Prince bishop

a prince bishop was a bishop, who exercised also lay rule in personnel union with its religious power over a territory, which it managed as a national gentleman. In the holy Roman realm the function disappeared to German nation in fact with its dissolutionin the year 1806. In Montenegro the title up to the establishment of the forerunner state of Yugoslavia outlasted in the year 1918.

Table of contents

of prince bishops in the holy Roman realm

a prince bishop was a bishop in prince rank. Its conditions were some realm prince of the holy Roman realm.

This layRuler function of bishops in Germany decreased/went back to the policy of the earlymedieval German kings to support itself for the containment of the influence of powerful prince families on the bishops appointed by them. Some of these bishops kept at that time royal rights (regalia) lent.In the course of the development of territorial principalities also these bishops their rule areas removal to lay territories , which were called high pin.

The three most outstanding religious princes of the realm became 1356 by the golden bull of the emperor Karl IV.beside fourlay princes appointed cure princes of the realm, i.e. to princes king-entitled to vote: This were the prince archbishops of Mainz, Cologne and Trier.

Existed in the year 1521 in the holy Roman realm of German nation 53 catholic of religious of principalities, reformation and Protestant secularizationreduced this number until 1648 to 23, in 18. Century to 26 again easily increased.

In 16. and early 17. Century had given it apart from these remaining catholic prince dioceses also a number of Protestant prince dioceses - to everything in front thatimportant prince ore diocese Magdeburg. Nearly everything these Protestant religious states, which were usually governed of princes of powerful neighbouring Protestant dynasties as administrators, transformed the Westfäli peace of 1648 into lay principalities (in favor of larger lay states like e.g. Brandenburg- Prussia), which was converted last in Magdeburg 1680. Diocese remained remaining Luebeck, as border line furthermore konfessionell between catholics and Lutheranern alternating only occupied diocese Osnabrück as Protestant prince diocese. All remaining prince dioceses, between 1648 and1802/03 still existed, were exclusively catholic. It existed additionally only still three Protestant realm abbeys.

Also the high and German master of the German knight medal ranked since 1526, without being prince bishop, among the religious realm princes.

Between that 16. and early 19.To century the prince bishop positions were occupied almost exclusively with representatives of certain groups of the old aristocracy - with prince sons, realm knights and old Mediatadel. To that extent the German realm Reich was primary until 1803 in the leading positions an aristocracy church. However it made possible for limited forms at the same time more sociallyMobility, by determined nichtfürstliche noble ones and to in 17. Century also still civil one by an office for bishop the personal ascent to to take could.

The increasing authentication loss of religious states in the age of rationalism and clearing-up, that starting from 1792 in addition-stepping influencerevolutionary France, where the church goods had been sold already “nationalized” and, and the materially motivated Annexionismus of neighbouring lay states in Germany it led the secularization of all religious states with the peace of Lunéville 1801 within a scarce decade inGermany here. Nearly all prince dioceses were already secularized in the year 1802, which the realm deputation main conclusion sanctioned 1803 also realm-legally. The prince bishops governing up to then kept the status of a realm prince on lifetime.

As an only prince bishop the last cure prince archbishop of Mainz could, KarlTheodor of Dalberg, as cure ore chancellors of the realm and/or. (starting from 1806) as Fürstprimas of the Rhine federation for some years still another govern religious state (emphasis: Regensburg and Aschaffenburg), which were secularized however likewise 1810 and transformed into the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt, thatDalberg still until 1813 governed.

Also the religious knight medals of the Johanniter and the German medal were spared 1803 still, fell however likewise within short (1806 and/or. 1809) the secularization to the victim.

Around the year 1800 the “holy Roman realm hadGerman nation the " following prince dioceses:

[] If prince bishops

of Montenegro do not work on

prince bishops outside of the holy Roman realm gave it in the catholic church, if one of the höherrangigen exception of the Pope (that at the same time bishop von Rom is), governed church state in central Italy foresees.

Also in the orthodox church of Eastern Europe such a lay rule of bishops was not usual. An exceptional case forms here since that the 16. Century developing political role of the orthodox bishop von Cetinje in the region Montenegro (Crna Gora).While the Osmani realm and its Sultan stressed the rule over Montenegro after the conquest of Serbia around 1470/80 also, the there mountain trunks frequently successfully resisted the actual conversion of this requirement. The bishop von Cetinje (Vladika) became of thatMaster leaders as a kind impartial president of this loose commonwealth used and recognition. Danilo Petrovitsch Njegusch, which took over 1697 the office of the Vladika, succeeded it, to intend a nephew for its successor whereupon the office in the course 18. Centuryin his family hereditary and therefore became “dynastisiert”. But only prince bishop Peter I. (1782-1830) lay-religious the office for guidance was able to secure durably Petrowitsch Njegusch, and only his nephew Peter II. for the family.(1831-1851) switched off a rivaling powerful clan so far,that the prince bishop ascended to the unquestioned political leader in Montenegro. To that extent it was logical that its nephew and successor Danilo II. (1851-1860) already 1852 the office for bishop gave up and to the lay prince of Montenegro proclaimed themselves. This principality of the Petrowitsch Njeguschbecame under Danilos nephew and successor Nikolaus I. (Nikola, sometimes also Nikita) (1860-1918) 1910 to the kingdom revalued, were however already attached 1918 the again-created “kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes”, later Yugoslavia.

see also: List of the rulers Montenegros

prince bishops of England

prince bishops of Macedonia

prince bishops of Poland

of prince bishops of the Vatikan

of prince bishops of Andorra

 

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