of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see color (term clarifying).
Color fan
of colored pencils

color - in contrast to the pigment - is a subjective sensory impression, which develops, if light of a certain wavelength or a wavelength mixture on the retina the eye falls and there special sensory cells compelled to a nerve excitation, which is led to the brain and as color into the consciousness of humans steps there.

Color is thus a sensory perception and no physical characteristic of an article. The term of the colorgives only regarding a living organism with sensory cells for light a sense. The phenomenon color is located therefore also not on the surface of the object concerned, but only on its image, us our brain in oursConsciousness presents. It remains unsettled however how it is prizipiell possible that color in the brain, as physical object can develop. See for this: (Qualia).

According to DIN 5033 color is that face feeling the eye of humans appearing structureless of a part of theVisual field, by this part when einäugiger observation with motionless eye from, a likewise structureless adjacent district seen at the same time alone to differ can.

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] color impression

of humans the visual perception of humans via certain receptors, which are on the retina. Ofthese sensory cells are there two Grundtypen: the Stäbchen in such a way specified differentiate between only black/knowing of contrasts, the taps in such a way specified (not Zäpfchen!) serve the color perception.
(To noticing: S täbchen - S chwarz/knows; Zap f EN - F arben)

thoseTaps are present in three developments, which have in each case their response peak in the spectral regions; “Red”, “green” and “blue”. The red-sensitive tap has thereby a Nebenempfindlichkeit in the violet spectral region -- therefore appear to us red and violet light also similarly, although itpurely physically regarded because of the against set ends of the visible flash spectrum are. Each combination of suggestions of the three kinds of tap through on the retina meeting radiation causes a specific color impression.

Humans, who have only two kinds of taps, are red green blind or (more rarely) green-blue-blindly. If humans have only a kind of taps, or no taps (i.e. they see only with the Stäbchen), are them color blind.

A common organization separates the brightness as strength of the color impression from that Saturation as “purity of a color” and the actual colour, which decide on the actual characteristic of the color.

The linear representation of the Spektralfarben in the rainbow shows only one part of all color perceptions. The visible radiation is an electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength coveragefrom 380 to 760 Nm.

If the colors are released by pigments, their spatial or temporal proximity causes subjective contrast reinforcement. By spatial proximity one calls caused contrasts simultaneous contrast, the follow-up effect of Gegenfarben however gradual contrast. Are related to the simultaneous contrastthe colored shade: An article lit with green light has therefore a red shade.

psychological effect

is met the eye of light of a certain wavelength coverage, then this has except simple sensory perception (as „red “, „blue “) stillfurther, more complex and colorspecific psychological effect. In addition, these have large thing in common with humans of the same culture area, exhibit individual differences. Such effects of the color perception are used - intuitively or consciously - for the production of certain effects: both for artistic organizations andalso in the mode and advertising industry. Psychological color tests try to judge from the above average frequent choice of a certain color or colour combination certain characteristics of the personality of humans concerned. In the everyday life life make many proverbs and idioms use of thatpsychological color effects. The table shows some examples of possible effects and meanings of colors.

Color associations and feelings
multicolored colors:
Red blood - fire - energy - warmth - love - passion - erotism - sin - danger - lives - Joy - shame - anger - aggression
green grass - nature - Unreife - poison - Ecology movement - hope - peace - freshness - fertility - creator strength - Sinnlichkeit - envy
  • on flags: Islam
  • as face color: Illness
  • as signal color: permitted, available, start, Okay, correctly, malicious
  • in the Christianity: Color of the Auferstehung
blue water - sky - liberty - Cold weather - aristocracy - distance - longing - loyalty - knowledge - philosophy - stability - moderateness - harmony - balance - peace - sympathy - satisfaction
yellow lemon - freshness - Fröhlichkeit - joy of life - vitality - liberalism - envy - hate - jealousy
  • as signal color: limited, partly, intermediate condition, warning (see warning color)
gold-yellow sun - wealth - power - Joy - amusement - optimism - illuminating
orange orange - refreshment - Fröhlichkeit - youth - resistance - Buddhismus - exotic - Holland - sociability - energy - courage - victim readiness - desire - joy - Matures
brown loam - earth - dirt - cosiness - national socialism - tradition - dirt - security - earth solidarity - degradation
Violet women's movement - Mystisch - age - mourning - renunciation - became - lutherischer protest anti-mash - soul migration - secret - Frömmigkeit - melancholy - creativity - Spiritualität
„unbunte “colors:
Knows innocence - purity - Medicine - neutral - virginity - immortality - infinity - silence - emptiness
grey grey mouse - colorlessness - neutrality - inconspicuousness - Depression - shy
black ash - death - mourning - Konservatismus - seriosity - power - malice - bad trade/work - darkness - pessimism - misfortune - displacement

White one yet exactly, like us the visual system in the brain in addition does not enable to notice colors and forms however one already found out that not only the processing thatdifferent wavelengths in the light, which falls on our retina for the emergence noticed of the picture responsible is. Rather the Sehvorgang seems both which the color and the form of an object concerned also by the fact to be coined/shaped that thatBrain a certain input a certain memory assigns. We do not notice thus for example the color of an object necessarily in such a way, as them would have to appear purely instrumentation to us. Rather the picture noticed by us places a kind cross section between the taken upInformation and which we already from this object know.

