Fantasy

Fantasy (English fantasy = Fantasie) is a literature kind and describes a kind of play of the modern Fantastik. The term refers also to category near films, plays, art and music.

Table of contents

definition

as modern Subgenre of the Fantastik places the Fantasy supernatural, fairy taleful and magic elements into the foreground. It does not design a conflict between these fantastischen elements and the material world:Fantasti is normality. This goes every now and then so far that the action in another world with own rules, laws of nature and organisms is described. Usually the Fantasy of the motives avails itself of old myths, people fairy tales or legends. Thus dipLegend shapes such as dwarves, Zauberer or Trolle up, in addition, freely invented natures and with human characteristics equipped animals. Contrary to the Science Fiction - to category, which likewise does not operate with “material” elements, Zauberei and magic belong to the standard repertoire of the Fantasy.

characteristics of the Fantasy

in Fantasyromanen, - film and - play represented world orient themselves in their society and economic structures mostly at the European Middle Ages. She is inhabited mostly by stereotyped peoples: Dwarves live underground, carry oneFull beard, are masterful axe fighters, Schmiede and Zecher.Elfen and/or. Elben are androgyne, unsterbliche natures and in ruins into several peoples, usually a nature-connected forest people, a culturally high-standing and every now and then by animal width unit, bad people. Old peoples of bizarrer nature lived forwardshumans on earth, e.g. Insect or Echsenwesen.Orks are ugly, animalful natures, which are on war and deadwoods out. Goblins are small, gewitzte Kobolde, which are numerous cowardly, but. Further kinds of Fantasiewesen (called in the jargon races)are Untote (Zombies, Vampire etc.), animal human being (Kentaur, Satyre etc.) or main header bits.

As classical action structure the Quest serves. Also certain action patterns always return: A bad Magier and/or Dämon threaten the order of the Fantasiewelt due toof lust for power and destruction will. It can be stopped only by certain magic articles (rings, weapons etc.). Here applies: the older the article is, the more powerfully is its charm forces. The hero or the heroine is torn from a idyllischen homeland, overto find its regulation in the foreigner. A community of different individuals must put their differences aside, in order to be able to exist against the bad.

As each category developed also the Fantasy their completely own stereotyped ones and plates. In particular the play industrythe category has by plays such as Dungeon & Dragons, being hammer or Magic: The meeting strongly formalizes. Action elements are used again and again, in order to facilitate and supply for the already experienced players with the entrance, which worked satisfactorily.

Fantasy as literature category

roots

Fantasy draw their motives and telling structures from the age-old literature form of the legends and Heldenepen, in which earlier cultures recorded stories of its Gods, half Gods and hero, about Homers Ilias, the Nibelungenlied or the legend circle around king Arthur. Often modern Fantasy seizes these legends directly up, tells it after or adapts their action. In the second half 18. Century began the Central European enthusiasm for premature Epike andfor instance of the fictitious Barden Ossian settled in the singing.

development of the Phantastik in 19. Century

in 19. Authors began century such as E. T. A. Hoffmann or Edgar Allan Poe strengthens thereby, supernatural elements into theirTo merge novels and narrations. This new literature direction proved on the developing book market as salespregnant, in particular the shower novel and the adventure literature, for instance the novels of Sir walter Scott. Also the beginnings of the Science Fiction, until todayin close topic tables, if also to the Fantasy does not stand for contentwise proximity, are in this time. Like that the today's Fantasy would be inconceivable without the preliminary work of Jules Verne, harsh ore George Wells, lord Dunsany, Mary Shelley (Franconia stone), Bram Stoker (Dracula), Robert Louis Stevenson (the strange case of the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde), E. R. Eddison (the worm Ouroboros), Marks of Twain (a Yankee from Connecticut to yards of theKing Artus) and OSCAR savage (the portrait of the Dorian Gray).

emergence in 20. Century

as own literature category originated in the Fantasy in 20. Century. As its founder J. often becomes. R. R. Tolkien (The master of the rings) mentioned, who released with its works particularly into the late 1960ern a proper boom and is stated of many authors as model. As further “ancestor gentlemen” the Fantasy Fritz bodies ( Fafhrd and the grey one is consideredMausling), George MacDonald (day boy and night girl), C. S. Lewis (the chronicles of Narnia) and the American Pulp author Robert E. Howard, whose stories over Conan the barbarian are as famous just as disputed.

