Half timbered house
the half timbered house (Swiss: Latch plate house) has a basic stand made of wood, the gaps is filled usually with a wood - loam - group or brick work. The framework construction way was from the high Middle Ages in 19. Century one of the prevailing building methods andin Central Europe north the alps until England spreads.
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one differentiates betweenthe means - and upper-German building of roofridge columns as well as the down-German two-post and beam construction and/or. the four-stand house. The framework construction is a building of skeletons.
The vertical woods become standing the easily diagonally as posts, handle , support, staff or stands, as Prop or Schwertung calls, the horizontal threshold, Rähm, latch plate or purlin. One calls woods for transverse stabilization, running in the angle from usually 45 ° , volumes or nose, her connects the parts standing perpendicularly one on the other. Props are often symmetrically arranged and show then often upward and outside.
The woods have a cross section of 10 x 10 to 18 x 18 cm. One on the other appropriate parts are usually dovetailed and with Holznägeln secured. The holes becomeeasily shifts bored, so that the taps are pulled in the Zapfenloch. The used Holznägel have a diameter of approximately 2 cm and are at least 2 cm than the strength of the bar amount to longer, them get over.
The construction units become with the cutwith scantling gathering characters provide, in order to be able to build up they at the building site fast and correctly. Also framework constructions can be diminished and developed again, as well as individual parts to be replaced (modular construction).
- The article framework treats the mechanical bases of a framework.
as wood mostly pedunculate oak or grape/cluster oak, in resinous wood-rich areas fir are used, since they are weather-proof and resist rot - constructional wood preservation suspended. Which high age such woodsto reach can, whereupon in the chapter history is entered.
The first mentioned technology leads itself from the wattlework walloff, which can be considered as one of the oldest building constructions.
The wood network is also additional from firm woods (Lehmstaken), from flexible rods (specialized switches) from a wood such as pasture.
- One finds large information in the article Gefach.
there are ornamental forms
in the framework with the framework construction the among other things following ornamental forms:
- St Andrews cross
- man, a form of the prop cross in various variants
- style with foot volumes
- sun disks
- Treppenfries (approx. 1470-1520)
- Handle or Trapezfries (approx. 1500-1540)
- Leaves staff (approx.1520-1550)
- Fächerfries (approx. 1535-1560)
- Kettenfries (approx. 1550-1670)
- Diamond volume (as increase of the Kettenfrieses)
- inscriptions (e.g. Nisi Dominus Frustra; Psalm 127)
- Knaggen (the consoles) verziert with holy figures, roll and Volutenformen or notches
Since the high Middle Ages to in 19. Century was northern the framework construction the furthest common building method for above ground structures of the alps. Framework constructions are however also from the wood-rich areas of the former admits of osmanischen realm from Bulgaria to Syria. The loam as in-fill material could be excavated simply and economically locally (often from the excavation). Also wood was usually rather available as suitable stones and could above all more easily be transported (upthat water routes geflösst).
Two kinds of the Verzimmerung can fundamental be differentiated: the older medieval post and beam construction (also multi-storey building or building of columns called), with that wind-change from the threshold to the Traufrähm go through and the younger starting from approximately 1600 common Rähmbau (also building of floors called), with which each floor as “crate” closed in itself and these are manufactured are stacked one above the other „crates “. Here it often occurs that the upper floor something protrudes over the lower floor. Beside senkrechten and horizontal woods are also diagonally running woods necessarily, in order to stabilize the structure.
Constructionally the Rähmbau any longer, only the ornamental forms did not change changed over the centuries. Particularly in the arrangement of the diagonal woods it came in recent time (since that 15.Century) to decoration-like organizations. Organization possibilities offered beyond that carved reliefs, samples or inscriptions. With respect to Germany three groups of styles are differentiated.
- Alemanni framework is particularly in Southern Germany to find
- Frankish framework is predominant in Thuringia, Hessen, North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate represented by the Ernhaus
- framework of Lower Saxony with Saxonian origin comes particularly into north Germans the area between the Netherlands and East Prussia in form (down Germans) of the specialized hall building (“Lower Saxony house “) before
the spreading borders was however rather flowing. Thus findsitself for instance in Paulinzella (local part of gang brook (Thuringia)) the Zinzboden of the former monastery, in 15. Century with alemannischem framework was established.
Into - the 70's 20. Century became the age of the framework constructions on the basis the constructional andthe stylistic characteristics determines. Assistance of the dendrochronology (scientific method of the wood age determination) could be determined in the last decades the age of numerous framework constructions more accurately, whereby the oldest received buildings in South Germany from that 13. Century and in Northern Germany from that 15.Century come.