In the psychology particularly within the range of the color perception therefore the term memory colors was in-patriated. Objects the one typical colour will exhibit thus under resort to in the memorystored prototypischen colour perception. That leads to the fact that for example tomatoes are noticed frequently in a more intensive red than their actual feature or that one believes to see to a meadow still with dawn in the color green.

Straight one with the sciencethe Farbmetrik represents this phenomenon a serious problem. Two colors, those instrumentation the same L*a*b< b> - value will exhibit not inevitably also from different persons homogeneously noticed.

It is appropriately, between two kinds of psychological effect of the perception from colors todifferentiate:

  • Associations, that are conceptions, mostly memories on before perception, in the table e.g. Fire (red), grass (green), lemon (yellow)
  • of feelings (color feeling, feeling clay/tone, seeming quality, a feeling character). These come above all well to the expression if one nouns inCharacteristic words changed or from the beginning characteristic words uses, which are able to express earliest feelings, in the table e.g. dangerously (red), malicious (green), freshly (yellow)

both kinds of the psychological color effect enter creations of the culture (EN). According to “experience tables the theory thatFeeling effect of colors " the color feelings are learned individually and implicitly (unconsciously, not remindable): there is above all those feelings, those humans original due to its ererbten impulse structure and existence topic in relation to certain “universal objects” occurring everywhere and/or. “Universal situations” develops. There theseas consequence of a learning process after some time the same feelings possess, already step a certain self-color with exclusive perception of this color on (according to the training of “conditioned reflexes” with the Pawlow dogs). As such universal objects are the blue sky andthe water, the green vegetation, the red fire and blood, the yellow sun, the brown ground (and the brown Fäkalien), the grey rock, the black fire remainders; and the universal situations, in which humans are daily, are the dark (black)Night and the bright (white) day.

different color perceptions have

color perception of animals of animals. This is connected also with it that in evolution history seeing developed independently several times, in each case with different basic concepts. Although itselfall perception apparatuses to amazingly similar abilities developed, nevertheless also differences remained, in particular in which receptors are used and to which wavelengths these as to react. Most perception apparatuses have their main action field within the range of the light, for thatHumans is visible, yet there are both in the ultraviolet and within the infrared range for some animals colors, which humans cannot notice. Also the kind, as and which colors in the visible light are noticed, can with animals of the humanSee deviate.

A well-known example are the bees, which can notice also ultraviolet radiation. Interesting to it the relatively new realization that in the evolution not the bees of the color splendour of the Botanik adapted, turned around but, the Botanikadapted to the ability of the bees. Because insects the color seeing to have developed have the plants splendourful blooms developed to be over better noticed.

One assumes that fish in corral reefs can often notice many colors.

history thatChromatics

it gives chromatics of Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Itten, Harald Küppers, Hermann of Helmholtz and Ewald herring.

to be able

to describe color models around colors quantitatively (by numbers),different color models were developed. Each color is represented thereby as point within a so-called color area - whose maximum extent depends on the purity of the respective basic components. Depending upon application thereby only certain models offer themselves, their color area alsoall colors possible in the respective technology covers. If in a color Workflow different techniques of the color reproduction are used, these can be converted under certain restrictions into one another. However are different color areas (like e.g. the RGB and the CMYK Farbraum)not congruently - the colors can be not however directly reproduced therefore repeatedly only relatively to each other, absolutely. The CIELab model against it was defined in such a way due to investigations of the human color perception that into this all of humans perceptive and distinguishable colors containare. This is often used in the color reproduction as reference color area, over which all other color areas are defined.

Frequently used color models are:

  • RGB - define by the basic colours red, green and blue
  • CMYK - defines cyanogen, Magenta, yellow by components andContrast (key)
  • here HSV - define by the values colour (hue), saturation (saturation) and strength (VALUE
  • ) CIELab - basic values are L (lightness) and the abstract values A and b
  • XYZ
  • YUV

of color catalogs are selections to defined colours as briefcasesor samples to be spent. Depending upon industry different color catalogs are used. In the pressure range and in the technology important color catalogs are:

the Farbwerte of the different models can be converted mathematically into one another. There the color models however onedifferent color extent possess, does not lead this always results which can be satisfied. In order to find a good approximation, one avails oneself of the color adjustment.