After the Tolkien boom that1960er years tried numerous authors in the category, often following Tolkien, about Marion rooms Bradley and Stephen R. Donaldson into the 1970ern, Terry Brooks and Raymond protects into the 1980ern. The emergence of the Fantasy game of roles inthe 1980ern considerably of the Fantasyliteratur one affected; over the detour of the game of roles again new young readers and authors found to the category. In the 1980ern and 1990ern parallel those developed from authors how to the classical High Fantasy, Tad Williams, Robert Jordan and Robin Hobb was further-carried, new Subgenres like the Urban Fantasy or the Humoristi Fantasy.

development in 21. Century

at the beginning of the new century experiences the Fantasy by the gentleman the ring filming and the Harry Potter - wave a new boom. In the meantime more Fantasy is published and read. In the High Fantasy a trend appears to a vielschichtigeren treatment of the Fantasy motives, approximately by renouncement of category conventions; as Wegbereiter of this modernHigh Fantasy apply for George R. R. Martin, Steven Erikson and J. V. Jones.

criticism to the Fantasy

still suffers the Fantasy under a bad image and as youth literature is alternatively smiled at or as trivial literaturerejected - and this, although occasionally authors also recognized turned to the category, about John Updike (the witches of Eastwick), Haruki Murakami (savage sheep hunt, Hardboiled Wonderland) or Italo Calvino (the knight, it notgave).

Nevertheless it is not to be pointed from the hand to that Fantasy is often pure maintenance literature and itself by simple action patterns and distinguishes stereotyped characters. The much-praised complexity of the Fantasy refers more to personnel, action strands and continuation volumes of a row,less on the motivation of the pro Togoists or the contentwise depth.

Problematic it is further that some Fantasy readers and - authors usually social, political or cultural problems fade out themselves and instead into a archaische, often hierarchical and in terms of civilization backward dream world flees.This is interpreted of many critics as Eskapismus. However that some Fantasy novels take up quite current socio-political topics and the society criticism open, for instance the kind US book series of T must be mentioned. H. White.

sub-groups

the Fantasyliteraturcannot be arranged into the following strictly from each other definable sub-groups:

film

also the cinema has itself already more frequently the category turned, although comparatively more rarely than the Science Fiction. Apart from the early fairy tale films and onefirst indication trick version of the “master of the rings” (Ralph Bakshi films 1977 from the director) genuine Fantasystoffe was only taken up starting from the 1980ern. At that time film classical author developed such as Excalibur (GB, 1981), for fight of the Titanen (the USA, 1981), that kite-dead (the USA, 1981), which darkensCrystal (USA/GB, 1982), legend (GB, 1985) and the journey to the labyrinth (GB/USA, 1986). It is remarkable that none of the successful Fantasy novels were filmed; “The master of the rings” applied after the Bakshi film gefloppten at the Kinokasse as to difficult material, other novelsobviously as to bad collecting main. Only exception remained the filming of the Michael end book infinite history (D/USA, 1984). With the film Willow of 1988 tried to repeat producer George Lucas his SF-success star Wars also in the Fantasybereich, what refuses him howeverremained.

Also into the 1990ern washgenuine Fantasy films remained rare; Dragonheart (the USA had larger success, 1996). Instead the television discovered the category for itself and created several Fantasy series, about Xena, Hercules, Robin Hood and Charmed.

