| higher one technical education|
(and its emergence)
A professional school (FH) is a university, which offers application orientated courses of studies on scientific basis. The offer is, as varied with universities, broadly in nature, social, economiceconomics, technical and artistic courses of studiesdivided. Some specialized higher education courses make possible besides a professional activity apart from the study. A special form of the professional schools are in Germany the remote professional school and the “special professional schools of the public administration” (FHöV, official professional schools so mentioned).
Table of contents
classification of the professional schoolin the education formation of Europe
in the Bologna explanation of 1999 the goal was, until 2010 in the European system of the university and study systems a larger compatibility (compatibility) and improves comparability (Komparabilität) by means of the ECTS - points of reaching.In the meantime, as consequence to it, also many professional schools in the German linguistic area changed master courses of studies over to the new system and offer Bachelor so mentioned - and .
Ausrichtung und Methodik
Fachhochschulen bilden ihre Studierenden auf wissenschaftlicher Grundlage anwendungsorientierter, d.h.more practice-orientedly than universities out. The study enterprise at professional schools orients itself primarily at the teachings, less at the basic research; Research has there a less important (although more importantly becoming) role. Professional schools however particularly are around the knowledge transfer to the economicsendeavored - particularly within the field of technology - (for example in institutes for transfer of technology center, which are attached then the professional schools).
„universities for applied sciences “
the professional schools, as also the universities have, an extensive study offer, use it there since someYears „University OF Applied Sciences “, translates the English auxiliary designation as „university for applied sciences “. In some Lands of the Federal Republic, for example Baden-Wuerttemberg, the professional schools become logical starting from 2005 in „university for… “(followed of the denomination of the respective field, e.g. Technology,Economics, Design etc.) renamed. The term „of the scientific universities “, with which universities are meant with graduation right, (when demarcation for the professional schools) is in the future in the universitypolitical linguistic usage no more not to be used, since this could imply that it also „un - scientific “Universities would give. The special professional schools for public administration (FHöV) are usually accessible for candidates of the elevated official service, however want to open some for all study applicants.
the study at a professional school usually setsa university access authorization ahead, which is occupied by the certification of the general or specializedbound university-level graduation (Abitur) or by the certification of the specialized university-level graduation. In addition, depending upon course of studies, a specialized Vorpraktikum, a specializedspecific professional training, a one year's specialized practical course, comes e.g. within the frameworkthe 11. Class of a specialized high school; there are however frequently also no further conditions.
A study with conclusion specialized university diploma can be completed in the average period of study by 6 to 8 terms. In the study usually in or two practice terms are contained.
as the professional schools into the 1970er years were based, the professional schools lent the academic degree to their graduates: Engineer. (degrees.), operation manager (degree.), etc. Since 1980 (university framework law of 1973) the graduates receive the academic degree in formthe diploma with indication of the field, for example diploma engineer, - buyer/- operation manager, - social worker, etc.; since 1987 with the additive „FH “(for example diploma operation manager (FH)). By the restructuring of the universities become today in many academic subjects alsoor only, the English-language conclusion designations Bachelor and masters assign.
Contrary to universities professional schools do not possess graduation - and Habilitationsrecht, D. h. they do not have the authorization to lend a doctor degree. FH-graduates can attain a doctorate only at a university,whereby FH-professors as secondary consultants to act can. The acknowledgment of a FH-diploma for graduation at a university is possible in exceptional cases, however it occurs in detail that a FH-graduate must study 1 or 2 terms at the university in its field of activity,in order to receive a complete graduation acknowledgment. Usually however the acquisition of a university diploma is necessary for the graduation. Many universities recognize the FH-diploma for this in equivalent to the university Vordiplom on, which usually for FH-graduate completing the main studyat a university meant (whereby the FH-Vordiplom in some Lands of the Federal Republic is recognized as specializedbound university-level graduation, generally the study at a university is however only possible with the FH-diploma and the associated acquisition of the general university-level graduation). Depending upon more individualExamination by the specialist area of the university can come it to overlaps, so that partially test achievements from the basic study must be retrieved (z. B. in subjects with high theoretical portion). On the other side the FH-graduate performance records from that can Main study of a professional school for the main study at a university to recognize leave, so that the test achievements still which can be furnished fail here somewhat smaller. Mandatorily for the permission for graduation the production of a thesis (diploma) is on with this variant in each casethe university.