  • Additives the color model: If all values stand on zero per cent, then the monitor is dark. If all valueson 100% stand, then the monitor is white and brightly illuminated. Typically red, green and blue one mixes (RGB).
  • The subtraktive color model: If all values stand on zero per cent, then the empty sheet paper remains white. If all values up100% stand, then the color is black. Thus the printers function. Typically the colors are cyanogen, Mangenta and Yellow (CMY).

spectral and mixed colors

colors, which result from the dismantling of white light, are called Spektralfarben. However containsthe spectrum only a small part of all possible colors - only the pure colors, and of these not those on „the purple boundary in such a way specified “between violet and red. One than mixed colors designates all different , which result from color blending .Certain mixed colors can appear to the human eye by Metamerie as identical to certain Spektralfarben. The following overview shows some examples of mixed colors, from which the first eight appear on the computer monitor like pure Spektralfarben.

Color wavelength
red ≈ 625-740 Nm
Orange ≈ 590-625 Nm
yellow ≈ 565-590 Nm
green ≈ 520-565 Nm
cyanogen ≈ 500-520 Nm
blue ≈ 450-500 Nm
Indigo ≈ 430-450 Nm
violet ≈ 380-430 Nm
Magenta mixed color
brown mixed color

the wavelengths are indicated in nanometers (Nm) (seealso order of magnitude (length)).

multicolored one and unbunte colors

the question, whether black and white are colors, offer unite discussion material. One speaks black and white in the everyday life language of the “colors”, did not become her however not as “colored”designate. On the other side black and white fulfill all criteria for a color. It to exclude led to some unreasonable conceptual setting.

If one would like to express oneself accurately, one differentiates better between multicolored and unbunten colors. Black and white including allone calls intermediate grey tones unbunt. All other colors are multicolored designated than .

The distinction is due from the color perception, in which the clearly more photo-sensitive Stäbchen seize only brightness differences, into some coloredness to Spektralfarben from the perception thatTap in the brain is interfered. Therefore the divorce of color in colour and brightness agitates. The colors black and white are here brightness nuances of the grey tones, and grey tones cannot be noticed also with lighting conditions, in those the color tapsmore react. Because the color taps need a certain quantity of light, in order to function. Therefore at night “all cats are grey”. Because without sufficient light the eye cannot notice the colors any longer.

see also

physical, chemical and biological aspects:


  • Gerriet light TIG: Color is natural. To the order of color., The the village, 1996, ISBN 3-932358-01-5
  • Itten, Johannes: Art of the color, Otto Maier publishing house, Ravensburg 1970, ISBN 3-473-61551-X
  • Harald Küppers: The Basic Law of chromatics, Dumont, ISBN 3-8321-1057-7
  • Hazel Rossotti: Colour:Why the World Isn't Grey. Princeton University press, 1992, ISBN 0-6910-2386-7
  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: To chromatics. Tübingen, Cotta, 1810
  • Jim ruffle: Index color. Addison-Wesley, ISBN 3-8266-1306-6
  • Norbert Welsch, Claus Chr. Dear man: Colors. Spectrum academic publishing house,2004, ISBN 3-8274-1563-2
  • Rolf Gierling: Color management. 2. revised Aufl. MITP publishing house: Bonn, 2004. ISBN 3-8266-1382-1
  • Lothar small refuge: Experience tables theory of the feeling effect of colors. Cologne: Enane 1992, ISBN 3-928955-02-0
  • EH Heller: As colors on feeling and understanding work. DroemerKnaur, 2000, ISBN of 3-426-27174-5
  • Studio 7.5: Color digitally. Rowohlt Tb. 2004, ISBN 3-499-61251-8
  • Gegenfurtner, Karl R.: Brain & perception, Fischer paperback publishing house, Frankfurt A.M., 2003, ISBN 3-596-15564-9
  • Mayer, refuge O.: Introduction to the perception, learning and advertising psychology,Oldenbourg, 2005, ISBN 3-486-57675-5
  • wine-refines, Petra E. more /Forster, Rudolf: I and the color are one, publishing house Dr. Kovac, Hamburg, 2005, ISBN 3-8300-1813-4

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Color - quotations
Wiktionary: Color - word origin, synonyms andTranslations

the colors used in Wikipedia articles are represented on each monitor differently and are not not colorobligatory.The used coloring materials for the basic colours of a monitor are thereby an important variable. The linearity between being and material obtained brightness value of each individual Farbkanalsa further - on the basis the accompanying test pattern to be roughly visually examined can: If the internal grey surfaces of the represented cube deviate from the grey background, then that is a reference to a wrongly calibrated monitor. The cube surfaces should by optical additionpixels next to one another in the case of a gamma correction of 2,2 accurately result in the grey clay/tone of the background.


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