the old communities and co-operation forms covers. After the extension to the East in the year 2004 counts these 25 members.

A majority of the member countries the likewise in the 50's created EFTA (European Free trade Association) went over meanwhile into the European Union, onlystill Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein are members. The EFTA is similarly as the European Union a foreign trade zone.

In military regard NATO (North Atlantic contract organization) in Europe is of great importance. It became 1949 due to appearing the differencesafter the end of the Second World War between the westallied and the USSR based. Beside the 23 European members are also the USA, Canada and Turkey members of NATO.

See also: European parliament, European choice, political architecture of Europe

Economics

1-Euro-Münze

in 19. Century was Europe by in England and on the whole continent the spreading Industrielle beginning revolution competitionless the prominent resource. Later different international mechanisms and organizations brought, like the EFTA (European foreign trade zone) and the European uniona growth thrust, which partly continued in many parts of Europe into the 70's and into the 80's. The supply of the population of Europe could be developed by the decrease of trade restrictions likewise further.

Since that 1. January 1999 applies in twelveStates of the European Union the Maastricht contract, with which these countries form a monetary union and thus abolished their respective national currencies and which euro, introduced.

Today Europe is a wealthy continent with large industrial metropolises, profitable agriculture and one boom-ends service sector.The industry and the service concentrate particularly on the densely populated areas. In most states of Europe the problem is not any more the lack of food, but the overproduction and the Fettleibigkeit. Export goods are above all machines, steel, Computer need and car. Import goods are among other things cocoa, dte, india rubber, oil, natural gas and ores.

See also

Web on the left of

Commons: Europe - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikinews: Europe- current messages
Wiktionary: Europe - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Europe - quotations


 

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