Falklandinseln

The Falkland Iceland
Islas Malvinas
Falklandinseln
Malwinen
Flagge der Falklandinseln
Wappen der Falklandinseln
(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: The Irish the right
(English., „desire the correct “)
office language English
capital haven Stanley, Spanish: Puerto Argentino
system of government British overseas territories (stressed by Argentina)
head of state Elizabeth II.
Governor Howard Pearce
surface 12,173 km ²
number of inhabitants 2,967 (conditions July 2005, not contained: soldier) currency Falkland Pound of time belt
UTC −4
national anthem God save
the Queen Kfz characteristic internet TLD stationed
about
1,700 .fk
preselection +500
Landkarte Südamerikas, Falklandinseln hervorgehoben
Falklandinseln
Die Falklandinseln aus dem Weltall
the Falklandinseln from the universe

those Falklandinseln (Falkland Iceland, splinter Islas Malvinas = Malwinen) are a Inselgruppe in the southern Atlantic. They belong geographically to South America and are appropriate for 600-800 km east of south Argentina and fire country with 52° south and 59° west. They are British overseas territories, however by Argentina since 1833 are stressed.

Table of contents

geography

the Falklandinseln consist ofabout 200 islands, their most important west Falkland (bad.: Gran Malvina) and East Falkland (bad.: Soledad) with ever about 6,000 km ² are (140 x approx. 50 km). The northern parts of the two Hauptinseln are covered of hill chains. They runin west east direction and reach in the Mount Usborne (bad.: Cerro Alberdi) on Ostfalkland 708 m height. The second highest mountain is called Mount Adam (bad.: Monte Independencia) and is on Westfalkland.

Between east and Westfalkland the broad Falklandsund runs (bad.:Estrecho de San Carlos), at the haven Howard (bad.: Puerto Mitre) lies. Also the east island is divided by a long fjord ( with Darwin) almost into two halves; at its east coast looking to the Atlantic those is located to head " city " Stanley (bad.: Puerto Argentino) with approx. 2,000 inhabitants. From the remaining 200 islands only about five are larger than 10 km ².

Further islands:

  • Beauchene Iceland (Spanish: Isla Beauchêne)
  • Beaver Iceland (Spanish: Isla San Rafael)
  • ingot Iceland (Spanish: Isla Pelada)
  • Bleaker Iceland (Spanish: Isla María)
  • Carcass Iceland (Spanish: Isla del Rosario)
  • George Iceland (Spanish: Isla Jorge)
  • the Jason Iceland (Spanish: Islas lot Salvajes)
  • Keppel Iceland (Spanish: Isla Vigía)
  • Lively Iceland (Spanish: Isla Boungaiville)
  • new Iceland (Spanish: Isla de Goicoechea)
  • Pebble Iceland (Spanish: Isla de Borbón)
  • Saunders Iceland (Spanish: Isla Trinidad)
  • Sealion Iceland (Spanish: Isla de Los Leones Marinos)
  • speed-wave Iceland (Spanish: Isla Águila)
  • of State of Iceland
  • Weddell Iceland (Spanish: Isla San José)
  • west POINT Iceland (Spanish: Isla Remolinos)

see also: Falklandinseln: Geographical names)

the climate is coldly, windy and heavy-rainfall. The annual average temperature is with only 5 °C.
Compared to London or Cologne, which are on the same (northern ) latitude, is that a difference of nearly 5 degrees. This is connected particularly with the land distribution of north south and the ecliptic (Perihel in the north winter).

fauna and Flora

that subantarktische climate permits only the growth of small, max. 5 m high Zwergbirken. The islands are covered by grasses of the kinds Cortaderia and Parodiochloa as well as by dwarf bushes from the kind of the crow berries (Empetrum).

It gave on thatFalklandinseln only a domestic country mammal, the Falklandfuchs, in 19. Century was exterminated. Besides there are to 63 domestic kinds of bird, among them Albatrosse, Versicolorenten, vulture falcons and the endemic Falklandpieper. At the coasts enormous penguin colonies breed,the several millions individuals cover. In addition one finds at the coasts colonies of Seelöwen and sea-elephants.

