the expressionism (lat. expressio = expression) was an artistic and literary movement 20. Century, with which the expressive level opposite the aesthetic, appellativen and material level it outweighs which is expressed by the fact that the artist tries to represent its experience for the viewer.

Macke: Russian ballet to 1 (1912)

table of contents

the expressionism in the forming art

the expressionism is a style direction in the forming art, those as artistic movement in early 20. Century (1905 - 1925) particularly in Germany, in addition, in other European countries, in particular the Fauvismus in France, than art of the mental expression the Impressionismus (representation of the outside Feature of the things) advanced toward and this thus diametrically faced. Very soon after that 1. World war was partly overlaid the expressionism by new style directions and partly replaced (e.g. Constructionalism, new Sachlichkeit, Informel, later the new wild ones, photo realism).

The elements color, dynamics, feeling can be found in almost any expressionistischen work of art.

The realistic passing on of impressions and beautiful forms were not important to the painters of this epoch; contrary to the impressionistischen painters the expressionists expressed their own moving, them passing on “through feeling width unit” and interpreted motive.

Even a black-and-white reproduction of a picture lets the energy and the feeling life of the artist suspect.

Artist combinations like “the bridge “(Dresden) or” the blue rider “(Munich), which among other things the well-known artists August Macke, Paul Klee and Franz Marks belonged, continued to lead this mark style up to abstraction.

Otto Mueller: Two girls in the country

the expressionism was thus often directed as protest against the order existing at that time and against the middle class. Traditional artistic forms were given up (“form destroying”); the expressionism stood so also in Opposition to the naturalism.

Expressionisti artists appointed themselves also to Friedrich Nietz as Vordenker. The magazine “the storm” (given change of Herwarth Walden) and other again-created artistic-literary magazines served that Protagonisten as panel. Many works of German expressionists are today in the Norton Simon museum OF kind in Pasadena issued.

Expressionisti painters

influential forerunners of the expressionists 20. Century Paul Gauguin ( became the way-ready of expressionistischen painting ILS) was, Vincent van Gogh and Edvard Munch. Interesting purchases can be manufactured also to Mathias Green forest and El Greco

Kandinsky: Composition VI (1913)
Franz Mark: The large blue horses (1911)
August Macke: In the bazaar, water color (1914)

artist, those due to their Stilistik stood for the expressionism close:

  • notes:
    • (Brü) = group of artists “the bridge
    • (B R) = group of artists “the blue rider
    • (N K) = group of artists “Nöt circle
    • (R E) = Rheini expressionism
    • (N E) = north German expressionism
    • (W E) = Westfäli expressionism

the expressionism in the literature

Similarly the expressionism in the forming art the expressionism in the literature was concerned primarily with the topics war, large city, decay, fear, I loss and world fall (Apokalypse). The moreover one also with insanity, love and intoxication as well as nature.

important authors

characteristic expressionistischer lyric poetry

  • Lining up style: Among them one understands the lining up of short main clauses, which are neither syntactically nor logically with one another connected. The semantically this-ready serves to express the presentness of the speaker who cannot connect the found partial aspects of the reality for no more to an arranged whole one, but faces this reality helpless.
  • Metaphorik among other things
  • Dynamisierung of the language by a multiplicity at verbs of the movement
  • variation of the common syntax and grammar
  • Telegram style (short, ellipses, individual words)
  • Language shortage (omit from articles, particles, fillers)
  • Word amassment
  • Irony
  • humans becomes the object, article the subject (Depersonalisierung/Anthropomorphisierung)
  • Traditional verse forms such as sonnets,
  • the one contrast to the chaos of contents Dishoziation form representation of the embarrassing one
  • and ugly representation of taboo topics (surgery, cancer, execution, insanity
  • ): Dissolution of consciousness connections
  • Personifizierung of forces of nature
  • frequently: Enjambement
  • distorted humans

expression dance

Mary Wigman

the expressionism in the music

see: Music of the expressionism

Expressionisti architecture

see: Expressionism (architecture)

Expressionisti film

see: Expressionism (film)

literature about

  • Thomas Anz: Literature of the expressionism. Stuttgart: Collection Metzler, 2002. ISBN 3-476-10329-3.
  • Ralf George Bogner: Introduction to the literature of the expressionism. 1. Aufl. - Darmstadt: Wiss. Buchges., 2005. ISBN 3-534-16901-8.
  • Kasimir Edschmid: Alive expressionism. Arguments, shapes, memories (with 31 Dichterportraits of artists of the time), Vienna & Munich: Publishing house briefly Desch 1961.
  • Ernst Fischer & Wilhelm Haefs (Hg.): Brain worlds sparkling. Literature of the expressionism in Vienna, Salzburg: Otto Mueller publishing house 1988, ISBN 3-7013-0745-8.
  • Heinrich Eduard Jacob (Hg.): Verses of the living persons. German lyric poetry since 1910, Berlin: Propyläen publishing house 1924; 2. supplemented Aufl. 1927; 3. supplemented Aufl. 1932. This erpressionistischen Anthologie most important after the mankind dawn published by briefly Pinthus placed Jacob in front an extensive introduction.
  • NIC oils Leonhardt: The Farbmetaphorik in the lyric poetry of the expressionism. 1. Aufl. - Augsburg: Ubooks., 2004. ISBN 3-937-53617-5.
  • Heinrich Eduard Jacob: Berlin, Vorkriegsdichtung and Lebensgefühl; in: “Imprimatur - yearbook for book friends”, volume III, Frankfurt/Main: Society of the Bibliophilen, 1961/62; S. 186–189. Again printed in: Paul Raabe (Hg.): Expressionism. Recordings and memories of the contemporaries, Freiburg i. Break. 1965; S. 15–19.
  • Ursula Peter: Modern times. The collection to 20. Century, in co-operation with Andrea Legde, Nuremberg 2000 (culture-historical walks in the Germanic national museum, Bd.3), esp. S.11-120.
  • Briefly Pinthus (Hg.): Mankind dawn. Symphonie of recent seal, 1920 - the most important Anthologie expressionistischer lyric poetry.
  • Paul Raabe & H.L. Greve: Expressionism. Literature and art 1910. An exhibition of German literature archives in the Schuller Nationalmuseum Marbach a.N., of 8. May to 31. October 1960. Catalog No. 7, Marbach a.N. 1960 (in the DLA constantly again one presents).
  • Paul Raabe: The authors and books of the literary expressionism. A bibliographic manual in co-operation with Ingrid Hannich Bode, Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler publishing house 1985, ISBN 3-476-00575-5.
  • Theodor Sapper: All bells of this earth. Expressionisti seal from the Danube area, Vienna: European publishing house science 1974, ISBN 3-203-50494-4.
  • Silvio Vietta and. Hans George Kemper: Expressionism. Munich 1975. (= UTB. 362.) - 6. Aufl. Ebd. 1994. ISBN: to 3-825-20362-X

see also

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Wiktionary: Expressionism - word origin, synonyms and translations

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