European Southern Observatory
European Southern Observatory is the name is a European research institute, which operates telescopes in South America. The German designation „European south observatory “is a little common, rather the abbreviation ESO is used. Usually either the female article (the ESO) becomes, or no articleused; occasionally also the ESO (of observatory) is written.
The telescopes of the ESO are located in Chile: on La Silla and the Cerro Paranal. Probably at present the most well-known telescopes of the ESO form the Very Large Telescope (VLT) on the Cerro Paranal, from four„Unit Telescopes “with main mirror diameters of 8,2 m exists. The ALMA microwaves becomes present together with other organizations - interferometer establishes. For the future the ESO plans that already at a 100-m Spiegelteleskop with the work title OWL (Overwhelmingly Large Telescope), under favorable conditions approximately around 2015 inEnterprise to be taken could.
The organization was created 1962, in order to provide European astronomer observation possibilities at the south starlit sky. 1980 pulled ESO of its seat at that time in Geneva after Garching with Munich, where this very day (at the beginning of of 2006) the head office is. The today's building is a giftthe Federal Republic of Germany. As for instance the CERN is not ESO as international Institut subject of national iurisdiction but possesses a quasi diplomatic status. Besides there is stations in Chile a Bürokomplex in Santiago, that in size and structure astronomical Institut corresponds and two smallregional offices in Antofagasta and La Serena. In addition those come above described observatories.
ESO has eleven member states: Belgium, Denmark (since 1967), Germany, Finland (since 1. July 2004), France, Great Britain (since 2002), Italy (since 1982), the Netherlands, Portugal (since 2001), Sweden, Switzerland (since 1982) and Spain (since 2006). The guest nation of the observatories, Chile, is not member, there astronomers has however likewise privileged access to the observation time. Astronomers of other nations observation time is granted only if they prove, over no other adequate observation possibility tooorder.
Observation time can be requested twice in the year for the observation term after the next. Depending upon telescope two to five times as much time requested as being actually assigned can. The suggestions are weighted by an advisory committee after scientific quality.
|Otto tail man||1962-1969|
|Harry van the Laan||1988-1992|
|Riccardo Giacconi (Nobelpreisträger)||1993-1999|
|Catherine Cesarsky||since 1999|