Today there are numerous brought in animals, thus rats , mice, rabbits and cats on the islands beside the pervasive sheep.

population

history

major item: History of the Falklandinseln

before the arrival of European settlers the Falklandinseln was uninhabited - particularly because of its rauen climate. They were discovered 1592 by the English sailor John Davis,that it however only sighted. It had made itself from Puerto Deseado out on the search for the other three ships under the command of Thomas Cavendish, was however into a storm guessed/advised, which led it after Falkland. It lastedfurther 98 years, until the islands became to enter 1690 of John Strong for the first time. It gave them in honours of the British officer and politician Viscount Falkland the name Falkland Islands.

The first settlements became 1764 under French rule of Louis Antoine deBougainville based. The Argentine name Islas malvinas therefore agitates probably that it itself around French settlers from pc. Malo acted. The colony was however already handed over 1766 at Spain. Since that time the islands are subject to territorial disputes, at first between Englandand Spain, afterwards until today between Great Britain and Argentina.

The united kingdom maintained its requirements, by establishing 1833 a fleet base on the island. 1837 were furnished a colonial administration.

In the First World War found between German cruisers and a superiorBritish naval force sea-combat with the Falklandinseln instead of. The German Eastern Asia squadron under Vice Admiral Maximilian count von Spee wanted into the Atlantic toward Germany to break through and became to 8. December 1914 of the British under Vice Admiral Sir Frederik D. Stubborn DTE destroyed.

The occupation of the islands by Argentina to 2. April 1982 released the Falkland War : Great Britain reacted seven week later with the landing of troops. After short, but bloody fights the British troops Argentina could do to 14. June 1982 toTask move. The British navy suffered higher losses than expected, since those of majority from light alloy began manufactured modern ships by rocket impacts to burn independently in large extent.

Altogether the Falkland War cost more the life to than 1,000 humans. Since then is onelarger number of soldiers on the islands stations (2002 still about 1,700 men). In the last decade the latent conflict relaxed somewhat. In the year 2004 however expressions of Argentine government politicians provided concerning a return of the islands in London for uneasiness.

politics

since 1985 have Falkland their own condition. The parliament (Legislativrat) consists of the governor, the Chief Executive as well as eight on four years selected members. Since on Falkland parties do not have a meaning, it concerns independent ones.Governor is for October 2002 Howard Pearce. Südgeorgien and the southern sand yielding islands are also managed by the governor in personnel union as Commissioner.

See also: List of the governors of the Falklandinseln

Infratruktur

a portable radio - net gives it (2003) stillnot, however voice transmission is common.

economics

Falkland has its own currency, the Falkland Pound. This is bound to the British Pound. The most important export property of importance is wool, trade partner is mainly Great Britain. The foreign trade deficit makes abouthalf of the gross domestic product out, the islands depend thus completely on Great Britain. The GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT per head is with approximately 20,800 euro (2003). Unemployment lies with 6% over the average of the united kingdom.

Except the sheep breed has stillthe fishery certain meaning as well as the production of skins, tallow, fish leg and whale oil. A further economical support leg is the assignment of fishing licenses to foreign enterprises. This leads from time to time to conflicts with the neighboring country Argentina, thatthe point of view, leads the excessive fishery in this region stresses the islands and holds in this case to ecological damage also in the Argentine part of the Südatlantiks. The discovery of large oil fields before the islands led into the late 1990ernto renewed political tensions between Great Britain and Argentina. In the meantime these fields are used together, whereby the British companies BP and Shell constitute here about 80%. The islands profit likewise from this recent development.

culture

  • National holiday: Release day, 14. June

further topics

Apostoli prefecture Falklandinseln and Malwinen

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coordinates: 51° 45 ' S, 59° 00 ' W

 

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