The master degree of a professional school justified however in principle for graduation, however problems seem to initiate itself here, since not all universities recognize the master conclusions of professional schools as graduation authorization.
Concerning the Bachelor (and/or Bakkalaureat) conclusion are the FH-graduates and the graduates of university(legally) on an equal footing. In the case of an occupation in the public service (state or municipality) the rule classification takes place into the elevated service. With a master - graduates of university know conclusion generally, FH-graduates only with appropriate accreditation of the own course of studies into the higher service of the publicAdministration to be adjusted (there are master courses of studies at professional schools, also accredited, which do not contain this authorization). Diploma (FH) is pay legal and Bachelor on an equal footing, the universitäre diploma is generally assigned to the higher service.
The number of the studying at professional schools of the German Federal Republic varies strongly:from some hundred studying to more than 16,000 studying (FH Cologne, conditions WG 05/06). With the national professional schools a trend appears professional schools smaller for pool due to economy measures.
the first professional schoolsin the Federal Republic of Germany came out into the early 1970er years (again created university framework law 1973) from (national ones) the schools of engineering (SIS) and from higher technical schools (for example for management economics or Sozialpädagogik). The graduates of the schools of engineering called themselves to center that 1960er years engineer i. V. with the respective field; (starting from approximately 1967 ) them than conclusion the national designation engineer became later. (degrees.) (graduated engineer) lent and graduates of earlier classes (on request) after-graduated.
The FH-graduate became against it (until 1977/1978, depending upon Land of the Federal Republic) the conclusion title as academic degrees lent and starting from 1977/1978 (depending upon Land of the Federal Republic and national Act concerning universities) as diploma. Since center of the 1990er years with the additive „FH “. Whereby the additive also after 1987 a time long notin all Lands of the Federal Republic (for example North Rhine-Westphalia) one assigned. Earlier graduation title carriers were nachdiplomiert (on request).
Also in the earlier GDR there were further school types beside the universities, those than university of the GDR, school of engineering of the GDR or technical school of the GDR were designated.
Until approximately 2000 the diploma (FH) was the traditional conclusion of the professional schools; since beginning of the new century and in the course of the Bologniaprozesses European Union far FH-courses of studies are converted into Bachelor and/or master courses of studies.
specialized university technical and professors havefewer research contingents than their universitären colleagues. Thus the research work is not so intensively possible in many Wissenschaftsgebieten, as it is operated at universities.
the resolution for the setting up from professional schools became from the Austrian Federal Government in the year1990 calm. In the academic year 2004/05 there were 18 professional schools and other offerers of FH-courses of studies with altogether 25,554 study places. About a third of the 136 offered FH-courses of studies is occupation-accompanying as organized. In the course of the Bologna of process become ever more courses of studies in the internationalBakkalaureats and master system offered.
long one were in Switzerland the higher economic and administration school (HWV) and the higher technical institute (HTL, briefly technical school or Tech mentioned) the only possible academic further training after occupation teachings. Withto 6. Octobers 1995 into force set specialized Act concerning universities of the federation were summarized these approximately 70 higher technical schools in seven (organizational) professional schools. Today (2005) in different specialized university circles, the number of school furnitures on approx. is discussed intensively. 30–40to lower.
By the integration into the Bologna process professional schools start Bachelorstudiengänge in the autumn 2005 for the first time to Swiss. Individual master courses of studies (architecture ZHW) are already available, most become presumably starting from autumn 2008 the order. Up to then the title of an engineer FH or the names of the course of studies with in the back-employed FH is lent. These become after conclusion thatfirst Bachelor courses of studies into appropriate titles to be converted can.
the Principality of Liechtenstein orders since the entry into force of the law over professional schools, university and research institutes of 25. November 1992 formally over a tertiary education range. To 21. January 2005 steppedthe new law over the university nature (Act concerning universities; HSG) into force. At present there are four nationally recognized universities in Liechtenstein and/or. University mechanisms.
|Wiktionary: Professional school - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- list of German universities
- Austrian Universities of, universitiesand professional schools
- Swiss Universities of, universities and professional schools
- Liechtensteiner Universities of, universities and professional schools
Web on the left of
- universities, professional schools and vocational academies in Germany
- Austrian specialized university advice - professional schools in Austria
- http://www.fachhochschulen.at - specialized university portal Austria
- http://www.fachhochschulen.net - specialized university portal Switzerland
- THESIS: Project group graduation alsoFH-conclusion
- professional schools Austria - current information