Into the 2000erndirector Peter Jackson finally dared itself to the filming of the master of the rings and harvested with the Filmtrilogie an unbelievable success at the Kinokassen. Together with the likewise successful Harry Potter - filmings created it thereby a basis for further filming plans.So also Cornelia of radio ink heart and the Narnia have - series of C. S. Lewis the way on the canvas found.

served

plays [work on

] board and

of games of roles Fantasy already early as background for numerous board plays, Play books and above all also games of roles (Pen & PAPER games of roles and live-games of roles). Straight one in the course of the game of roles wave in the 1980ern and 1990ern (Dungeon & Dragons, Midgard, the black eye, MERS and being hammer, later category-spreading RPGs strengthenslike Shadowrun and world of the darkness) resulted in the case of it reciprocal effects with the Fantasyliteratur; some authors found turned around over the game of roles to the Fantasy literature and. Besides some games of roles, so that for instance the kite lance were literarily processed - novels from Margaret point and Tracy Hickman or the Forgotten Realms - row of R. A. Salvatore developed. The Fantasy of play books, which as forerunners of the Textadventures to be seen to have , attained in addition, special meaning; admits became under anderm one the lonely wolf of Joe Dever and the Fighting Fantasy - row of Steve Jackson. Into the late 1990ern the Fantasy topic penetrated also into other clearances, above all the collecting pack of cards Magic: The meeting celebrated successes, withdrew some players from the classical game of roles, opened however at the same timeother persons, who had so far no entrance to the Fantasy, this fascinating category. After the new Fantasy wave in the course of the Tolkien filming into the 2000ern live-games of roles and the classical Pen&Paper game of roles became more and more societyable, even if the paragraph of the game of roles publishing housessince crumbles to years.

computer games

within the range of the computer game were used since jeher Fantasy motives, as found at all all fantastischen category entrance into the computer game culture. Of the early Textadventure as for instance Guild OF Thieves of the company Magnetic Scrollsto the early game of roles conversions Ultima of the company Origin were taken up again and again Fantasystoffe. With the computer game-typical Quest developed a ark-typical telling structure, which found the way back again later into the Fantasy literature.

Into the 1980ern several famous Fantasy computer games developed, about for ThePutting OF Zelda, Final Fantasy, Dungeon master, the Ultima or The Bard's Tale already mentioned, which is partly continued until today. Into the 1990ern above all the conversions of the D&D games of roles (about champion OF Krynn arrived or Eye OF the Beholder) the Fantasy Parodie Simon the Sorcerer, the games of roles of country OF truck and the Nordlandtrilogie as well as the strategy play Dungeon Keeper larger admittingness. Into the 2000ern a ever more sophisticated diagram and a higher arithmetic performance of the computers always made possiblemore detailed worlds, so that today's Adventures and games of roles achieve an unbelievable extent. As milestones here the Action Adventure Diablo and Dungeon victories, the strategy play Warcraft and the games of roles Baldur's gate, Neverwinter Nights, Gothic and Morrowind is considered. ThoseFilmings of the gentleman of the rings and the Harry Potter - row led likewise to conversions in the computer game range, as at all a closer teeth from literature, cinema and computer game is to be observed to. Thus shortly the Fantasy play becomes Dungeon of victories of the director Uwe Boell cinematic converted.

music

with Filk exists its own music direction and - culture, whose songs stories from and over Fantasy and Science Fiction - literature and - media tell. The moreover Fantasy particularly appears in the Metal . Although the term Fantasy Metal existed, is used rarely these, since topics from the Fantasy in as well as all Metal styles can being found, particularly in the power and in the Epic Metal. Much is with Metal albums also Plattencover with Fantasy motives likes. These becomefrequently even with (Metal) albums/volume uses, which are not occupied otherwise with Fantasythemen. As volume with partial strong falling no impact are above all Summoning, Ensiferum, to call blindly Guardian and Rhapsody.

see also

Wiktionary: Fantasy- Word origin, synonyms and translations

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