Have despite the devastating destruction of the Second World War and the post-war periodin Germany still over one million framework constructions keep. The framework construction determines this very day the picture of whole old parts of town and village centers. In the present actually only the southern parts of Bayerns are to a large extent framework-free. However are here related types of construction, about thatFederation work.
The German framework construction surprises by the multiplicity of different design details and decorative fixtures. The regional differences are very large, some basic patterns however over far parts, usually cognate areas spread. Thus are typical representatives „of the Frankish “framework constructionto inside in the Elsass, „the alemannische “framework is in similar form in South West German country, Switzerland and Vorarlberg. The framework construction of Lower Saxony is particularly noticeable by its rich, carved ornamental forms, which arise substantially more rarely in central and South Germany. Herefalls for it the fantasyful Fachwerkfigurationen in the eye (curved St Andrews crosses among other things), particularly in the Frankish framework area.
An interesting special form are the lausitzer Umgebindehäuser, in which the slawische building of blocks and the German framework construction are connected. Into Francke donations in (Saale) is the largest half timbered house of Europe resounds.
While the Elsass is to be added to the Frankish and alemannischen, thus German framework area predominantly because of its history and culture, particularly pointnormandy and the Champagne still another multiplicity at typically French specialized works up. Here have however the two world wars 20. Century large losses brought with itself. Closed townscapes still are in the Rouen and Troyes, as well as smaller unitePlaces.
Normandy possesses numerous smaller manor-houses from framework, also remaining rural architecture is strongly from framework coined/shaped. The props French frameworks are often very thin and stand perpendicularly cheek by jowl, the bars and filling woods are substantially more irregular thanfor instance with German buildings. This is not to be due however obviously to inability relating to crafts, the irregular stature of the building timber was obviously usually a consciously intergriertes organization means. The rich Schnitzereien some, particularly normannischer frameworks documents the high-standing handicraft art of the French carpenters impressively.
Nachmittelalterlichen buildings exhibit often simple St Andrews crosses or rhombic Figurationen. A special characteristic are the swung Giebelblenden, in 19. Century also in Germany were gladly copied.
Also the medievalResidential architecture of England was strongly coined/shaped of the framework construction, which exhibits often strong similarities with the French. Some Zierformen reminds however more by German examples, occasionally these in the wealth of the Figuration is even exceeded. Numerous English cities exhibit still beautiful examples,a good-received example of a medieval city is the northEnglish York.
the framework construction way is used today again with prefabricated buildings, however the Gefache is today usually filled out with bricks or sandwich constructions so mentioned. An advancement is those Timber panel construction way or system timber construction/timber building construction.
In the last decades many half timbered houses were restored and cleaned framework often again opened. However many of these opened buildings were planned not as view framework, the framework are here purely constructional originally. Often should more representativelyBuilding of stones to be pretended, by that reducing the finery is strongly falsified the original character of the house. Also later window break-downs and other changes speak sometimes against an opening. In some old cities and villages still so some beautiful framework hides itselfbehind thick finery layers, the cleaned local picture is however for his part - as monument grown historically - receive worth (Dinkelsbühl).
Apart from the restoration and opening of historical framework constructions also the complete or partial reconstruction of war-destroyed single monuments is or for approximately 20 yearsTo observe framework ensemble, which is however not undisputed in the professional world. On the Roman mountain in Frankfurt/Main a place side was copied, reconstructed in Hildesheim the entire market place. In the course of this reconstruction also that is alleged „most beautiful half timbered house thatWorld “, which Knochenhaueramtshaus again-purchased.
of overview works
- G. Ulrich Grossmann: The framework construction in Germany. The historical half timbered house, its emergence, colour, use and restoration. 2. Edition, Cologne 1998
- Wolfgang Lenze: Half timbered houses, restore - reorganize - modernize. 3. revised Aufl. 2004, ISBN 3-8167-6431-2
- William Hansen and harsh ore Kreft: Framework in the Weser area. Hameln 1980
- harsh ore nods: Bergi framework.Ein Streifzug durch Architektur und Geschichte des rechtsrheinischen Fachwerkbaus, Martina Galunder-Verlag: Wiehl 1996, ISBN 3-931251-10-1
- Ursula Pfistermeister: Framework in Franconia, Carl, Nürnberg 1993, ISBN 3418003672
- Hermann Dieter Oemler: Framework in who Niger desert, Oemler publishing house: Who Niger desert 1999, ISBN 3-9805751-1-X
- Robert Slawski: Braunschweiger framework, Braunschweig 1988
- book series: The community centre… e.g. in Braunschweig, Verlag Ernst Wasmuth Tübingen
- Helmut Nachtigall: Carpenter art in the hut mountain - the Hüttenberger yard, N.G. Elwert publishing house Marburg 1973, ISBN 3-77080479-1
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