of these articles is concerned with Exklaven in the geographical sense; for a smaller area of an animal or a plant type isolated from the main circulation area, see Exklave (biology),

than Exklave (of French more exclaver out Latin ex out and clavis keys) designates one thatPart a national territory, which is separated from the main territory and on the Landweg only over the territory of another state be attained can. In transferred meaning one speaks also with other geographical questions, for example with the circulation areas of animal orPlant types, of Exklaven.

Well-known examples of Exklaven are Alaska, the Kaliningrader area or West Berlin during the existence of the GDR.

At present Germany possesses altogether six Exklaven: One lies with the place le singing in the Swiss canton work living, as well as fivefurther in the Eifel east the Belgian Vennbahn (Münsterbildchen and Roetgener forest of the municipality turning red gene as well as Mützenich, Ruitzhof and setback of the municipality Monschau).

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cases of edge


islands, which exhibit a connection over territorial waters or open sea for the main area of the state (for example those The Azores), are called generally not Exklaven.

functional Exklaven

some areas has with the main part of the national territory a connection, can however normally only over the area of another state be achieved. A well-known exampleis the Austrian Kleinwalsertal, whose only road connection leads into the German Colonel village. Such areas divide many characteristics of genuine Exklaven.

Exterritoriale of areas

Exterritoriale of areas are not areas, which remain part of the territory of the host country, however the rightthe host country is subjected. Examples for this are messages. Such exterritorialen areas are not regarded usually as Exklaven.

Exklaven of other regional administrative bodies

the term of the Exklave can be applied also to other areas than on states.So one can regard Bremerhaven as Exklave Bremen or to Helgoland as Exklave of the circle Pinneberg (because of the direct water connection one would regard Helgoland however not as Exklave Germany).

D: Exklave, an enclave is not

Exklaven as politicalProblem

of Exklaven are unusually often article both interior and tensions with regard to foreign policy. These can be divided roughly into the following groups, whereby with many conflicts several factors play role:

  • Transit problems:Either the country to which the Exklave belongs or howevercovered demands place the transit country with transit achievements (traffic, electricity, communication). An historical example for this was the supply of East Prussia between the two world wars. Up-to-date there are problems with the supply of the Kaliningrader of area.
  • Separate ion problems:The inhabitants of the Exklave feelthe motherland associated or by the motherland neglected and do not demand partial or complete sovereignty, for example in Cabinda.
  • Extinction of the Exklave: The country, which surrounds the Exklave, tries, to incorporate it into its state territory.
  • Connection of the Exklave with the motherland:The motherland tries whether by diplomacy or by war to make territorial connection to the Exklave. An example for this is the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan around Bergkarabach, although Bergkarabach is not genuine Exklave.

Exklaven and enclaves

Exklaven can be also enclaves. This is not however with many Exklaven the case, because they have either connection to the open sea (for example Cabinda) or on several other states to border (for example the Kaliningrader area). If oneother management levels regarded, appropriate applies: So Helgoland is a Exklave of the circle Pinneberg, but no enclave, because it does not lie within another appropriate regional administrative body.


see: List of the Exklaven and enclaves

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See also

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