escalator in Canary Wharf, London
detail opinion: Gradate an escalator
escalators with „stair paragraph “at the Viennese Franz Josefs station
curve escalator in MinatoMirai 21, Yokohama
releasing metallic stage of an escalator

an escalator (colloquially also called escalator) are a transportation of human beings means, with which moving metal segments stairway steps form.

One speaksof moving pavement, if the metal elements do not form stairs, but a smooth surface. Escalators are considered not as stairs, but as conveyor plant, therefore escalators as well as moving pavements must be switched off with a fire or an emergency.

Table of contents


the first escalator 1892 of Jesse W became. Reno as US patent submitted and consisted first only of a rubber diagonal volume with wooden plates, thus around a diagonal conveyor. Only four years later the invention in one became Entertainment park in Coney Iceland as attraction operated.

1859 a US patent already preceded that, which contained an escalator with driving stages. However the principle was too complicated; this escalator was never built.

As actual inventors to the escalator George A. is considered. Wheeler, its patent approximately5 months after of Jesse the W. Reno was given. The actual break-through did not create it however.Charles Seeberger, which failed with its own constructions, bought the patent of its colleague in the year 1898.

The economical break-through happened 1900 at the Paris world exhibition. Inthe USA was established the escalator fast in department stores and particularly in stations of the underground. An escalator in the execution built today was designed for the first time 1920 by the Otis elevator company.

special escalators

beside the usual straight-lined running escalators, givesit also „spiral escalators “with curved careers as well as escalators with stair paragraph.

Some the few curve escalators are in the MinatoMirai building in Yokohama and in department stores in San Francisco and Singapore. By their technical susceptibility and high initial costs they could themselves hardly intersperse so far andrather a prestige object remained. By the curvature the side of each stage lying outside must move faster than the side on the inside. This is solved by larger wheels at that far outside lying side. By the different loads and the strongly stressed curved guidance chainsthe wear is technically susceptible high and the escalator.

Escalators with stair paragraph are for example in the building of the Franz Josefs station in Vienna.


the equipment safety law (GSG) regulates among other things the Inverkehr brings from technical media. Among these also machines rank such as escalators andMoving pavements. For these an EEC conformity explanation must be provided like it in the EEC machine guideline is intended. An CE-indication must be attached at the escalator or at the moving pavement.

Besides the speeds of escalators are standardized, them may itself only with a speed of 0.5 meters perSecond (1.8 km/h), 0.65 meters per second (2.34 km/h) or maximally 0.75 meter per second (2.7 km/h) move. Escalators with the slow speed come mainly in department stores to the employment, the two schnellern into undergrounds and airports.

the most important monitoring and safety devices

According to the euro standard EN115 starting the drive engine must be prevented or it must continue immediately at the following points:

  • Overloading of the drive
  • overload with increase of the engine coil temperature
  • superelevated speed or inadvertent direction of travel reversal
  • break or inadmissible lengthening that directly the stages, pallets or belt of propelling construction units,e.g. Chains.
  • Decrease of the distance between the drive and reversal mechanisms (e.g. by blocking of the stage volume)
  • getting jammed foreign bodies at the combs of the intake places above and down
  • stopping all escalators or moving pavements with concatenated plants without intermediate exit
  • responding the safety devices of the hand rail intakes
  • dropping a part thatStages or pallets, so that the interference of the combs is no longer ensured
  • missing stages or pallets: the plant must be switched off, before the developed gap does not withdraw from the comb
  • opening the brake system after the approach of the plant
  • deviating the hand rail speed of the driving speedthe escalator or the moving pavement
  • opened cover plates at the entrances or opened servicing covers
  • exceeding of the permissible braking distances

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