Evolution

of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see evolution (term clarifying).

Evolution (v. lat.: evolvere = complete, develop; PPP evolutum) is newer sequential developing and growing samples already developed toward ascending complexityand cross-linking of ranges of the reality.

Evolution is a gradual with uneven speed change running off of the frequency of Replikatoren in a Replikatorenpool in runs the time. At each time the pool sets itself differently together than before.It plays thereby no role, which Replikatoren types are involved thereby. Contrary to the development no things result again, them are only again combined from the evolution.

The term became 1774 of Swiss natural scientist Albrecht of Haller (1708-1777) for itsConception of the development of humans coined/shaped. It was the opinion that the embryos would already be present in the Spermium or trained in the Eizelle. This “Homunculi” (singular Homunculus, of lat. Diminutiv for humans) contain again small in their germ cellsHumans and so on into all infinity, similarly the principle of the Russian Matroschka - dolls. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1623-1723) believed this Homunculi with the observation of sperm cellses with its microscope to have already seen. Since the evolution theory of Charles Darwinone assumes that the transformation of the organism community (on earth) takes place by means of coincidental mutation and following selection.

Arguments for the evolution theory are within the ranges anatomy, morphology, Homologie, development physiology, paleontology, animal and plant geology, behavior biology, Parasitologie, Cytologie and biochemistry.


Table of contents

evolution generally

conditions of the evolution

the evolution is bound at three necessary conditions.(1) The presence mentioned by Replikatoren, (2) a varying copying accuracy , variation, as well as (3) a different probability of each variant to arrive as element into that sample from which the following population is built up: Selection.

These conditions are sufficienttrivially, so that one can derive logically that they at many places and opportunities are given in the universe. The opinions over it, whether life from it must develop, go however far apart. To a large extent agreement however exists in evolution biology over the fact that evolutionnot inevitably to the development of intelligence leads, because this is only one special case, which is attached to further, probably very rarely given conditions. The only case, from which reliably is that this occurred there, is our earth admits. In addition,here the conditions of the evolution were only fulfilled by intelligence after at least 530 million years, although the progressive evolution already before places a set of necessary conditions for intelligence development of Vielzellern ready.

the fluctuation of Replikatorenhäufigkeiten in onePopulation

as evolution one today generally designates that statistic procedure, with which the composition of a Replikatoren population P2 from a sample existing of a before, other Replikatoren population P1 is determined. From P1 a sample of different Replikatoren is pulled and from it thoseComposition of P2 determines, then evolution is present. If this procedure runs repeated off, then later populations point - as bspw. P5 or P100 - compositions varying in each case up. The evolution can be called also cumulating sampling errors.

A evolutionable populationis a quantity of Replikatoren. The latters are any objects, from which copies develop.

The evolution as statistic procedure is logical and empirically at any time provable fact and in the science not traversable. Evolution never runs at objects, butonly at frequentnesses from objects. It can run off in principle at all quantities, which do not even have to obey the well-known physical laws. It is disputed whether the life on our earth developed completely evolutionary, or whether and which othersRegularities thereby a role played (z. B. in the debate evolution biology vs. To creationism, see also evolution theory).

process of the evolution on our earth

according to the evolution theory ran the evolution of the living world, based on the development beforedead subject, as follows:

Schema zu den Entwicklungsstufen der Evolution

From scientific view the partitioning of the evolution of the living world is meaningful in following four stages, whereby the expiration of the first stage is not subject to evolutionary regularities, but ready places the physical fundamentals for their later effect.

Work on []

Evolution of the dead

subject this topic

particle and elements

concern themselves subranges of the evolution [work on] with the origin and the development of the universe, its. The following articles are concerned with the topic:

evolution of the organisms

the evolution of the living world is that evolution, which causes the emergence and change of the organisms in the course of large time intervals within geologic history. It does not cover the emergence of the life. Details for biological evolution and tooother life-evolutionary beginnings experience you here:

for argument with world-descriptive before-coined/shaped conceptions about the biological evolution see:

micro and macro evolution

above all scientifically educated opponents of the evolution theory differentiate between micro and macro evolution. The incontestable vouchers for the evolution summarize it under the term micro evolution, while they reject the development of the today's organisms from more primitive forms than macro evolution.

evolution of the psyche

under certain conditions leads thoseEvolution to organisms and natures, which can process information. This procedure is called evolution of the psyche. The following articles act over it:



empirical vouchers one

believes evolution

of the psyche evolutionary psychology [it works on] today uniformly thatthe evolution on our planet always at the same Replikatoren to have run off does not have. The living world, how we know it today, was based on furthest distances on a chemical Replikator, the DNA, it is however not the only Replikator. As furtherReplikatoren proved for example to crystal structures, which can likewise manufacture copies of itself. Also information-carrying units, which are bound to (bio) an information basis not to a chemical, but, are understood as Replikatoren and became from smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Dawkins 1976 as Meme designated.

Evolutori Ökonomik

in form of the evolutorischen Ökonomik found thoughts of the biological evolution also to entrance into the economic science. Background is that by free markets a selection under competitive products or production procedures takes place, the erwünschtere in itselfProducts and more efficient procedures against less wished and more inefficient intersperse. Constant product innovations lead in such a way to a constant advancement, which - as in the biological evolution investigation article is. While in biology however the variations or mutations are modelled only as coincidental,they are in the evolutorischen Ökonomik likewise investigation article.

evolutionary one social change

in the politics policy is often differentiated between “evolutionary” and revolutionary “social change. (E.g. see. Vilfredo Pareto.)

literature

  • Ernst Mayr, That is evolution C. Bertelsmann, ISBN 3-570-12013-9
  • smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Dawkins, The selfish genes Oxford University press 1976
  • Klaus box, chemical evolution and the origin living system in biophysics (publisher: W.Hoppe, W.Lohmann, H.Markl, H.Ziegler), Springer publishing house, ISBN 3540113355
  • Werner Ebeling, Physics of the evolution processes, academy publishing house, Berlin, ISBN 3055006224
  • Hoimar of Ditfurth, in the beginning was the hydrogen Knaur, ISBN 342603395X
  • Hoimar of Ditfurth, the spirit did not fall not from the skies Hoffmann and Campe, ISBN 3455089674
  • Werner Schwemmler: Mechanisms of the cell evolution. Sketcha modern cell theory. de Gruyter 1979
  • Lothar small refuge: Evolutionary-psychological theory of seeing. Prelude to a new scientific conception of the world. Cologne 1992, ISBN 3-928955-40-3
  • Sven P. Thoms: “Origin of the life” Frankfurt 2005
  • George Lit: Theoretical anthropology - fundamentals of a reconstruction of the humanIts way, Berlin 2004
  • Jörg sheet metal, Rafaela of Bredow, Johann Grolle: Darwins work, God contribution. The mirror 52/2005, S. 136 - 147 (2005), ISSN 0038-7452

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